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Ecology

2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phylogeny And Biogeography Of Endemic Festuca (Poaceae) From New Zealand Based On Nuclear (Its) And Chloroplast (Trnl–Trnf) Nucleotide Sequences, Kelvin M. Lloyd, Angela M. Hunter, David A. Orlovich, Suzanne J. Draffin, Alan V. Stewart, William G. Lee Dec 2007

Phylogeny And Biogeography Of Endemic Festuca (Poaceae) From New Zealand Based On Nuclear (Its) And Chloroplast (Trnl–Trnf) Nucleotide Sequences, Kelvin M. Lloyd, Angela M. Hunter, David A. Orlovich, Suzanne J. Draffin, Alan V. Stewart, William G. Lee

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the endemic New Zealand (NZ) species of Festuca (Poaceae, Pooideae) by assessing sequence variation from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and a chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnL–trnF) and by measuring DNA content using flow cytometry. The ITS and trnL–trnF data sets were congruent in showing that the NZ species of Festuca have two origins. One group, containing F. coxii, F. luciarum, F. multinodis, and F. ultramafica, is closely related to Festuca sect. Aulaxyper. The other group includes a clade of five endemic species (F. actae, F. deflexa, F ...


Random Forests For Classification In Ecology, D. Richard Cutler, Thomas C. Edwards Jr., Karen H. Beard, Adele Cutler, Kyle T. Hess Nov 2007

Random Forests For Classification In Ecology, D. Richard Cutler, Thomas C. Edwards Jr., Karen H. Beard, Adele Cutler, Kyle T. Hess

Karen H. Beard

Classification procedures are some of the most widely used statistical methods in ecology. Random forests (RF) is a new and powerful statistical classifier that is well established in other disciplines but is relatively unknown in ecology. Advantages of RF compared to other statistical classifiers include (1) very high classification accuracy; (2) a novel method of determining variable importance; (3) ability to model complex interactions among predictor variables; (4) flexibility to perform several types of statistical data analysis, including regression, classification, survival analysis, and unsupervised learning; and (5) an algorithm for imputing missing values. We compared the accuracies of RF and ...


Biogeographical Distribution And Natural Groupings Among Five Sympatric Wild Cats In Tropical South Asia, Mohammed Ashraf Oct 2007

Biogeographical Distribution And Natural Groupings Among Five Sympatric Wild Cats In Tropical South Asia, Mohammed Ashraf

Mohammed Ashraf

Small to large carnivorous mammals in the tropical belt face extinction at an unprecedented rate. The vanishing of sympatric wild cats appears to be due to habitat fragmentation, human encroachment & poaching. The focus of this study is on ecological and distributional parameters that influence the wild cat communities in tropical South Asia. The distributional data for five sympatric cats is analyzed with the aim of understanding the species-habitat association under a conceptually unified binary-matrix framework. The use of cluster analysis techniques in this ecological study have helped to reveal the natural groupings among felid guilds and their ecological resource partitioning ...


Feeding Performance In Hawaiian Stream Goby Fishes: Morphological And Functional Analysis, Takashi Maie Aug 2007

Feeding Performance In Hawaiian Stream Goby Fishes: Morphological And Functional Analysis, Takashi Maie

All Theses

Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide streams into lower and upper segments. Larvae hatched upstream are flushed into the ocean, and must climb these waterfalls to reach adult habitats when returning back to freshwater as part of an amphidromous life cycle. Stream surveys and studies of climbing performance show that Lentipes concolor can reach fast-flowing upper stream segments, but that Awaous guamensis reaches only slower, lower stream segments. Gut content analyses for these two species indicate that diet differs between them only by 10% or less dry weight for most major components (mostly green ...


Historical Evolution And Future Of Natural Resources Law And Policy: The Beginning Of An Argument And Some Modest Predictions, Sally K. Fairfax, Helen Ingram, Leigh Raymond Jun 2007

Historical Evolution And Future Of Natural Resources Law And Policy: The Beginning Of An Argument And Some Modest Predictions, Sally K. Fairfax, Helen Ingram, Leigh Raymond

The Future of Natural Resources Law and Policy (Summer Conference, June 6-8)

8 pages.

Includes bibliographical references

"Sally Fairfax, UC-Berkeley, Helen Ingram, UC-Irvine, and Leigh Raymond, Purdue University" -- Agenda


Private Rights And Collective Governance: A Functional Approach To Natural Resources Law, Eric T. Freyfogle Jun 2007

Private Rights And Collective Governance: A Functional Approach To Natural Resources Law, Eric T. Freyfogle

The Future of Natural Resources Law and Policy (Summer Conference, June 6-8)

4 pages.

"Eric T. Freyfogle, Max L. Rowe Professor of Law, University of Illinois College of Law"


Water Quality Conditions And Restoration Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) In The Tidal Freshwater James River 2006, Kenneth Moore, Betty Neikirk, Britt-Anne Anderson, Jessie C. Jarvis Jun 2007

Water Quality Conditions And Restoration Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) In The Tidal Freshwater James River 2006, Kenneth Moore, Betty Neikirk, Britt-Anne Anderson, Jessie C. Jarvis

Reports

No abstract provided.


Parasites Alter Community Structure, Chelsea L. Wood, James E. Byers, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Irit Altman May 2007

Parasites Alter Community Structure, Chelsea L. Wood, James E. Byers, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Irit Altman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Parasites often play an important role in modifying the physiology and behavior of their hosts and may, consequently, mediate the influence hosts have on other components of an ecological community. Along the northern Atlantic coast of North America, the dominant herbivorous snail Littorina littorea structures rocky intertidal communities through strong grazing pressure and is frequently parasitized by the digenean trematode Cryptocotyle lingua. We hypothesized that the effects of parasitism on host physiology would induce behavioral changes in L. littorea, which in turn would modulate L. littorea's influence on intertidal community composition. Specifically, we hypothesized that C. lingua infection would ...


Importance Of Early Successional Forest For Wildlife In Southern New England, Amy Wynia May 2007

Importance Of Early Successional Forest For Wildlife In Southern New England, Amy Wynia

Senior Honors Projects

Many bird species that require early successional forest are declining in the Northeast U.S. because such habitat is relatively rare and when they inhabit the more common mature forests or suburban areas they are less successful. Early successional forest is maintained by regular disturbance (wind, fire, clear-cutting, and flooding) which has been happening less frequently during the past 50 years. Bird species that have declined during this time and which inhabit early successional forest include ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), chestnut-sided warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica), gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), field sparrow (Spizella pusilla), golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera ...


Fresh Water Ecology Unit For Secondary Education Science Courses, Eric L. Hyer Mar 2007

Fresh Water Ecology Unit For Secondary Education Science Courses, Eric L. Hyer

Theses and Dissertations

Science means “to know", a process for gaining knowledge and an understanding of the natural world. Students need to be involved in active learning. In other words, they must do science, not just hear about it. Good science encourages students to gain knowledge by doing science: observing, questioning, exploring, making and testing hypotheses, comparing predictions, evaluating data, and communicating conclusions. This unit plan is designed to incorporate the components of fresh water, ecology, water quality, and a class-wide science project. Each lesson addresses selected standards from the state core curriculum and has specific objectives that are tied to the learning ...


Preserving The Chesapeake: Law, Ecology, And The Bay, Hon. Gerald L. Baliles Mar 2007

Preserving The Chesapeake: Law, Ecology, And The Bay, Hon. Gerald L. Baliles

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Ecology And The Common Good: Sustainability And Catholic Social Teaching, Russell A. Butkus, Steve Kolmes Jan 2007

Ecology And The Common Good: Sustainability And Catholic Social Teaching, Russell A. Butkus, Steve Kolmes

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Treatment Of Heavy Metals Contaminated Solid Wastes-Stabilization, Zeljko J. Kamberovic Jan 2007

Treatment Of Heavy Metals Contaminated Solid Wastes-Stabilization, Zeljko J. Kamberovic

Zeljko J Kamberovic

This paper presents investigation of possibility of heavy metals contaminated solid wastes treatment form Bor Site, Serbia. Presented remediation technology is stabilization, which can effectively reduce content of contaminants in the environment. As a representative of solid waste from investigated site Dam from the Bor copper sulphide ore flotation tailings was chosen. For stabilization of solid waste as stabilizing agenses foundry sand and lime were used. Experiments were conducted by leaching of mixture of solid samples and stabilizing agens or their mixture with sulphuric acid. Change of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn concentration and change of pH and Eh value ...


Schweinitz’S Sunflower Helianthus Schweinitzii Torrey And Gray, (Asterales: Asteraceae) In Upper Piedmont South Carolina, Steven E. Fields Jan 2007

Schweinitz’S Sunflower Helianthus Schweinitzii Torrey And Gray, (Asterales: Asteraceae) In Upper Piedmont South Carolina, Steven E. Fields

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Biol 2220 - General Ecology, Spring 2007, Michelle A. Baker Jan 2007

Biol 2220 - General Ecology, Spring 2007, Michelle A. Baker

Biology - OCW

There are three broad goals for this course.

1. Improve ecological literacy by learning the basic facts, principles and concepts of the field of ecology

2. Improve scientific literacy by learning how ecologists construct knowledge

2. Improve analytical and writing skills through analysis and interpretation of ecological data


Contributions To The Chiroptera Of Mongolia With First Evidences On Species Communities And Ecological Niches, Dietrich Dolch, Nyamsuren Batsaikhan, Klaus Thiele, Frank Burger, Ingo Scheffler, Andreas Kiefer, Frieder Mayer, Ravčigijn Samjaa, Annegret Stubbe, Michael Stubbe, Leonard Krall, Dirk Steinhauser Jan 2007

Contributions To The Chiroptera Of Mongolia With First Evidences On Species Communities And Ecological Niches, Dietrich Dolch, Nyamsuren Batsaikhan, Klaus Thiele, Frank Burger, Ingo Scheffler, Andreas Kiefer, Frieder Mayer, Ravčigijn Samjaa, Annegret Stubbe, Michael Stubbe, Leonard Krall, Dirk Steinhauser

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

In this paper are presented the accounts of 13 identified bat species from a total of 628 captured specimens from 32 locations in Mongolia during three field expeditions. These species accounts include taxonomical, morphological, and ecological data resulting from observations and further analyses. As a result of this work the distribution of some bat species in Mongolia can be drawn in more detail. For instance, Vespertilio murinus is much wider distributed and abundant than the former records indicate. The Plecotus species were clearly identified by genetic analyses combined with morphological characteristics. Moreover, the second record for Eptesicus serotinus and the ...


Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Land Use Impacts On Water Quality In Watershed Systems, Olga Tsvetkova Jan 2007

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Land Use Impacts On Water Quality In Watershed Systems, Olga Tsvetkova

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

ABSTRACT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF LAND USE IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY IN WATERSHED SYSTEMS SEPTEMBER 2007 OLGA TSVETKOVA, B.S., NOVGOROD STATE UNIVERSITY, RUSSIA M.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Timothy O. Randhir Predicting land use change and assessing watershed tradeoffs between the watershed system components through system simulation helps to determine future nutrient and sediment load reductions needed to obtain a particular water quality standard. This also helps to examine the tradeoffs among nutrient and sediment load reductions that achieve the same water quality objective. Tradeoff assessment is a useful tool to meet agricultural and ...


A Taxonomic And Phylogeographic Study Of The Botrychium Lunaria Complex, Mary Clay Stensvold Jan 2007

A Taxonomic And Phylogeographic Study Of The Botrychium Lunaria Complex, Mary Clay Stensvold

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation documents an analysis of genetic diversity in the Botrychium lunaria complex using starch gel enzyme electrophoresis and statistical analysis of genetic relationships. The study resulted in identifying the genetic variation within and between the entities comprising the complex and revealed their geographic distribution. These results provided a basis for inferring what entities comprise the complex and how the entities may be recognized taxonomically. This study also examines the biogeography of the B. lunaria complex. I used the results of enzyme electrophoresis studies, statistical analysis and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) mapping to investigate the complex's origins, the relationships ...


Taxonomic Review, Phylogeny, And Geographical Population Structure Of The Sawfishes (Chondrichthyes, Pristiformes), Vicente Vieira Faria Jan 2007

Taxonomic Review, Phylogeny, And Geographical Population Structure Of The Sawfishes (Chondrichthyes, Pristiformes), Vicente Vieira Faria

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sawfishes (Pristidae) are considered endangered species worldwide, but their conservation and management have been undermined due to poor understanding of the group's natural taxonomy. The main purpose of this work was to review the taxonomy of sawfishes based on historical taxonomic literature supplemented with empirical observations on morphology, genetics, and geographic distribution. A molecular phylogenetics study based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genes was carried out to estimate the evolutionary interrelationships among the different species of sawfishes. Seven distinct living species are recognized based on external morphology and DNA sequence comparisons. Four are distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, two ...


Evolutionary Dynamics Of Mechanisms That Affect Genome Size In The Cotton Genus (Gossypium), Corrinne Elaine Grover Jan 2007

Evolutionary Dynamics Of Mechanisms That Affect Genome Size In The Cotton Genus (Gossypium), Corrinne Elaine Grover

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Eukaryotic genomes vary remarkably in size even between closely related species. This variation reflects a balance between mechanisms that expand and contract genomes, and which vary in their magnitude during evolution. While much is known about mechanisms that affect genome size expansion, particularly the effects of transposable elements (TEs), less is known concerning deletional mechanisms and the rates and scales at which they operate. The goal of this thesis was to extend our understanding of genome size evolution by studying diploid Gossypium species that vary twofold in genome size as well as their polyploid derivative, and using a phylogenetic approach ...


Litter Accumulation In Emergent Marshes: Investigating The Effects Of Litter On Wetland Invertebrates And The Processes Controlling Litter Distribution And Accumulation, Jay Richard Christensen Jan 2007

Litter Accumulation In Emergent Marshes: Investigating The Effects Of Litter On Wetland Invertebrates And The Processes Controlling Litter Distribution And Accumulation, Jay Richard Christensen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Abundant emergent plant litter produced in the interior of dense emergent stands in wetlands may influence abiotic conditions and biota but litter accumulation and its effects are seldom studied. This dissertation investigated the direct and indirect influences of litter on the structure and distribution of invertebrate communities and examined the processes controlling litter accumulation through modeling. Within emergent cattail stands, the impact of litter on the invertebrate community was studied through transect studies and an interior litter manipulation study. Anoxia was present at high litter treatments, while moderate and low litter treatments showed prolonged hypoxia. Lemnid densities were much lower ...


Small And Large-Scale Landscape Approaches For Conservation Of The Imperiled Blanding's Turtle, Emys Blandingii, Lindsay Marie Carroll Kasuga Jan 2007

Small And Large-Scale Landscape Approaches For Conservation Of The Imperiled Blanding's Turtle, Emys Blandingii, Lindsay Marie Carroll Kasuga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Habitat fragmentation as a result of anthropogenic activities is one of the leading causes of species decline. The wetland habitat specialist, the Blanding's turtle (Emys blandingii), is one chelonian species impacted by habitat fragmentation. This project investigated the impacts of human activities on this species at two levels by first investigating home range and habitat composition, using radio telemetry, for a population of Blanding's turtles in the human-impacted area. The second project was larger in scope, investigating how landscape composition may be influencing the reproductive success of Blanding's turtle populations across the heavily human-impacted state of Iowa ...


Experimental Tests Of Community Assembly Rules In A Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Andrea Margaret Blong Jan 2007

Experimental Tests Of Community Assembly Rules In A Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Andrea Margaret Blong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Adaptive Evolution Of Phenotypic Plasticity And Historical Population Genetic Processes In Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria L.) Invasion In North America, Young Jin Chun Jan 2007

The Role Of Adaptive Evolution Of Phenotypic Plasticity And Historical Population Genetic Processes In Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria L.) Invasion In North America, Young Jin Chun

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The introduction and spread of non-native species has become a global ecological and environmental problem. We will be able to develop a deeper understanding on the background of invasiveness from the studies of evolutionary changes that invasive species undergo from their introduction to the establishment and aggressive spread. The ultimate goal of this dissertation is to contribute a deeper knowledge on the ability of invasive species to respond to the novel environment and prevail via evolutionary changes, using purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L. Lythraceae) as a model system.;The dissertation is composed of several journal papers. Chapter 1 is a ...


Regulation Of Prolactin Secretion In A Nonphotoperiodic Breeder, The Zebra Finch, Debora Ellen Christensen Jan 2007

Regulation Of Prolactin Secretion In A Nonphotoperiodic Breeder, The Zebra Finch, Debora Ellen Christensen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In avian species, high levels of prolactin (PRL) released from the anterior pituitary are associated with reproductive behaviors such as incubation and rearing of young. We studied reproduction-associated PRL levels in breeding and nonbreeding zebra finches. The general hypothesis of this dissertation was: The general pattern of PRL release in zebra finches is similar to other avian species, but differences in regulation of release can be expected due to the unique breeding environment in which these animals live.;The research was divided into four parts: (1) Determining the pattern of PRL release and secretion in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide ...


Transposable Elements And Genome Size Dynamics In Gossypium, Jennifer S. Hawkins Jan 2007

Transposable Elements And Genome Size Dynamics In Gossypium, Jennifer S. Hawkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although eukaryotic organisms display a wide range in genome size, from as little as 9 Megabases (Mb) in some fungi to over 690,000 Mb in the diatom Navicula pelliculosa, there is only an approximate 20-fold variation in the number of protein coding genes. Additionally, this variation in genome size is not directly correlated with organismal or morphological/physiological complexity. This striking contradiction has historically been termed the "C-value paradox". Research conducted over the past half century has revealed that most genome size variation in plants can be ascribed to the repetitive fraction of the genome, particularly LTR-retrotransposons. Furthermore, recent ...


Investigations Into Gametophyte Morphology And Population Sex Ratios Through Direct Comparisons Between Laboratory-Grown And Field-Grown Fern Gametophytes, Chanda Lee Skelton Jan 2007

Investigations Into Gametophyte Morphology And Population Sex Ratios Through Direct Comparisons Between Laboratory-Grown And Field-Grown Fern Gametophytes, Chanda Lee Skelton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Most previous studies on fern gametophytes have been conducted under laboratory conditions, leading some to question whether data from these studies accurately reflect gametophytes in nature. Our study compares laboratory cultured and field grown fern gametophytes of the same species. Results indicate few significant differences in morphology between laboratory cultured gametophytes and their field grown counterparts. The most consistent difference observed was the formation of archegonia and rhizoids on the dorsal surface of agar cultured gametophytes. Through alteration of laboratory growth conditions involving light orientation and relative humidity, dorsal archegonia were observed to result from translucence of the agar medium ...


An Evaluation Of Anuran Monitoring By Iowa Department Of Natural Resource Volunteers And The Spatial Scale Of Habitat Use In Northwestern Iowa, Anne M. Johnson Jan 2007

An Evaluation Of Anuran Monitoring By Iowa Department Of Natural Resource Volunteers And The Spatial Scale Of Habitat Use In Northwestern Iowa, Anne M. Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ongoing, widespread declines in amphibian populations are being monitored with surveys conducted by volunteers in North America. These surveys were designed as tools for land managers to conserve amphibians, but the quality of these data remains to be validated.;General findings of this research indicate that volunteer surveys in northwestern Iowa are precise. Accuracy may be improved with the addition of visual encounter surveys to include species that may not be actively calling at the time of the nocturnal auditory surveys. This is especially true for larger species in the region such as leopard frogs and bullfrogs.;Anurans appear to ...


Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Anadromous Fish Passage At Boshers Dam Vertical Slot Fishway On The James River, Richmond, Virginia, Matthew Thomas Fisher Jan 2007

Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Anadromous Fish Passage At Boshers Dam Vertical Slot Fishway On The James River, Richmond, Virginia, Matthew Thomas Fisher

Theses and Dissertations

Boshers dam vertical slot fishway, James River, Virginia, U.S.A., opened in 1999 and restored connectivity to 543.3 km of spawning habitat for anadromous fish. The fishway also allowed local movement of resident species. Video observation from 2001-2005 was used to evaluate environmental predictors of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) passage. The ecological effects of restoring connectivity to upstream habitat for gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are also discussed. Regression analysis determined that the best predictor of increased daytime American shad passage is higher water temperatures and discharge and for ...


Ecology And Morphological Comparison Between Rough Greensnakes (Opheodrys A. Aestivus) And Eastern Smooth Greensnakes (Opheodrys V. Vernalis) In West Virginia, Timothy Earl Baldwin Jan 2007

Ecology And Morphological Comparison Between Rough Greensnakes (Opheodrys A. Aestivus) And Eastern Smooth Greensnakes (Opheodrys V. Vernalis) In West Virginia, Timothy Earl Baldwin

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Since 1971, documented Rough Greensnake (Opheodrys aestivus) occurrences in West Virginia have declined from approximately 100 to less than 20 occurrences in the last 10 years. In contrast to the decline of Rough Greensnakes in WV, Smooth Greensnake (O. vernalis) populations appear to be stable over the same period of time. Historic sites from the West Virginia Biological Survey were cross referenced with habitat descriptions in published literature to establish research locations. One hundred nineteen Rough and Smooth Greensnakes were measured for snout-vent length and total body length, and of these, 78 were measured in detail for external head morphology ...