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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Hearing On The Fly: The Effects Of Wing Position On Noctuid Moth Hearing, Shira D. Gordon, Elizabeth Klenschi, James F. C. Windmill Mar 2017

Hearing On The Fly: The Effects Of Wing Position On Noctuid Moth Hearing, Shira D. Gordon, Elizabeth Klenschi, James F. C. Windmill

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The ear of the noctuid moth has only two auditory neurons, A1 and A2, which function in detecting predatory bats. However, the noctuid's ears are located on the thorax behind the wings. Therefore, as these moths need to hear during flight, it was hypothesized that wing position may affect their hearing. The wing was fixed in three different positions: up, flat and down. An additional subset of animals was measured with freely moving wings. In order to negate any possible acoustic shadowing or diffractive effects, all wings were snipped, leaving the proximal-most portion and the wing hinge intact. Results ...


Novel And Lost Forests In The Upper Midwestern United States, From New Estimates Of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, And Biomass, Simon J. Goring, David J. Mladenoff, Charles V. Cogbill, Sydne Record, Christopher J. Paciorek, Stephen T. Jackson, Michael C. Dietze, Andria Dawson, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Jason S. Mclachlan, John W. Williams Dec 2016

Novel And Lost Forests In The Upper Midwestern United States, From New Estimates Of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, And Biomass, Simon J. Goring, David J. Mladenoff, Charles V. Cogbill, Sydne Record, Christopher J. Paciorek, Stephen T. Jackson, Michael C. Dietze, Andria Dawson, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Jason S. Mclachlan, John W. Williams

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling ...


Elevational Variation In Body-Temperature Response To Immune Challenge In A Lizard, Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Senda Reguera, Gregorio Moreno-Rueda Apr 2016

Elevational Variation In Body-Temperature Response To Immune Challenge In A Lizard, Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Senda Reguera, Gregorio Moreno-Rueda

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Immunocompetence benefits animal fitness by combating pathogens, but also entails some costs. One of its main components is fever, which in ectotherms involves two main types of costs: energy expenditure and predation risk. Whenever those costs of fever outweigh its benefits, ectotherms are expected not to develop fever, or even to show hypothermia, reducing costs of thermoregulation and diverting the energy saved to other components of the immune system. Environmental thermal quality, and therefore the thermoregulation cost/benefit balance, varies geographically. Hence, we hypothesize that, in alpine habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms should show no thermal response, given that (1) hypothermia would ...


Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney Mar 2016

Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irrevers- ible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling ...


A Basic Guide For Empirical Environmental Social Science, Michael Cox Jan 2015

A Basic Guide For Empirical Environmental Social Science, Michael Cox

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In this paper, I address a gap in the literature on environmental social science by providing a basic rubric for the conduct of empirical research in this interdisciplinary field. Current literature displays a healthy diversity of methods and techniques, but this has also been accompanied by a lack of consistency in the way in which research in this area is done. In part this can be seen as resulting from a lack in supporting texts that would provide a basis for this consistency. Although relevant methods texts do exist, these are not written with this type of research explicitly in ...


Warm Springs, Early Lay Dates, And Double Brooding In A North American Migratory Songbird, The Black-Throated Blue Warbler, Andrea K. Townsend, T. Scott Sillett, Nina K. Lany, Sara A. Kaiser, Nicholas L. Rodenhouse, Michael S. Webster, Richard T. Holmes Apr 2013

Warm Springs, Early Lay Dates, And Double Brooding In A North American Migratory Songbird, The Black-Throated Blue Warbler, Andrea K. Townsend, T. Scott Sillett, Nina K. Lany, Sara A. Kaiser, Nicholas L. Rodenhouse, Michael S. Webster, Richard T. Holmes

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species–primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe–exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic - Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens). Data were collected from birds breeding ...


A Novel Method For Comparative Analysis Of Retinal Specialization Traits From Topographic Maps, Bret A. Moore, Jason M. Kamilar, Shaun P. Collin, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Margaret I. Hall, Christopher P. Hessy, Sonke Johnsen, Thomas J. Lisney, Ellis R. Loew, Gillian Moritz Nov 2012

A Novel Method For Comparative Analysis Of Retinal Specialization Traits From Topographic Maps, Bret A. Moore, Jason M. Kamilar, Shaun P. Collin, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Margaret I. Hall, Christopher P. Hessy, Sonke Johnsen, Thomas J. Lisney, Ellis R. Loew, Gillian Moritz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Abstract Vertebrates possess different types of retinal specializations that vary in number, size, shape, and position in the retina. This diversity in retinal configuration has been revealed through topographic maps, which show variations in neuron density across the retina. Although topographic maps of about 300 vertebrates are available, there is no method for characterizing retinal traits quantitatively. Our goal is to present a novel method to standardize information on the position of the retinal specializations and changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density across the retina from published topographic maps. We measured the position of the retinal specialization using two ...


Fish Distributions And Nutrient Cycling In Streams: Can Fish Create Biogeochemical Hotspots, Peter B. Mcintyre, Alexander S. Flecker, Michael J. Vanni, James M. Hood, Brad W. Taylor, Steven A. Thomas Aug 2008

Fish Distributions And Nutrient Cycling In Streams: Can Fish Create Biogeochemical Hotspots, Peter B. Mcintyre, Alexander S. Flecker, Michael J. Vanni, James M. Hood, Brad W. Taylor, Steven A. Thomas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Rates of biogeochemical processes often vary widely in space and time, and characterizing this variation is critical for understanding ecosystem functioning. In streams, spatial hotspots of nutrient transformations are generally attributed to physical and microbial processes. Here we examine the potential for heterogeneous distributions of fish to generate hotspots of nutrient recycling. We measured nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion rates of 47 species of fish in an N-limited Neotropical stream, and we combined these data with population densities in each of 49 stream channel units to estimate unit- and reach-scale nutrient recycling. Species varied widely in rates of N ...


Parasites Alter Community Structure, Chelsea L. Wood, James E. Byers, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Irit Altman May 2007

Parasites Alter Community Structure, Chelsea L. Wood, James E. Byers, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Irit Altman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Parasites often play an important role in modifying the physiology and behavior of their hosts and may, consequently, mediate the influence hosts have on other components of an ecological community. Along the northern Atlantic coast of North America, the dominant herbivorous snail Littorina littorea structures rocky intertidal communities through strong grazing pressure and is frequently parasitized by the digenean trematode Cryptocotyle lingua. We hypothesized that the effects of parasitism on host physiology would induce behavioral changes in L. littorea, which in turn would modulate L. littorea's influence on intertidal community composition. Specifically, we hypothesized that C. lingua infection would ...


Coexistence Of The Niche And Neutral Perspectives In Community Ecology, Mathew A. Leibold, Mark A. Mcpeek Jun 2006

Coexistence Of The Niche And Neutral Perspectives In Community Ecology, Mathew A. Leibold, Mark A. Mcpeek

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The neutral theory for community structure and biodiversity is dependent on the assumption that species are equivalent to each other in all important ecological respects. We explore what this concept of equivalence means in ecological communities, how such species may arise evolutionarily, and how the possibility of ecological equivalents relates to previous ideas about niche differentiation. We also show that the co-occurrence of ecologically similar or equivalent species is not incompatible with niche theory as has been supposed, because niche relations can sometimes favor coexistence of similar species. We argue that both evolutionary and ecological processes operate to promote the ...


Ecological Costs And Benefits Of Defenses In Nectar, Lynn S. Adler, Rebecca E. Irwin Nov 2005

Ecological Costs And Benefits Of Defenses In Nectar, Lynn S. Adler, Rebecca E. Irwin

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The nectar of many plant species contains defensive compounds that have been hypothesized to benefit plants through a variety of mechanisms. However, the relationship between nectar defenses and plant fitness has not been established for any species. We experimentally manipulated gelsemine, the principal alkaloid of Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), in nectar to determine its effect on pollinator visitation, nectar robber visitation, and male and female plant reproduction. We found that nectar robbers and most pollinators probed fewer flowers and spent less time per flower on plants with high compared to low nectar alkaloids. High alkaloids decreased the donation of fluorescent ...


Estimating Community Stability And Ecological Interactions From Time-Series Data, A. R. Ives, B. Dennis, K. L. Cottingham, S. R. Carpenter May 2003

Estimating Community Stability And Ecological Interactions From Time-Series Data, A. R. Ives, B. Dennis, K. L. Cottingham, S. R. Carpenter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Natural ecological communities are continuously buffeted by a varying environment, often making it difficult to measure the stability of communities using concepts requiring the existence of an equilibrium point. Instead of an equilibrium point, the equilibrial state of communities subject to environmental stochasticity is a stationary distribution, which is characterized by means, variances, and other statistical moments. Here, we derive three properties of stochastic multispecies communities that measure different characteristics associated with community stability. These properties can be estimated from multispecies time-series data using first-order multivariate autoregressive (MAR(1)) models. We demonstrate how to estimate the parameters of MAR(1 ...