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Ecology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 713

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Urban Ecology, Spring/Summer 2003, Issue 8 Sep 2019

Urban Ecology, Spring/Summer 2003, Issue 8

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Human Ecology, Spring/Summer 2016, Issue 34 Sep 2019

Human Ecology, Spring/Summer 2016, Issue 34

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Diversity And Abundance Of Soil Microbes Differ Along A Forest-Pasture Transect, Hannah Suli, Ashley Schumann, Cleo Bickley, Jasmine Rodriguez Sep 2019

Diversity And Abundance Of Soil Microbes Differ Along A Forest-Pasture Transect, Hannah Suli, Ashley Schumann, Cleo Bickley, Jasmine Rodriguez

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier Aug 2019

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Different Cryptophites Of The Ahangaran Basin And Their Modern Environmental Condition, I.T. Azimov, F. Saydamatov, H. Toshpulatova Jun 2019

Different Cryptophites Of The Ahangaran Basin And Their Modern Environmental Condition, I.T. Azimov, F. Saydamatov, H. Toshpulatova

Bulletin of Gulistan State University

This article is devoted to a brief description of the vegetation cover of the Akhangaran river basin and provides information on the widespread types of cryptophytes. The article gives the species composition and phytocenology of cryptophytes, the laws of distribution, the ecological state and the factors influencing them.


Enclosures And Dichotomies: Coexistence Vs. Distance In The Poems Of John Clare, Jordan P. Finn May 2019

Enclosures And Dichotomies: Coexistence Vs. Distance In The Poems Of John Clare, Jordan P. Finn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

John Clare’s poetry emphasizes an affinity with environment by suspending the distinction between the inside (subject) and the outside (object). Clare’s identification with objects and perception rather than subjects and aesthetics renders his work as a prescient and radical example of ecological poetry in the Romantic period. Raymond Williams’ “green language” and Timothy Morton’s ambient poetics both cite Clare as an ideal figure for their above theories and evoke Clare as a writer who positions the environment as governing thought rather than thought governing the environment. This thesis especially relates Clare to Morton’s Ecology without Nature ...


Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku May 2019

Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier May 2019

Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Defining Microbiome Health Through A Host Lens., Sean M Gibbons May 2019

Defining Microbiome Health Through A Host Lens., Sean M Gibbons

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

We are walking ecosystems, inoculated at birth with a unique set of microbes that are integral to the functioning of our bodies. The physiology of our commensal microbiota is intertwined with our metabolism, immune function, and mental state. The specifics of this entanglement remain largely unknown and are somewhat unique to individuals, and when any one piece of this complex system breaks, our health can suffer. There appear to be many ways to build a healthy, functional microbiome and several distinct ways in which it can break. Despite the hundreds of associations with human disease, there are only a handful ...


Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon May 2019

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan May 2019

Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan

Masters Theses

Anthropogenically driven factors, such as increasing temperature and sediment in valley streams, acidification of mountain streams, and the introduction of non-native trout, are restricting habitat suitable for healthy populations of eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) throughout their native Appalachian range. Brook trout are important as predators of insects in mountain streams and as a favorite of anglers. It is crucial that remaining populations in sustainable habitats be identified and preserved. Waterfalls are geologic knickpoints preventing base-level lowering that create unique, stable landscapes above them, which may alleviate the temperature-productivity/acidity “habitat squeeze” for populations of brook trout and could serve ...


Insect Populations Across An Urban-To-Suburban Land Use Gradient., Jacob T. Lawson May 2019

Insect Populations Across An Urban-To-Suburban Land Use Gradient., Jacob T. Lawson

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Insect populations, especially those of pollinators, have been steadily declining across the globe in recent decades, a trend that is intensified in cities. Since the conservation of pollinators is crucial for maintaining ecosystems and ecological processes, new approaches are being promoted beyond those of conserving large natural areas. Urban native plant gardens could potentially offset some of these losses locally. This research attempts to set a local baseline for the insect diversity in urban gardens in Louisville and determine whether differences exist in garden insects in cities versus suburbs in Jefferson County, Kentucky. To address the land-use question we established ...


Effects Of Amur Honeysuckle On Soil Co2 Emissions, Aidan Shumaker Apr 2019

Effects Of Amur Honeysuckle On Soil Co2 Emissions, Aidan Shumaker

Student Symposium

Lonicera maackii is an invasive woody species found in Ohio and throughout the deciduous forests of eastern United States, taking over habitats of native shrub species such as Lindera benzoin. L. maackii has unique traits compared to deciduous forest natives, showing earlier leaf-out and later leaf senescence, higher leaf nitrogen levels, and faster leaf decomposition. As a result, L. maackii may alter soil conditions through its extended root activity and impacts on microbial decomposition, possibly impacting soil CO2 emissions. As soil microorganisms metabolize organic matter, they release greenhouse gases like CO2 through respiration, which can impact global climate change. Previous ...


The Role Of Temperature In Affecting Carry-Over Effects And Larval Competition In The Globally Invasive Mosquito Aedes Albopictus, Nnaemeka F. Ezeakacha, Donald Yee Mar 2019

The Role Of Temperature In Affecting Carry-Over Effects And Larval Competition In The Globally Invasive Mosquito Aedes Albopictus, Nnaemeka F. Ezeakacha, Donald Yee

Faculty Publications

Background

Ectotherms, like mosquitoes, have evolved specific responses to variation in environmental conditions like temperature, and these responses could confer a fitness benefit or cost when carried-over to different life stages. However, effects of temperature on animals with complex life-cycles often only focus on part of their life-cycle, or only consider how single aspects of life-history may carry over to new stages. Herein we investigated how temperature affects intraspecific larval competition and carry-over effects from larval to adult stages in the widespread invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

Methods

For larval competition, larvae were reared at three densities (10, 20 ...


Spot-On! Exploring Comprehension Of Ecological Concepts With Abstract Art Analogies, Jane Huggins Mar 2019

Spot-On! Exploring Comprehension Of Ecological Concepts With Abstract Art Analogies, Jane Huggins

The STEAM Journal

Students enrolled in an online general studies course [GNM 2190: Extinct and Threatened Life] at Stockton University were presented with two different pieces of abstract art. They were asked to draw analogies from each piece of art to the ecological concepts studied in the course. Students provided written responses which were submitted as assignments in the learning management software, Blackboard [Bb]. This exercise was described as ‘open-ended’ by the instructor; no grading rubrics were used. Responses to each piece of art were collected from 47 students and were subsequently uploaded into Quirkosä software for qualitative analysis. Codes representing major concepts ...


Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack Jan 2019

Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack

Biology Faculty Publications

Climate change is causing the timing of key behaviors (i.e., phenology) to shift differently across trophic levels and among some interacting organisms (e.g., plants and pollinators, predators and prey), suggesting that interactions among species are being disrupted (1, 2). Studying the phenology of interactions, however, is difficult, which has limited researchers’ ability to zero in on changes in specific interactions or on the consequences of mismatches. In PNAS, Hassall et al. (3) use a combination of citizen science techniques to investigate the effects of climate change on dozens of specific interactions. They focus on a Batesian mimicry complex ...


City Limits: Heat Tolerance Is Influenced By Body Size And Hydration State In An Urban Ant Community, Dustin Jerald Johnson Jan 2019

City Limits: Heat Tolerance Is Influenced By Body Size And Hydration State In An Urban Ant Community, Dustin Jerald Johnson

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Cities are rapidly expanding, and global warming is intensified in urban environments due to the urban heat island effect. Therefore, urban animals may be particularly susceptible to warming associated with ongoing climate change. Thus, I used a comparative and manipulative approach to test three related hypotheses about the determinants of heat tolerance or critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in urban ants—specifically, that (1) body size, (2) hydration status, and (3) preferred micro-environments influence CTmax. I further tested a fourth hypothesis that native species are particularly physiologically vulnerable in urban environments. I manipulated water access and determined CTmax for 11 species ...


Exploration Of Hair Cortisol Concentrations And Implications Of Stress In Hunting Dogs On The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua, Grace Bowland Jan 2019

Exploration Of Hair Cortisol Concentrations And Implications Of Stress In Hunting Dogs On The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua, Grace Bowland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the relationships between physiological factors of hair color, sex, nutritional health, and body size (mass) with measures of hair cortisol in domesticated Nicaraguan hunting dogs on the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve. Prior research on cortisol in dogs has been relatively limited to small, homogenous population samples under restricted environmental conditions. This leaves a gap in current knowledge, and a need for larger-scale studies to assess whether current understandings of how cortisol acts in dogs is applicable to dogs within dynamic and heterogeneous environments. The population of hunting dogs examined in this study live in an unpredictable environment in ...


Defense Trade-Offs In The Evolution Of The Fruits And Flowers Of Genus Cornus, Danielle R. De La Pascua Jan 2019

Defense Trade-Offs In The Evolution Of The Fruits And Flowers Of Genus Cornus, Danielle R. De La Pascua

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The optimal defense hypothesis predicts that the allocation of plant defenses across plant organs is proportional to the importance of a given organ to plant fitness. Despite this, much less work has been devoted to the study of reproductive defenses in plants relative to vegetative structures like leaves. This study examines the apparancy hypothesis and the resource availability hypothesis using a phylogenetic comparative approach within the genus Cornus . During the 2016 growing season, plants of 25 species of Cornus were tracked for flower and fruit phenology as well as sampled for floral and fruit tissue in a common garden experiment ...


Functional Diversity And Restoration Of Meadows In Northeast Ohio, Keri Plevniak Jan 2019

Functional Diversity And Restoration Of Meadows In Northeast Ohio, Keri Plevniak

ETD Archive

Restoration outcomes can be variable and there is a need to understand the short- and long-term responses of the vegetation community. It is important to see if management goals are being met by evaluating restoration outcomes. Restoration goals often include establishing native species, increasing conservation value, and providing pollinator resources throughout the year. Assessing communities is commonly done though a taxonomic approach by using species presence and abundance. Another method of evaluation is through functional traits or species traits and their abundance. Both give different perspectives on how the community is achieving management goals. While taxonomic assessments can give insight ...


Examination Of Behavioral Lateralizations In Juvenile Tarantulas In The Presence Of Prey Odors, Matthew Angelosanto Jan 2019

Examination Of Behavioral Lateralizations In Juvenile Tarantulas In The Presence Of Prey Odors, Matthew Angelosanto

Senior Honors Theses & Projects

The functional and/or structural specialization of the left or right side of the brain (behavioral lateralization) has substantial impacts on the interactions an animal makes with other organisms and its surroundings. While this has been extensively shown throughout vertebrates, it has recently been demonstrated in various taxa of invertebrates. Despite this, its presence in arachnids, and specifically tarantulas, remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether behavioral lateralization is present in the juvenile tarantulas Pterinochilus murinus and Brachypelma albopilosum in response to prey odors. If behavioral lateralization was found, I aimed to detennine how it ...


Ecology, Monogamy, And The Evolution Of Animal Families, Jacqueline Rae Dillard Jan 2019

Ecology, Monogamy, And The Evolution Of Animal Families, Jacqueline Rae Dillard

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Family-living has been recognized as a necessary prerequisite for the evolution of advanced cooperative societies, yet the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive the coupling of different forms of cooperation in family-based societies are still poorly understood. In my dissertation, I investigate the correlated evolution of parental care, monogamy, and cooperative breeding in a variety of family-based taxa. I explore the mating and social behavior of family-living beetles with incipient cooperation to better understand the factors driving these social traits. Specifically, I evaluate different causes of extra-pair mating in socially monogamous beetles, the potential benefits that young adult offspring may ...


Betting & Hierarchy In Paleontology, Leonard Finkelman Jan 2019

Betting & Hierarchy In Paleontology, Leonard Finkelman

Faculty Publications

In his Rock, Bone, and Ruin: An Optimist’s Guide to the Historical Sciences, Adrian Currie argues that historical scientists should be optimistic about success in reconstructing the past on the basis of future research. This optimism follows in part from examples of success in paleontology. I argue that paleontologists’ success in these cases is underwritten by the hierarchical nature of biological information: extinct organisms have extant analogues at various levels of taxonomic, ecological, and physiological hierarchies, and paleontologists are adept at exploiting analogies within one informational hierarchy to infer information in another. On this account, fossils serve the role ...


Cognition, Emotion, Personality And The Conservation And Management Of Wild Ungulates, Rob Found Jan 2019

Cognition, Emotion, Personality And The Conservation And Management Of Wild Ungulates, Rob Found

Animal Sentience

Increasing public understanding of the complexity of wild ungulates can improve animal welfare and advance global conservation efforts of these keystone species. Unfortunately, shaping public opinion on wild species is challenging because personal experience with wildlife is declining, popular education is still biased towards the predator instead of the prey, and scientific research is more difficult to conduct on wild ungulates compared to those on farms, in zoos, or otherwise in captivity. Nevertheless, studies of cognition, individuality, and intelligence of wild ungulates are increasing. I briefly highlight some major results from my own work on complexity in wild elk, illustrating ...


Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Population Dynamics In The York River, Virginia, Jason E. Kahn Jan 2019

Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Population Dynamics In The York River, Virginia, Jason E. Kahn

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Sturgeon first appear in the fossil record in the Triassic Period just over 200 million years ago and are among the most primitive of the bony fishes. Despite their large size and historic presence along the East Coast, Atlantic sturgeon were not targeted for their meat and caviar as a commercial fishery until 1880. By 1905 they had declined to less than one percent of their pre-fishing abundance but the fishery continued. Prior to 1980, there had been very little research on Atlantic sturgeon, primarily limited to documenting landing location and poundage, maximum longevity, or weight of eggs per fish ...


Behind Emammal’S Success: A Data Curator With A Data Standard, Jennifer Y. Zhao, William J. Mcshea Dec 2018

Behind Emammal’S Success: A Data Curator With A Data Standard, Jennifer Y. Zhao, William J. Mcshea

Journal of eScience Librarianship

This paper explores the data challenges of a major collection method in the field of ecology: using infrared-activated cameras to detect wildlife. One such solution, eMammal, is now available to address these struggles. We delineate the key reason behind its success: a data curator who manages an established data standard and communicates with eMammal’s users and stakeholders. We outline the tasks of this data curator, mention how they can work with data librarians, and demonstrate that the data curator position is already applicable in several biological science fields with a few examples. We end by emphasizing the growth of ...


Top-Down And Bottom-Up Effects On Collembola Communities In Soil Food Webs, Jordan Kustec Dec 2018

Top-Down And Bottom-Up Effects On Collembola Communities In Soil Food Webs, Jordan Kustec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic changes are causing shifts within soil food web communities, which may alter ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, carbon storage and decomposition. I quantified ecological stressor effects on the abundance, richness, community composition and body size of a soil-dwelling microarthropod (Collembola: Hexapoda). I quantified the effects of warming and nitrogen deposition in two separate field studies and demonstrated that warming shifts Collembola community structure and decreases community body size. I quantified the interactive effects of top-down and bottom-up forces mediated by warming as ecological stressors in Collembola communities. I found that bottom-up effects of nutrient addition did not affect ...


Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes Dec 2018

Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes

Theses and Dissertations

Around the turn of the twentieth-century, the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) was accidentally introduced into North America. This strong pathogen, which specializes on trees of the genus Castanea, spread rapidly and within half a century had nearly extirpated North America’s Castanea natives from their ranges. During this catastrophe, the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) garnered much of the scientific attention, pushing the other Castanea natives – the chinquapins – to the wayside. More than a century following the spread of the blight, little research into the ecology of North America’s chinquapins had been performed, leaving these trees significantly underrepresented. The ...


Fall Migration And Winter Habitat Use Of Northern Saw-Whet Owls (Aegolius Acadicus) In The Ozark Highlands, Mitchell L. Pruitt Dec 2018

Fall Migration And Winter Habitat Use Of Northern Saw-Whet Owls (Aegolius Acadicus) In The Ozark Highlands, Mitchell L. Pruitt

Theses and Dissertations

Studying movement ecology is important not only in understanding the distribution of a species, but in understanding the magnitude of migration through certain regions, as well as explaining regional differences in demographics. The Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) is a small, migratory forest owl found throughout much of North America. Despite being captured widely during fall migration, the species’ movement ecology is poorly understood. Exploratory studies outside the saw-whet owl’s normal range have successfully captured the species during fall migration. In the Ozark Highlands ecoregion of the central United States, their status has been considered vagrant during fall and ...


Ncer Assistance Agreement Annual Progress Report For Grant #83582401 - Assessment Of Stormwater Harvesting Via Manage Aquifer Recharge (Mar) To Develop New Water Supplies In The Arid West: The Salt Lake Valley Example, R. Ryan Dupont, Joan E. Mclean, Richard Peralta, Sarah Null, Douglas B. Jackson-Smith Nov 2018

Ncer Assistance Agreement Annual Progress Report For Grant #83582401 - Assessment Of Stormwater Harvesting Via Manage Aquifer Recharge (Mar) To Develop New Water Supplies In The Arid West: The Salt Lake Valley Example, R. Ryan Dupont, Joan E. Mclean, Richard Peralta, Sarah Null, Douglas B. Jackson-Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

The goals of the original proposed project remain the same, that is, to test the hypothesis that Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) for stormwater harvesting is a technically feasible, socially and environmentally acceptable, economically viable, and legally feasible option for developing new water supplies for arid Western urban ecosystems experiencing increasing population, and climate change pressures on existing water resources. The project is being carried out via three distinct but integrated components that include: 1) Monitoring of existing distributed MAR harvesting schemes involving a growing number of demonstration Green Infrastructure (GI) test sites; 2) Integrated stormwater/vadose zone/groundwater/ ecosystem services ...