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Composting

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Review Of Biochar Properties And Their Utilization In Crop Agriculture And Livestock Production, Kajetan Kalus, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski Aug 2019

A Review Of Biochar Properties And Their Utilization In Crop Agriculture And Livestock Production, Kajetan Kalus, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

When it comes to the use of biochar in agriculture, the majority of research conducted in the last decade has focused on its application as a soil amendment and for soil remediation. This treatment improves soil quality, increases crops yields, and sequestrates atmospheric carbon to the soil. Another widely studied aspect connecting biochar with agriculture is the composting processes of various agricultural waste with the addition of biochar. Obtaining the material via the pyrolysis of agricultural waste, including animal manure, has also been investigated. However, given the remarkable properties of biochar, its application potential could be utilized in other areas ...


Evaluation Of Biodegradability Characteristics Of Cellulose-Based Film As Per Is/Iso 14855-1, Narayan C. Saha Dr, Gaurav Madhu Dr, Diksha B. Kadu Ms Aug 2019

Evaluation Of Biodegradability Characteristics Of Cellulose-Based Film As Per Is/Iso 14855-1, Narayan C. Saha Dr, Gaurav Madhu Dr, Diksha B. Kadu Ms

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Biodegradable polymers (especially those derived from plant sources) begin their lifecycle as renewable resources, usually in the form of starch or cellulose. In this paper, the evaluation of biodegradability of cellulose-based polymer film under controlled composting conditions as per the guidelines of IS/ISO 14855 (Part-1) standard has been described. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder was taken as positive-control polymer. The apparatus used to analyse the degree and rate of biodegradation was developed indigenously. The validation of the biodegradability testing apparatus was also performed as per the prescribed test method given in IS/ISO 14855-1.


Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Apr 2019

Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Composting processes reduce the weight and volume of biowaste and produce products that can be used in agriculture (e.g., as fertilizer). Despite the benefits of composting, there are also problems such as odors and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. This research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of process gas (CO, CO2, NO, O2) evolution within a large-scale municipal composter. The effects of turning frequency and pile location (outdoor vs. indoors) on process gas and temperature spatial and temporal evolution were studied in six piles (37‒81 tons of initial weight) over a six-month period. The ...


Evaluación De Microorganismos De Montaña (Mm) Como Aceleradores De Compostaje Para La Producción De Cultivos Aromáticos, Paula Catalina Méndez Ríos Jan 2019

Evaluación De Microorganismos De Montaña (Mm) Como Aceleradores De Compostaje Para La Producción De Cultivos Aromáticos, Paula Catalina Méndez Ríos

Biología

Los microorganismos de montaña (MM) se encuentran en la capa superficial y orgánica de todo suelo de un ecosistema natural no intervenido y su uso permite mejorar las condiciones del suelo, por lo cual, la adición de preparados microbianos se ha implementado en practicas agricolas alrededor del mundo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue Evaluar Microorganismos de Montaña (MM) aislados de suelo proveniente de la Finca El Exilio en el Municipio de Tenjo-Cundinamarca y establecer su potencialidad como aceleradores de compostaje y su posterior uso en cultivos aromáticos. Se realizó la toma de nueve muestras de suelo constituidas por hojarasca ...


Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King Jul 2018

Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many wildlife management situations require the disposal of animal carcasses. These can include the lethal removal of wildlife to resolve damage or conflicts, as well as clean-up after mortalities caused by vehicle collisions, disease, oil spills (Figure 1) or other natural disasters. Carcasses must be disposed of properly to protect public sensitivities, the environment, and public health. Improper disposal of carcasses can result in public outrage, site contamination, injury to animals and people, and the attraction of other animals that may lead to wildlife damage issues. Concern over ground water contamination and disease transmission from improper carcass disposal has resulted ...


Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt Nov 2017

Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting. Although this method ...


Performance Of A Plastic-Wrapped Composting System For Biosecure Emergency Disposal Of Disease-Related Swine Mortalities, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Neslihan Akdeniz, Benjamin P. Crawford, Jacek A. Koziel Feb 2016

Performance Of A Plastic-Wrapped Composting System For Biosecure Emergency Disposal Of Disease-Related Swine Mortalities, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Neslihan Akdeniz, Benjamin P. Crawford, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature ...


Composting Swine Manure From High Rise Finishing Facilities, Edwin L. Ritchey, Kim Cook Jan 2016

Composting Swine Manure From High Rise Finishing Facilities, Edwin L. Ritchey, Kim Cook

Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report

Swine production has restructured considerably in recent years with increased production on fewer farms (Key et al., 2011). Most swine production facilities manage manure in liquid form either in deep pits underneath production facilities or in lagoons adjacent to the production facilities (Key et al., 2011). This management uses water to rinse manure from the facilities, which dilutes the nutrient concentration and value of the manure. The liquid forms are applied to land through irrigation systems or by liquid manure spreaders. Liquid manure management can have some operational constraints that composting eliminates (Bernal et al., 2009). The most common issue ...


Composting At Parkland College, Della Jacobs Jan 2016

Composting At Parkland College, Della Jacobs

A with Honors Projects

This essay summarizes the student's efforts to establish a composting program at Parkland College. The student had previously worked to establish a garden plot to supplement the offerings at the College's food pantry and subsequently worked with the cafeteria to collect composting materials for the garden plot.


Ethics Of Food Resource Consumption, Carolina Bermudez, Jake Behrens, Sai Marripudi Jan 2016

Ethics Of Food Resource Consumption, Carolina Bermudez, Jake Behrens, Sai Marripudi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Food waste is a global-scale issue that can no longer be ignored. Misuse of resources has caused large amounts of food waste in the past that results in a waste of resources such as fossil fuels, water, land, and produces excess greenhouse gasses in the process. Alternatives exist for reuse and recapturing of the potential trapped within our wasted food resources. Processes such as composting, biogas, chemical conversion, animal feed production, and other recycling efforts can be implemented in areas where reducing food waste seems to be difficult. Increasing industrial efficiency may also reduce waste. New and emerging control technologies ...


The Effect Of Turning Frequency On In-Vessel Compost Processing And Quality, Paige E. Boyle, Mary C. Savin, Lisa S. Wood Jan 2015

The Effect Of Turning Frequency On In-Vessel Compost Processing And Quality, Paige E. Boyle, Mary C. Savin, Lisa S. Wood

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Composting can contribute to the zero waste initiative on the University of Arkansas (UA) campus. In-vessel systems like Earth Tubs™ are purported to provide better control of temperature and moisture during the composting process. Turning materials helps facilitate microbial activity and thermophilic composting. The goal of this research was to determine if turning frequency affects processing or final quality of compost made with pre- and post-consumer food waste feedstock and a wood chip bulking agent. Turning frequencies (treatment) of 3 days/week and 7 days/ week were evaluated simultaneously throughout three sequential runs. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and moisture ...


Degradable Plastics And Their Potential To Affect Solid Waste Systems, Krista L. Thyberg, David J. Tonjes Jan 2014

Degradable Plastics And Their Potential To Affect Solid Waste Systems, Krista L. Thyberg, David J. Tonjes

Technology & Society Faculty Publications

Plastic waste forms a substantial part of municipal solid waste and has caused environmental concerns, particularly due to chemical contamination of the environment and effects from persistent litter. Plastics also complicate waste management processes, such as by having poor recovery rates through recycling, and causing contamination in composting operations. One potential means to address some of these challenges is through degradable plastics which, unlike conventional plastics, are designed to decompose at an accelerated rate in specific environments. Degradable plastics aim to address the end-of-life of plastic products and are intended to reduce the environmental impacts associated with their use and ...


Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Co-Composting Of Dead Hens With Manure As Affected By Forced Aeration Rate, Zhiping Zhu, Hongmin Dong, Jialin Xi, Hongwei Xin Jan 2014

Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Co-Composting Of Dead Hens With Manure As Affected By Forced Aeration Rate, Zhiping Zhu, Hongmin Dong, Jialin Xi, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The effect of ventilation rate (VR) on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from co-composting dead hens mixed with hen manure was quantified. Three VR levels of 0.9, 0.7, and 0.5 m3 h-1 were evaluated. Gaseous concentrations were measured using a multi-gas infrared photoacoustic analyzer, VR was measured with flowmeters, and the gas emission rate was computed from the VR and gas concentration. Decomposition of the carcasses over the 11-week composting period was greater than 88%. VR was found to significantly affect NH3, CO2, and CH4 emissions (p < 0.05). Specifically, cumulative emissions per kg of initial matter for VR of 0.9, 0.7, and 0.5 m3 h-1 were, respectively ...


Influence Of Compost Particle Size On Pathogen Survival Under Greenhouse Condition, Junshu Diao May 2013

Influence Of Compost Particle Size On Pathogen Survival Under Greenhouse Condition, Junshu Diao

All Theses

The number of foodborne pathogen outbreaks related to fresh produce has increased significantly in recent decades. Animal waste directly applied to agricultural field is one of the possible contamination sources for fresh produce. Composting is one of the recommended means for waste treatments to eliminate or reduce pathogens in manure on farms. Although pathogens can be eliminated by proper composting process, pathogens are able to survive, recolonize and regrow on compost heap surfaces under certain conditions. Due to the outdoor nature of composting process, bioaerosols with different particle sizes can be generated on compost surfaces which can carry pathogens, travel ...


A Study On Solid Waste Management System Of Dhaka City Corporation: Effect Of Composting And Landfill Location, Faisal Ibney Hai, M. Ashraf Ali Aug 2012

A Study On Solid Waste Management System Of Dhaka City Corporation: Effect Of Composting And Landfill Location, Faisal Ibney Hai, M. Ashraf Ali

Faisal I Hai

This study has analyzed the generation and characteristics of solid waste in Dhaka city, along with the associated environmental impacts and existing solid waste management practices. Special focus was given on the effect of composting on final disposal of solid waste and effect of landfill site location on transportation cost. An estimate of the future generation rate indicates that the present generation rate of 3500 tons/day may exceed 30 thousand tons/day by the year 2020.The mixed waste dumped at dumping sites is characterized with high organic content and high moisture content (about 80% and 50-70% by weight ...


Reduce, Reuse, Recycle? An Examination Of Factors Influencing Environmental Behavior In Denver, Colorado, Dan Kasper Jan 2012

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle? An Examination Of Factors Influencing Environmental Behavior In Denver, Colorado, Dan Kasper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-recycling and non-composting of municipal solid waste have important natural resource management implications, in that they both reduce energy, water, and raw natural resource use. Responsible waste management also likely has positive climate impacts by virtue of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling and composting are pro-environmental behaviors that have been shown to be influenced by numerous socio-demographic and psychological factors. This study analyzes the correlation of a number of variables with frequency of recycling and composting in select census tracts in Denver, CO, USA, with the goals of informing waste management policy and contributing to the overall pro-environmental behavior literature ...


Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Co-Composting Of Dead Hens With Manure As Affected By Forced Aeration Rate, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Jialin Xi, Hongwei Xin Aug 2011

Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Co-Composting Of Dead Hens With Manure As Affected By Forced Aeration Rate, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Jialin Xi, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The effect of ventilation rate (VR) on ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from composting piles of dead hens mixed with hen manure was quantified by measuring the gaseous concentrations and airflow rate through the compost bins. Three VR levels of 0.9, 0.7 and 0.5 m³/hr/bin (equivalent to the air exchanges per hour of 0.9, 0.7 and 0.5) were evaluated, each with three replicates. The compost piles were turned once (on day 58) during the 11-wk composting period. Gaseous concentrations of the inlet and exhaust air of the compost bins were ...


Backyard Composting In Utah, Kitt Farrell-Poe, Rich Koenig Dec 2010

Backyard Composting In Utah, Kitt Farrell-Poe, Rich Koenig

All Current Publications

This publication explains the benefits of composting and how to successfully start a compost in your own backyard.


Soil Contamination Caused By Emergency Bio-Reduction Of Catastrophic Livestock Mortalities, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, T. L. Richard, L. E. Shiers, Jay D. Harmon Mar 2009

Soil Contamination Caused By Emergency Bio-Reduction Of Catastrophic Livestock Mortalities, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, T. L. Richard, L. E. Shiers, Jay D. Harmon

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Catastrophic regional losses of poultry and livestock have caused environmental officials in North America to seek emergency on-farm disposal alternatives that pose less pollution risk to soil and shallow groundwater than burial. Bio-decomposition of remains followed by land application of the resulting product is used throughout the U.S. and Canada for management of routine poultry, swine, and cattle mortalities, and is often cited as being more environmentally friendly than burial since it recycles nutrients and other potential pollutants into the topsoil and crop production cycle, rather than placing them deeper in the ground and closer to groundwater. During emergencies ...


Waste Recycling: Feasibility Of Saw Dust Based Spent Mushroom Substrate And Goat Manure In Vermicomposting, Noor Zalina Binti Mahmood Jan 2009

Waste Recycling: Feasibility Of Saw Dust Based Spent Mushroom Substrate And Goat Manure In Vermicomposting, Noor Zalina Binti Mahmood

Noor Zalina Binti Mahmood

Vermicomposting for 140 days by using Lumbricus rubellus was conducted after 21 days of natural pre-composting. Five treatments in different ratio of goat manure: spent mushroom substrate were prepared as feed materials with four replicates for each treatment namely; 20:80 (TA), 40:60 (TB), 50:50 (TC), 60:40 (TD) and 80:20 (TE). As for control, each treatment without earthworm was prepared. On the basis of nutrient elements, goat manure and spent mushroom substrate can be decomposed through both methods of vermicomposting and natural composting. Findings of this study indicated that the higher usage of goat manure with ...


Effect Of Post Composting On Vermicompost Of Spent Mushroom Substrate, Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Noor Zalina Mahmood Nov 2008

Effect Of Post Composting On Vermicompost Of Spent Mushroom Substrate, Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Noor Zalina Mahmood

Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

By using Lumbricus rubellus, vermicomposting started after 3 weeks of pre composting. Five treatments in different ratio of cow dung : spent mushroom substrate were prepared as feed materials with four replicates for each treatment namely; 80:20 (T1), 60:40 (T2), 50:50 (T3), 40:60 (T4) and 20:80 (T5). After 7 weeks of vermicomposting, macronutrient elements of vermicompost produced were measured and the process continues with composting when all the earthworms were taken out from the treatments. Macronutrient elements of compost produced were also measured after 20 weeks of composting. The data reveals that 7 weeks for vermicomposting ...


Compost Production And Use In Horticulture, Bob Paulin, Peter O'Malley Jul 2008

Compost Production And Use In Horticulture, Bob Paulin, Peter O'Malley

Bulletins 4000 -

Maintaining and improving soil organic carbon levels is becoming an increasingly important aspect of modern farming. Compost provides potentially one of the most effective ways of applying organic matter to soils and improving organic carbon levels.

Improving soil organic carbon is directly related to soil quality and performance. Increased quality reflects improved biological function (soil health), fertility and physical attributes that include better drainage, reduced compaction and erosion, and improved moisture-holding capability, at least for lighter soils.

Compost is not the only option available. Others include the use of cover or break crops, reducing the use of cultivations, selecting safe ...


Composting 101 A Gardener's Gumbo, Janice Young Jun 2007

Composting 101 A Gardener's Gumbo, Janice Young

All Archived Publications

No abstract provided.


A Study On Solid Waste Management System Of Dhaka City Corporation: Effect Of Composting And Landfill Location, Faisal Ibney Hai, M. Ashraf Ali Jan 2005

A Study On Solid Waste Management System Of Dhaka City Corporation: Effect Of Composting And Landfill Location, Faisal Ibney Hai, M. Ashraf Ali

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

This study has analyzed the generation and characteristics of solid waste in Dhaka city, along with the associated environmental impacts and existing solid waste management practices. Special focus was given on the effect of composting on final disposal of solid waste and effect of landfill site location on transportation cost. An estimate of the future generation rate indicates that the present generation rate of 3500 tons/day may exceed 30 thousand tons/day by the year 2020.The mixed waste dumped at dumping sites is characterized with high organic content and high moisture content (about 80% and 50-70% by weight ...


Low Cost Composting, Dennis Hinkamp Jan 1998

Low Cost Composting, Dennis Hinkamp

All Archived Publications

No abstract provided.


Using Compost In Utah Gardens, Kitt Farrell-Poe, Rich Koenig, Bruce Miller, James Barnhill Nov 1997

Using Compost In Utah Gardens, Kitt Farrell-Poe, Rich Koenig, Bruce Miller, James Barnhill

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Using Compost In Utah Turf Applications, Kitt Farrell-Poe, Rich Koenig, Bruce Miller, James Barnhill Nov 1997

Using Compost In Utah Turf Applications, Kitt Farrell-Poe, Rich Koenig, Bruce Miller, James Barnhill

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


G97-1315 Composting Manure And Other Organic Residues, Bahman Eghball Jan 1997

G97-1315 Composting Manure And Other Organic Residues, Bahman Eghball

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Composting is becoming more common in Nebraska because of the many advantages it offers. This NebGuide provides information on the composting process and its management and related issues.

The Composting Process

Composting is the aerobic decomposition of manure or other organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range (104-149°F). The composted material is odorless, fine-textured, and low-moisture and can be bagged and sold for use in gardens, or nurseries or used as fertilizer on cropland with little odor or fly breeding potential. Composting improves the handling characteristics of any organic residue by reducing its volume and weight. Composting can kill ...


Ncr93-497 Kitchen Planning, Wanda Olson, Delores Ginthner, Becky Yust Jan 1993

Ncr93-497 Kitchen Planning, Wanda Olson, Delores Ginthner, Becky Yust

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Decisions you make about your kitchen depend upon your current and future needs, your lifestytle, your interests and the structural limitations of the house. A well-designed kitchen should be functional and aesthetically pleasing. It should harmonize with other areas of the house for a consistent appearance. The materials and furnishings you choose affect the appearance, character, and functionality of the kitchen. In addition, kitchen design can have a major impact on the energy system of the whole house.

This publication provides information to help you make those decisions as you build or remodel your kitchen.


Composting, Jerry L. Goodspeed, Larry A. Sagers Jan 1990

Composting, Jerry L. Goodspeed, Larry A. Sagers

All Archived Publications

No abstract provided.