Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass Aug 2019

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

The beef industry is harmful to the environment and human health and alternative solutions must be implemented in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Water and grain are used in agriculture in abundance despite the negative environmental effects it causes. Cattle are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the sector, also contributing to climate change. Antibiotics are used in large quantities without regard to potential future consequences. One potential solution for this problem is lab-grown beef, which demands very little from the consumer and would take pressure off the environmental issues the beef industry creates. Lab-grown ...


Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao Jun 2019

Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture is one of important topics with respect to climate change. We quantitatively examined the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Northern China using the Cobb–Douglas production function. Utilizing time-series data of agricultural production and meteorological observations from 1981 to 2016, the impacts of climatic factors on wheat production were assessed. It was found that the contribution of climatic factors to winter wheat yield per unit area (WYPA) was 0.762–1.921% in absolute terms. Growing season average temperature (GSAT) had a negative impact on WYPA for the ...


Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado Nov 2017

Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Determining Effects Of Heat Stress On Illinois Soybeans, Ava Alford, Charles Burroughs, Lisa Ainsworth Jul 2017

Determining Effects Of Heat Stress On Illinois Soybeans, Ava Alford, Charles Burroughs, Lisa Ainsworth

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

Rising global temperatures affect our food supply. Heat stress could negatively affect photosynthesis, plant development, and flower and pod production. The research summarized in this poster aims to better understand which physiological processes in soybeans are negatively affected by heat stress in order to identify targets for future soybean production. Using infrared heat arrays, two different cultivars of Illinois soybeans are continually heated. Throughout the experiment, data is collected on photosynthesis, leaf area index, and overall productivity of the plant. At the end of the growing season, all of the soybean plants will be harvested and their biomass will be ...


Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu Aug 2016

Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu

Theses and Dissertations

Although climate change impacts vary geographically and temporally, studies at local levels are not readily available for stakeholders to better understand how their local communities would be affected and what remedial measures could be more effective in their local contexts. This dissertation has examined climate change and its impacts in two different local contexts: eastern Arkansas in the USA and Nyando in Kenya. The first part of this dissertation develops agro-meteorological indicators and examines the relationship between agro-meteorological indicators and crop yields in eastern Arkansas between 1960 and 2014. Results reveal that temperature based indicators were more strongly correlated to ...


Long-Term Sandhills Prairie Responses To Precipitation, Temperature, And Cattle Stocking Rate, John A. Guretzky, Cheryl Dunn, Heidi L. Hillhouse Jun 2016

Long-Term Sandhills Prairie Responses To Precipitation, Temperature, And Cattle Stocking Rate, John A. Guretzky, Cheryl Dunn, Heidi L. Hillhouse

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding of Sandhills prairie, the most expansive sand dune region stabilized by perennial grasses in the Western Hemisphere, is limited by lack of long-term vegetation data. We used a 26-year dataset to evaluate Sandhills prairie responses to yearto- year variation in precipitation, temperature, and cattle stocking rate. Basal cover, a measurement that is constant seasonally and used to detect long-term changes in bunchgrass vegetation, was measured in 38–40 permanent plots positioned along four transects spanning 769 ha from 1979 to 2007. Across this period, total basal cover averaged 2.4 % and was dominated by warm-season grasses (81.1 %). Schizachyrium ...


Simulating Long-Term Impacts Of Cover Crops And Climate Change On Crop Production And Environmental Outcomes In The Midwestern United States, Andrea D. Basche, Sotririos V. Archontoulis, Thomas C. Kaspar, Dan B. Jaynes, Timothy B. Parkin, Fernando E. Miguez Jan 2016

Simulating Long-Term Impacts Of Cover Crops And Climate Change On Crop Production And Environmental Outcomes In The Midwestern United States, Andrea D. Basche, Sotririos V. Archontoulis, Thomas C. Kaspar, Dan B. Jaynes, Timothy B. Parkin, Fernando E. Miguez

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

It is critical to evaluate conservation practices that protect soil and water resources from climate change in the Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-quarter of the world’s soybeans and one-third of the world’s maize. An over-winter cover crop in a maize–soybean rotation offers multiple potential benefits that can reduce the impacts of higher temperatures and more variable rainfall; some of the anticipated changes for the Midwest. In this experiment we used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to understand how winter rye cover crops impact crop production and environmental outcomes, given future climate change. We ...


Climate-Smart Agriculture In Midwest Cropping Systems: Evaluating The Benefits And Tradeoffs Of Cover Crops, Andrea Diane Basche Jan 2015

Climate-Smart Agriculture In Midwest Cropping Systems: Evaluating The Benefits And Tradeoffs Of Cover Crops, Andrea Diane Basche

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate-smart agriculture is a framework to develop and implement agricultural systems that facilitate reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increase resilience and productivity in the context of a changing climate. Winter cover crops are known to decrease soil erosion, increase soil carbon, improve water retention and have been hypothesized to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Therefore they offer the potential to buffer projected climate change impacts for Midwestern agriculture, including increased rainfall variability. The overall objective of this dissertation research was to evaluate the mitigation and adaptation potential of cover crops in determining their efficacy as a climate-smart agricultural practice. In a ...


Accumulation Of Organic Carbon In Chernozems (Mollisols) Under Shelterbelts In Russia And The United States, Yu. G. Chendev, T. J. Sauer, A. N. Gennadiev, L. L. Novykh, A. N. Petin, V. I. Petina, E. A. Zazdravnykh, C. L. Burras Jan 2015

Accumulation Of Organic Carbon In Chernozems (Mollisols) Under Shelterbelts In Russia And The United States, Yu. G. Chendev, T. J. Sauer, A. N. Gennadiev, L. L. Novykh, A. N. Petin, V. I. Petina, E. A. Zazdravnykh, C. L. Burras

Agronomy Publications

Shelterbelts that were created in place of meadow and meadowsteppe landscapes of the forest steppe zone of northern continents serve as areas of carbon accumulation and participate in the formation of soil organic matter. In the Great Plains of the United States (in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska) and on the Central Russian Upland (Belgorod, Voronezh, and Kursk oblasts), a general tendency toward an increase in the Corg pool in the topsoil (0–30 cm) from the marginal parts of the shelterbelts toward their cen tral parts by about 3.5–10.0 t per each 10 m has ...


Grassland Sustainability In Kentucky: Case Studies Quantifying The Effects Of Climate Change On Slug Herbivory In Pastures And Different Home Lawn Systems On Turf Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Daniel Adam Weber Jan 2014

Grassland Sustainability In Kentucky: Case Studies Quantifying The Effects Of Climate Change On Slug Herbivory In Pastures And Different Home Lawn Systems On Turf Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Daniel Adam Weber

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Grasslands comprise the greatest biome by land area, are sensitive to environmental factors affected by climate change, and can impact future climate change through their ability to store and release greenhouse gasses (GHGs). I performed two studies: 1) evaluated the effects of increased temperature and precipitation on slug herbivory/abundance and pasture forage production; 2) quantified different homeowner lawn system effects on soil-to-atmosphere GHG emissions. Climate change will likely affect pasture forage production, with implications for slug herbivory and abundance. I found little evidence that slugs have or will have significant effects on pasture production or plant community. Warming altered ...


Final Evaluation Of The North East Agricultural Region (Near) Strategy, Andrew Blake, Don Burnside, Vicki Williams May 2013

Final Evaluation Of The North East Agricultural Region (Near) Strategy, Andrew Blake, Don Burnside, Vicki Williams

All other publications

No abstract provided.


Ecophysiological Responses Of Tall Fescue Genotypes To Endophyte Infection And Climate Change, Marie Bourguignon Jan 2013

Ecophysiological Responses Of Tall Fescue Genotypes To Endophyte Infection And Climate Change, Marie Bourguignon

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Tall fescue is a widely used forage grass in the eastern USA and can form a symbiosis with a fungal endophyte, which can be beneficial for the plant but can cause livestock health issues. Little is known regarding the symbiotic response to predicted climate change. To address this knowledge gap, I analyzed tall fescue variety trial data collected throughout the U.S., exploring relationships between climate variables and yield for two different fescue cultivars that were either endophyte-free or infected. This study showed no endophyte or cultivar effect on fescue yield, but identified temperature, precipitation and location as significant predictors ...


Synergistic Effects Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) And Climate Change On Aquatic Amphibian Survival, Daniel Saenz, Erin M. Fucik, Matthew Kwiatkowski Jan 2013

Synergistic Effects Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) And Climate Change On Aquatic Amphibian Survival, Daniel Saenz, Erin M. Fucik, Matthew Kwiatkowski

Faculty Publications

Changes in climate and the introduction of invasive species are two major stressors to amphibians, although little is known about the interaction between these two factors with regard to impacts on amphibians. We focused our study on an invasive tree species, the Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), that annually sheds its leaves and produces leaf litter that is known to negatively impact aquatic amphibian survival. The purpose of our research was to determine whether the timing of leaf fall from Chinese tallow and the timing of amphibian breeding (determined by weather) influence survival of amphibian larvae. We simulated a range of ...


A Model To Identify Suitable Agricultural Sites After Climate Changes, Joseph A. Koeller Aug 2011

A Model To Identify Suitable Agricultural Sites After Climate Changes, Joseph A. Koeller

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

A model was developed for county planners to use to identify potential locations for agricultural and environmental vegetation planning and development. The production of the Hawaiian Vegetation Model involve simulation changes in precipitation and temperature on the island to determine what effect these variables have on the Hawaiian vegetation. The variables of temperature and precipitation were chosen as inputs to the vegetation model because they are used in numerous climate change models. The resulting agricultural and environmental vegetation scenarios from the precipitation and temperature inputs identify the best potential locations for agricultural and environmental vegetation planning and development.


Beneath The Surface Of Global Change: Impacts Of Climate Change On Groundwater, Timothy R. Green, Makoto Taniguchi, Henk Kooi, Jason J. Gurdak, Diana M. Allen, Kevin M. Hiscock, Holger Treidel, Alice Aureli Jan 2011

Beneath The Surface Of Global Change: Impacts Of Climate Change On Groundwater, Timothy R. Green, Makoto Taniguchi, Henk Kooi, Jason J. Gurdak, Diana M. Allen, Kevin M. Hiscock, Holger Treidel, Alice Aureli

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Global change encompasses changes in the characteristics of inter-related climate variables in space and time, and derived changes in terrestrial processes, including human activities that affect the environment. As such, projected global change includes groundwater systems. Here, groundwater is defined as all subsurface water including soil water, deeper vadose zone water, and unconfined and confined aquifer waters. Potential effects of climate change combined with land and water management on surface waters have been studied in some detail. Equivalent studies of groundwater systems have lagged behind these advances, but research and broader interest in projected climate effects on groundwater have been ...


Past And Projected Future Changes In Snowpack And Soil Frost At The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, Usa, John L. Campbell, Scott V. Ollinger, Gerald N. Flerchinger, Haley Wicklein, Katharine Hayhoe, Amey S. Bailey Jan 2011

Past And Projected Future Changes In Snowpack And Soil Frost At The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, Usa, John L. Campbell, Scott V. Ollinger, Gerald N. Flerchinger, Haley Wicklein, Katharine Hayhoe, Amey S. Bailey

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire show that air temperature has increased by about 1°C over the last half century. The warmer climate has caused significant declines in snow depth, snow water equivalent and snow cover duration. Paradoxically, it has been suggested that warmer air temperatures may result in colder soils and more soil frost, as warming leads to a reduction in snow cover insulating soils during winter. Hubbard Brook has one of the longest records of direct field measurements of soil frost in the United States. Historical records show no long-term trends in ...


Leaf Isoprene Emission Rate As A Function Of Atmospheric Co2 Concentration, Michael J. Wilkinson, Russell K. Monson, Nicole Trahan, Stanfield Lee, Erin Brown, Robert B. Jackson, H. Wayne Polley, Philip A. Fay, Ray Fall Jan 2009

Leaf Isoprene Emission Rate As A Function Of Atmospheric Co2 Concentration, Michael J. Wilkinson, Russell K. Monson, Nicole Trahan, Stanfield Lee, Erin Brown, Robert B. Jackson, H. Wayne Polley, Philip A. Fay, Ray Fall

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

There is considerable interest in modeling isoprene emissions from terrestrial vegetation, because these emissions exert a principal control over the oxidative capacity of the troposphere.


Primary Productivity And Water Balance Of Grassland Vegetation On Three Soils In A Continuous Co2 Gradient: Initial Results From The Lysimeter Co2 Gradient Experiment, Philip A. Fay, Alexia M. Kelley, Andrew C. Procter, Dafeng Hui, Virgina L. Jin, Robert B. Jackson, Hyrum B. Johnson, H. Wayne Polley Jan 2009

Primary Productivity And Water Balance Of Grassland Vegetation On Three Soils In A Continuous Co2 Gradient: Initial Results From The Lysimeter Co2 Gradient Experiment, Philip A. Fay, Alexia M. Kelley, Andrew C. Procter, Dafeng Hui, Virgina L. Jin, Robert B. Jackson, Hyrum B. Johnson, H. Wayne Polley

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Field studies of atmospheric CO2 effects on ecosystems usually include few levels of CO2 and a single soil type, making it difficult to ascertain the shape of responses to increasing CO2 or to generalize across soil types. The Lysimeter CO2 Gradient (LYCOG) chambers were constructed to maintain a linear gradient of atmospheric CO2 (~250 to 500 µ 1-1) on grassland vegetation established on intact soil monoliths from three soil series. The chambers maintained a linear daytime CO2 gradient from 263 µ 1-1 at the subambient end of the gradient to 502 µ ...


Agenda: Climate Change And The Future Of The American West: Exploring The Legal And Policy Dimensions, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center Jun 2006

Agenda: Climate Change And The Future Of The American West: Exploring The Legal And Policy Dimensions, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center

Climate Change and the Future of the American West: Exploring the Legal and Policy Dimensions (Summer Conference, June 7-9)

Sponsors: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; BP America; Holland & Hart; Patrick, Miller & Krope, P.C.; The Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation, Rocky Mountain Natural Resource Center of the National Wildlife Federation, Western Water Assessment.

Exploring the legal and political dimensions that climate change will bring to the American West will be the focus of the CU-Boulder Natural Resources Law Center's 27th Annual Summer Conference.

Titled "Climate Change and the Future of the American West: Exploring the Legal and Policy Dimensions," the conference will be held June 7-9 at the Fleming Law Building on the University of Colorado at Boulder campus.

Participants will ...


Impacts Of Climate Change On Streamflow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin: A Regional Climate Model Perspective, Manoj K. Jha, Zaitao Pan, Eugene S. Takle, Roy R. Gu May 2004

Impacts Of Climate Change On Streamflow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin: A Regional Climate Model Perspective, Manoj K. Jha, Zaitao Pan, Eugene S. Takle, Roy R. Gu

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Impact of climate change on streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin is evaluated by use of a regional climate model (RCM) coupled with a hydrologic model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The RCM we used resolves, at least partially, some fine-scale dynamical processes that are important contributors to precipitation in this region and that are not well simulated by global models. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated against measured streamflow data using observed weather data and inputs from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) geographic information systems/database ...


The Impacts Of Climate Change On Stream Flow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin: A Regional Climate Model Perspective, Manoj K. Jha, Zaitao Pan, Eugene S. Takle, Roy R. Gu Jul 2003

The Impacts Of Climate Change On Stream Flow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin: A Regional Climate Model Perspective, Manoj K. Jha, Zaitao Pan, Eugene S. Takle, Roy R. Gu

CARD Working Papers

We evaluate the impact of climate change on stream flow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) by using a regional climate model (RCM) coupled with a hydrologic model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated and validated against measured stream flow data using observed weather data and inputs from the Environmental Protection Agency’s BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) geographical information/database system. The combined performance of the SWAT and RCM was examined using observed weather data as a lateral boundary condition in the RCM. The SWAT and RCM were ...


Crops Of Ancient Iowa: Native Plant Use And Farming Systems, William Green, David Asch Jan 1993

Crops Of Ancient Iowa: Native Plant Use And Farming Systems, William Green, David Asch

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Maize and common beans were introduced as crops some 1,000 years ago to the land we now call Iowa. They marked the beginning of intensive agriculture in this area. But humans had begun evolving from hunter-gatherers to farmers several thousands of years earlier. This ancient agriculture in Iowa was characterized by changing patterns in the use of both native and introduced crops.