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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Outdoor Cats: An Animal Welfare And Protection Perspective, John Hadidian, Inga Gibson, Susan Hagood, Nancy Peterson, Bernard Unti, Betsy Mcfarland, Katie Lisnik, Heather Bialy, Inga Fricke, Kathleen Schatzmann, Jennifer Fearing, Pam Runquist, Andrew N. Rowan (Ed.) Sep 2019

Outdoor Cats: An Animal Welfare And Protection Perspective, John Hadidian, Inga Gibson, Susan Hagood, Nancy Peterson, Bernard Unti, Betsy Mcfarland, Katie Lisnik, Heather Bialy, Inga Fricke, Kathleen Schatzmann, Jennifer Fearing, Pam Runquist, Andrew N. Rowan (Ed.)

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

First raised as a serious conservation issue more than 100 years ago, the impact of free-roaming cats on wildlife has been a subject of debate, controversy, and conflict since then. Cats have been tied directly to the extinction of sensitive species in island environments and implicated as major threats to certain wildlife populations elsewhere. Yet the study of free-roaming cats and the problems attributed to them lags behind the standards of research typical with more traditional vertebrate “pest” species. Alternative management approaches, ranging from traditional practices such as removal and depopulation to emerging concepts such as Trap- Neuter-Return (TNR), have ...


Outdoor Cats: An Animal Welfare And Protection Perspective, John Hadidian, Inga Gibson, Susan Hagood, Nancy Peterson, Bernard Unti, Betsy Mcfarland, Katie Lisnik, Heather Bialy, Inga Fricke, Kathleen Schatzmann, Jennifer Fearing, Pam Runquist, Andrew N. Rowan (Ed.) Sep 2019

Outdoor Cats: An Animal Welfare And Protection Perspective, John Hadidian, Inga Gibson, Susan Hagood, Nancy Peterson, Bernard Unti, Betsy Mcfarland, Katie Lisnik, Heather Bialy, Inga Fricke, Kathleen Schatzmann, Jennifer Fearing, Pam Runquist, Andrew N. Rowan (Ed.)

Bernard Unti, PhD

First raised as a serious conservation issue more than 100 years ago, the impact of free-roaming cats on wildlife has been a subject of debate, controversy, and conflict since then. Cats have been tied directly to the extinction of sensitive species in island environments and implicated as major threats to certain wildlife populations elsewhere. Yet the study of free-roaming cats and the problems attributed to them lags behind the standards of research typical with more traditional vertebrate “pest” species. Alternative management approaches, ranging from traditional practices such as removal and depopulation to emerging concepts such as Trap- Neuter-Return (TNR), have ...


Evaluating The Effect Of Time Of Day On Singing Behavior In Anna’S Hummingbirds, Adrian D. Macedo, Maxine R. Mota Sep 2019

Evaluating The Effect Of Time Of Day On Singing Behavior In Anna’S Hummingbirds, Adrian D. Macedo, Maxine R. Mota

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier Aug 2019

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Factors Affecting Nest Success Of Colonial Nesting Waterbirds In Southwest Louisiana, Karis A. Ritenour Jul 2019

Factors Affecting Nest Success Of Colonial Nesting Waterbirds In Southwest Louisiana, Karis A. Ritenour

LSU Master's Theses

As the coastline of Louisiana shifts with global climate change, subsidence, and accelerated sea level rise, important breeding islands for colonial nesting waterbirds are disappearing. In many recent studies flooding has been a leading cause of nest failure for a variety of species, especially those that nest on the ground. I examined the nest success of four species of colonial nesting waterbirds with various nesting strategies on Rabbit Island in southwestern Louisiana during 2017 and2018 by determining nest and fledging success. I monitored 855 nests, including 457 Brown Pelicans nests with an estimated hatch probability of 70%, 270 Forster’s ...


Effects Of Fragmentation On Species Retention In National Parks, Liz Tanner Jan 2019

Effects Of Fragmentation On Species Retention In National Parks, Liz Tanner

Master's Theses

The North American landscape is becoming increasingly fragmented, resulting in habitat patches with decreased area and increased isolation. Often, these patches exist as protected areas, such as national parks. The Theory of Island Biogeography is frequently used as a model for these patches, where each park serves as an ‘island’ surrounded by a ‘sea’ of human-altered habitats. As such, species richness and extinctions in a park might be explained by its area. For this study, I used regression models to examine the relationship between richness and area, as well as extinctions and area, for mammals and birds in national parks ...


Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko Dec 2018

Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is a multi-dimensional concept that can be decomposed to measure information about taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional variation within communities. Although the dimensions of biodiversity are interrelated, the assumption that measuring one dimension of diversity can inform about patterns in another dimension does not necessarily follow from theory or empirical study. The relationships among biodiversity dimensions is not well understood, nor how differences among dimensions could influence conservation decision making. Using the avian community as a study system, we explored the relationships of breadth metrics from the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional dimensions among each other and across ...


Avian Jurisprudence And The Protection Of Migratory Birds In North America, Marshall A. Bowen Aug 2018

Avian Jurisprudence And The Protection Of Migratory Birds In North America, Marshall A. Bowen

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


Wyoming’S Ucross Ranch: Its Birds, History, And Natural Environment, Jacqueline Lee Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard Feb 2018

Wyoming’S Ucross Ranch: Its Birds, History, And Natural Environment, Jacqueline Lee Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book profiles 60 of the most abundant, characteristic, and interesting birds that have been regularly reported from the Ucross Ranch and the adjacent Powder River Basin. The 20,000-acre Ucross Ranch lies on the western edge of the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. Ucross is a textbook example of the prairie grassland/ shrubland habitat type referred to as the sagebrush steppe, a landscape that is an icon of Wyoming’s vast open spaces. We focus especially on those species that occur year-round or are present as breeders during the summer months, and we place emphasis on a unique ...


Development Of An Avian Index Of Biological Integrity For Kentucky Wetlands, Kaitlyn Kelly Jan 2018

Development Of An Avian Index Of Biological Integrity For Kentucky Wetlands, Kaitlyn Kelly

Online Theses and Dissertations

Bird communities are frequently used as bioindicators to assess environmental conditions, including in wetland habitats. I developed an avian index of biological integrity (IBI) for wetlands of Kentucky as an intensive assessment method to supplement an existing rapid assessment method used in regulatory programs. Birds are useful indicators because they are sensitive to environmental changes, abundant in various landscapes, occupy higher trophic levels, and can be sampled in a cost-effective manner. Breeding bird point count data from 103 sites were used to calculate a set of 49 avian community metrics. Avian metrics were tested for correlation with independent landscape, hydrology ...


Impacts Of Acid Mine Drainage On Breeding Birds And Benthic Invertebrates In The Snake River Watershed, Summit County, Colorado, Kelly Elsbeth Watson Jan 2018

Impacts Of Acid Mine Drainage On Breeding Birds And Benthic Invertebrates In The Snake River Watershed, Summit County, Colorado, Kelly Elsbeth Watson

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Acid rock drainage (ARD) and acid mine drainage (AMD) are widespread problems affecting streams in the Rocky Mountain west and other areas with historic mining activity. Streams affected by ARD have low pH and elevated metal concentrations that can negatively impact aquatic biota by eliminating sensitive species and reducing the complexity of the food web. While the impacts of acid drainage on aquatic ecosystems are somewhat well documented, there has been much less investigation into how ARD affects nearby terrestrial organisms and ecosystems. A previous study in the Snake River watershed in Summit County, Colorado, showed that nestling Tree Swallows ...


The Role Of Song In Reproductive Isolation In A New Secondary Contact Zone Of White-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Leucophrys), William Brooks Jan 2018

The Role Of Song In Reproductive Isolation In A New Secondary Contact Zone Of White-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Leucophrys), William Brooks

Summer Research

Within the past thirty years, two formerly isolated subspecies of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) have formed an overlap in geographic range. This creates a natural experiment in speciation and reproductive isolation. Understanding how song acts as a reproductive barrier in this overlap can contribute to our understanding of behavioral isolation. We preformed playback experiments on territorial males to measure subspecific vocal discrimination. Additionally, we looked to see if hybridization was occurring. In the playback experiments we found that Z. l. pugetensis discriminates more strongly between songs, while Z. l. gambelii demonstrates little to no difference in response. We also found ...


Influences Of Anthropogenic Noise On Flight Initiation Distance, Foraging Behavior, And Feeder Community Structure Of Wild Birds, Alissa R. Petrelli Dec 2017

Influences Of Anthropogenic Noise On Flight Initiation Distance, Foraging Behavior, And Feeder Community Structure Of Wild Birds, Alissa R. Petrelli

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Throughout the world, birds represent the primary type of wildlife that people experience on a daily basis. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that alterations to the acoustic environment can negatively affect birds as well as humans in a variety of ways, and altered acoustics from noise pollution has the potential to influence human interactions with wild birds. In this thesis, I investigated how anthropogenic noise impacts daily behavior as well as community structure of wild birds. In the first component of this thesis, I assessed the distance at which a bird initiates flight or escape behavior (i.e ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard Oct 2017

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero Jun 2017

Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent–offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the ...


Habitat Restoration Through Permaculture And Agroforestry In Southern Belize, Parker Bradley, Alexandra Hill, Lucas Kirker, Andrew Van Houten, Jared Lamy, Jason Kenney, Logan Kuzmitch Apr 2017

Habitat Restoration Through Permaculture And Agroforestry In Southern Belize, Parker Bradley, Alexandra Hill, Lucas Kirker, Andrew Van Houten, Jared Lamy, Jason Kenney, Logan Kuzmitch

Student Showcase

One of the major benefits of permaculture and agroforestry is the restoration of complex habitat while still providing calories for human consumption. The Maya Mountain Research Farm in Southern Belize consists of 32ha of former cattle pasture and citrus orchard now used for permaculture and agroforestry, hosting a diverse polyculture of dozens of fruit-bearing tree and shrub species and about half a dozen timber tree species, all interspersed with dynamic patches of banana and maize. Spread out along the farm’s habitat mosaic, 17 point count stations were repeated three times, as well as 21 forest interior stations done once ...


Examining Movement And Habitat Selection Of Everglades Fishes In Response To Seasonal Water Levels, Gregory J. Hill Mar 2017

Examining Movement And Habitat Selection Of Everglades Fishes In Response To Seasonal Water Levels, Gregory J. Hill

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fish distribution patterns and seasonal habitat use play a key role in the food web dynamics of aquatic ecosystems, including the Florida Everglades. In this study I examined the fine scale habitat shifts and movements of spotted sunfish, Lepomis punctatus across varying seasons and hydrologic conditions using in-situ field enclosures and Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) systems. Data on fish use of three dominant Everglades marsh habitats and activity level were recorded continuously from January to August, 2015. Fish were more active and had the highest use of higher elevation habitats when water levels rose during an experimental reversal in mid-April ...


Nest-Mediated Seed Dispersal, Robert Warren Jan 2017

Nest-Mediated Seed Dispersal, Robert Warren

Biology Faculty Datasets

Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to build, insulate and line nests. We also hypothesized that nest-mediated dispersal might be particularly useful for plants that use mating systems with self-fertilized seeds embedded in their stems. We gathered bird nests in temperate forests and fields in eastern North America and germinated the plant ...


Sandhill And Whooping Cranes, Jeb Barzen, Ken Ballinger Jan 2017

Sandhill And Whooping Cranes, Jeb Barzen, Ken Ballinger

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

As sandhill crane populations continue to grow in the United States, so too does crop damage, property damage to homeowners, and the risk of crane collisions with aircraft. Whooping crane populations also continue to grow, but with a global population of about 500 individuals (as of 2017), damage is rare and problems often require different solutions due to the species’ endangered status. The behavioral characteristics and habitat needs of sandhill and whooping cranes set the stage for conflict between these birds and people. Recognizing behavioral differences between territorial and non-territorial cranes greatly improves the effectiveness of any management effort.

Human-Wildlife ...


Modelling Bird Migration With Motus Data And Bayesian State-Space Models, Justin Baldwin Jan 2017

Modelling Bird Migration With Motus Data And Bayesian State-Space Models, Justin Baldwin

Masters Theses

Bird migration is a poorly-known yet important phenomenon, as understanding movement patterns of birds can inform conservation strategies and public health policy for animal-borne diseases. Recent advances in wildlife tracking technology, in particular the Motus system, have allowed researchers to track even small flying birds and insects with radio transmitters that weigh fractions of a gram. This system relies on a community-based distributed sensor network that detects tagged animals as they move through the detection nodes on journeys that range from small local movements to intercontinental migrations. The quantity of data generated by the Motus system is unprecedented, is on ...


The Costs Of Anthropogenic Noise On A Community Of Birds In A Piñon-Juniper Woodland, Nathan John Kleist Jan 2017

The Costs Of Anthropogenic Noise On A Community Of Birds In A Piñon-Juniper Woodland, Nathan John Kleist

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The presence of human caused noise is now virtually inescapable, making characterization of its impact on wildlife critical. I examined the effects of noise from natural gas extraction on a community of birds in a piñon-juniper woodland, using a large-scale field system. Noise can impact behaviors related to territory defense, and with a song playback experiment, I found that birds in loud areas have subdued responses to conspecific territory intruders. Developing and installing a system of 240 nest boxes throughout a gradient of noise uncovered that two species, the ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), and mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides), display a ...


Impacts To Biodiversity And Ecosystem Services From Bioenergy Development: A Pan American Experience, Colin Phifer Jan 2017

Impacts To Biodiversity And Ecosystem Services From Bioenergy Development: A Pan American Experience, Colin Phifer

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

As part of a broader project that evaluated the social and ecological sustainability of bioenergy, I studied the effects of bioenergy associated land-use change and management on native bees and birds in two bioenergy-producing countries, the United States and Argentina. In Argentina, I worked in Entre Ríos province where eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations are being planted. These fast-growing trees are replacing pasture and annual crops, the current dominant land use. I surveyed for native bees and birds in pastures/annual crops and large-scale eucalyptus plantations, as well as mixed-use farms and native espinal savannas. Both birds and bees declined in ...


Effects Of Experimental Noise Exposure On Songbird Nesting Behaviors And Nest Success, Tracy I. Mulholland Aug 2016

Effects Of Experimental Noise Exposure On Songbird Nesting Behaviors And Nest Success, Tracy I. Mulholland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Anthropogenic noise is an increasingly prevalent global disturbance. Animals that rely on the acoustical environment, such as songbirds, are especially vulnerable to these sounds. Traffic noise, in particular, overlaps with the frequency range of songbirds, creating masking effects. We investigated the effects of chronic traffic noise on provisioning behaviors and breeding success of nesting western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) and ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens). Because anthropogenic noise exposure has the potential to interrupt parent-offspring communication and alter vigilance behaviors, we predicted that traffic noise would lead to changes in provisioning behaviors, such as fewer visits to the nest box, for each ...


The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard Jul 2016

The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The eight currently recognized species of North American geese are part of a familiar group of birds collectively called waterfowl, all of which are smaller than swans and generally larger than ducks. They include the most popular of our aquatic gamebirds, with several million shot each year by sport hunters. Our two most abundant waterfowl, the Canada goose and snow goose, have populations collectively totaling about 15 million individuals. Like swans, the lifelong pairbonding of geese, their familial care, and prolonged social attachment to their offspring are legendary. Their seasonal migratory flights sometimes span thousands of miles, and the sight ...


The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard Jun 2016

The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The ten currently recognized species of grouse in North America have played an important role in America’s history, from the famous but ill-fated heath hen, a primary source of meat for the earliest New England immigrants, to the ruffed grouse, currently one of the most abundant and soughtafter upland game birds in more than 40 states and provinces. This book summarizes the ecology, reproductive biology, and social behavior of all ten of the extant North American grouse species. It also describes the current status of grouse populations, some of which are perilously close to extinction. The social behavior of ...


Breeding Ecology Of The Mountain Plover (Charadrius Montanus) In Phillips County, Montana, Zachary John Ruff Jan 2016

Breeding Ecology Of The Mountain Plover (Charadrius Montanus) In Phillips County, Montana, Zachary John Ruff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reproduction is a central aspect of an organism's ecology and life history. Understanding a species’ reproductive ecology is critical to informing any conservation or management actions. Using data from a population of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) in Phillips County, Montana, I introduce a general, model-based approach to estimating nest detection probability based on individual, group, environmental and temporal covariates. I found nest detection probability in Mountain Plovers was influenced by nest initiation date, breeding area size, day of season, nest age, observer experience level, nest fate, daily high temperature and daily precipitation. Single-visit detection probability ranged from <0.10 to >0.80 ...


Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King Jan 2016

Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King

Animal Sentience

Abstract: When an animal dies, that individual’s mate, relatives, or friends may express grief. Changes in the survivor’s patterns of social behavior, eating, sleeping, and/or of expression of affect are the key criteria for defining grief. Based on this understanding of grief, it is not only big-brained mammals like elephants, apes, and cetaceans who can be said to mourn, but also a wide variety of other animals, including domestic companions like cats, dogs, and rabbits; horses and farm animals; and some birds. With keen attention placed on seeking where grief is found to occur and where it ...


Regional Evolutionary Distinctiveness And Endangerment As A Means Of Prioritizing Protection Of Endangered Species, Emily K. Brantner Nov 2015

Regional Evolutionary Distinctiveness And Endangerment As A Means Of Prioritizing Protection Of Endangered Species, Emily K. Brantner

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Conservation is costly, and choices must be made about where to best allocate limited resources. I propose a regional evolutionary diversity and endangerment (RED-E) approach to prioritization of endangered species. It builds off of the evolutionary diversity and global endangerment (EDGE) approach, but will allow conservation agencies to focus their efforts on species in specific regions. I used the RED-E approach to prioritize mammal and bird species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), as well as to make a ranking of species without ESA critical habitat (CH), as a practical application. Regional conservation approaches differ significantly from ...


Breeding Birds Of Virginia, Bryan D. Watts Oct 2015

Breeding Birds Of Virginia, Bryan D. Watts

Virginia Journal of Science

Virginia supports a diverse community of breeding birds that has been the focus of investigation for more than 400 years. The avifauna reflects the latitudinal position of the state and the fact that the border extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Mountains. A total of 224 species have been recorded breeding in Virginia, 214 of which are extant. Twenty species have colonized the state since 1900 including 14 since 1950. Of all extant species, 102 (48%) are considered common at least somewhere in the state and 64 (30%) are rare to very rare. Diversity varies by physiographic region ...


The Effects Of Urbanization On Tick Parasitism Rates In Birds Of Southeastern Virginia, Erin Leigh Heller Oct 2015

The Effects Of Urbanization On Tick Parasitism Rates In Birds Of Southeastern Virginia, Erin Leigh Heller

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The coastal region of southeastern Virginia is one of the largest urban areas along one of North America’s migratory flyways. Because hundreds of avian species use this flyway, understanding factors affecting birds and their health is of paramount concern. Within this region, 14 species of ticks have been documented, all of which may serve as vectors of mammal (including human) pathogens. By sampling birds at sites of varying levels of urbanization within the coastal southeastern urban matrix, I studied the relationship between ticks and their avian hosts, and how this relationship varies seasonally. Mistnets were set-up at five permanent ...