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Articles 1 - 30 of 399

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier Aug 2019

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Factors Affecting Nest Success Of Colonial Nesting Waterbirds In Southwest Louisiana, Karis A. Ritenour Jul 2019

Factors Affecting Nest Success Of Colonial Nesting Waterbirds In Southwest Louisiana, Karis A. Ritenour

LSU Master's Theses

As the coastline of Louisiana shifts with global climate change, subsidence, and accelerated sea level rise, important breeding islands for colonial nesting waterbirds are disappearing. In many recent studies flooding has been a leading cause of nest failure for a variety of species, especially those that nest on the ground. I examined the nest success of four species of colonial nesting waterbirds with various nesting strategies on Rabbit Island in southwestern Louisiana during 2017 and2018 by determining nest and fledging success. I monitored 855 nests, including 457 Brown Pelicans nests with an estimated hatch probability of 70%, 270 Forster’s ...


Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen Jun 2019

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen

Zea E-Books

This book surveys Wyoming’s mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian faunas. In addition to introducing the state’s geography, geology, climate, and major ecosystems, it provides 65 biological profiles of 72 mammal species, 195 profiles of 196 birds, 9 profiles of 12 reptiles, and 6 profiles of 9 amphibians. There are also species lists of Wyoming’s 117 mammals, 445 birds, 22 reptiles, and 12 amphibians. Also included are descriptions of nearly 50 national and state properties, including parks, forests, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in Wyoming. The book includes a text of more than 150,000 words, nearly ...


Conservation Education: Using Birds To Connect Communities To Their Natural Environment, Kathryn A. Olson May 2019

Conservation Education: Using Birds To Connect Communities To Their Natural Environment, Kathryn A. Olson

Graduate Student Portfolios

The theme of my portfolio is conservation education, using birds as an example of how to connect people of all ages to their natural environment. Birds were chosen as an example because of a personal curiosity for the animal, and because they are an accessible and tangible element of nature for all people, urban and rural. The first component is a Curriculum Development Guide created for the Wings Over Water program of the Montana Natural History Center. It synthesizes scientific research on Ospreys, relates central themes of the literature to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and provides inventive activity ideas ...


Mass Stranding Of Marine Birds Caused By A Surfactant-Producing Red Tide., David A. Jessup, Melissa A. Miller, John P. Ryan, Hannah M Nevins, Heather A. Kerkering, Abdou Mekebri, David B. Crane, Tyler A. Johnson, Raphael M. Kudela Feb 2019

Mass Stranding Of Marine Birds Caused By A Surfactant-Producing Red Tide., David A. Jessup, Melissa A. Miller, John P. Ryan, Hannah M Nevins, Heather A. Kerkering, Abdou Mekebri, David B. Crane, Tyler A. Johnson, Raphael M. Kudela

Tyler Johnson

In November-December 2007 a widespread seabird mortality event occurred in Monterey Bay, California, USA, coincident with a massive red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Affected birds had a slimy yellow-green material on their feathers, which were saturated with water, and they were severely hypothermic. We determined that foam containing surfactant-like proteins, derived from organic matter of the red tide, coated their feathers and neutralized natural water repellency and insulation. No evidence of exposure to petroleum or other oils or biotoxins were found. This is the first documented case of its kind, but previous similar events may have gone ...


Fire Legacies In Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forests, Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Carissa L. Wonkka, Larkin A. Powell, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, David A. Wedin, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr Jan 2019

Fire Legacies In Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forests, Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Carissa L. Wonkka, Larkin A. Powell, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, David A. Wedin, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Disturbance legacies structure communities and ecological memory, but due to increasing changes in disturbance regimes, it is becoming more difficult to characterize disturbance legacies or determine how long they persist. We sought to quantify the characteristics and persistence of material legacies (e.g., biotic residuals of disturbance) that arise from variation in fire severity in an eastern ponderosa pine forest in North America. We compared forest stand structure and understory woody plant and bird community composition and species richness across unburned, low‐, moderate‐, and high‐severity burn patches in a 27‐year‐old mixed‐severity wildfire that had received minimal ...


Effects Of Fragmentation On Species Retention In National Parks, Liz Tanner Jan 2019

Effects Of Fragmentation On Species Retention In National Parks, Liz Tanner

Master's Theses

The North American landscape is becoming increasingly fragmented, resulting in habitat patches with decreased area and increased isolation. Often, these patches exist as protected areas, such as national parks. The Theory of Island Biogeography is frequently used as a model for these patches, where each park serves as an ‘island’ surrounded by a ‘sea’ of human-altered habitats. As such, species richness and extinctions in a park might be explained by its area. For this study, I used regression models to examine the relationship between richness and area, as well as extinctions and area, for mammals and birds in national parks ...


A Waterbird Inventory Of The Darkhad Depression, Kbovsgol, Mongolia, Mikayla Call Dec 2018

A Waterbird Inventory Of The Darkhad Depression, Kbovsgol, Mongolia, Mikayla Call

Honors Theses

The Darkhad Depression, Khövsgöl aimag, Mongolia has an abundance of rivers, lakes, and pothole wetlands, providing one of the most extensive concentrations of waterbird habitat in Mongolia. Waterbirds use the wetlands of the Darkhad Depression for breeding, molting, and as stopover sites during migration. As far as we are aware, our survey of waterbirds in this region is the first to provide broad wetland coverage of the Darkhad Depression. We conducted a survey of waterbirds in the Darkhad Depression in Tsagaannuur and Renchinlhumbe soums and compared densities of waterbirds between two lakes with subsistence fishing and those without. We surveyed ...


Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko Dec 2018

Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is a multi-dimensional concept that can be decomposed to measure information about taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional variation within communities. Although the dimensions of biodiversity are interrelated, the assumption that measuring one dimension of diversity can inform about patterns in another dimension does not necessarily follow from theory or empirical study. The relationships among biodiversity dimensions is not well understood, nor how differences among dimensions could influence conservation decision making. Using the avian community as a study system, we explored the relationships of breadth metrics from the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional dimensions among each other and across ...


Avian Thermoregulation In The Heat: Resting Metabolism, Evaporative Cooling And Limits To Activity In Sonoran Desert Birds, Eric Smith Nov 2018

Avian Thermoregulation In The Heat: Resting Metabolism, Evaporative Cooling And Limits To Activity In Sonoran Desert Birds, Eric Smith

Biology ETDs

Birds in subtropical deserts face significant thermoregulatory challenges as environmental temperatures regularly exceed avian body temperature. To understand the differing susceptibility of desert birds to increasing temperatures, this dissertation initially examined thermoregulatory performance in seven passerine bird species varying in body mass from 10 to 70g – Lesser Goldfinch, House Finch, Pyrrhuloxia, Cactus Wren, Northern Cardinal, Abert’s Towhee and Curve-billed Thrasher – and three larger Sonoran Desert nesting bird species – Mourning Dove (104 g), White-winged Dove (147 g) and Gambel’s Quail (161 g). Daytime resting metabolism, evaporative water loss and real-time body temperature were measured using flow-through respirometry at air ...


Relationships Between Eutrophication, Cyanobacteria Blooms And Avian Botulism Mortalities In The Great Salt Lake, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Oct 2018

Relationships Between Eutrophication, Cyanobacteria Blooms And Avian Botulism Mortalities In The Great Salt Lake, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Massive bird mortalities due to botulism occur in Farmington and Bear River Bays in the Great Salt Lake. During 2007 we investigated whether there could be a relationship between blooms of the toxic cyanobacteria, Nodularia spumengia and botulism outbreaks in Northern Shoveler ducks and other birds. Our limnological analyses indicated that Farmington Bay was hypereutrophic, with chlorophyll concentrations reaching more than 100 μg/L on most dates in the summer. The extreme eutrophication led to nighttime anoxia, even in sites as shallow as 30 cm. In 2007 cyanotoxin (nodularin) concentrations were moderately high (> 20 μg/L) in May and June ...


Effects Of Eutrophication On Birds In Three Bays Of Great Salt Lake: A Comparative Analysis With Utah Dwr Waterbird Survey Data, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Aug 2018

Effects Of Eutrophication On Birds In Three Bays Of Great Salt Lake: A Comparative Analysis With Utah Dwr Waterbird Survey Data, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Farmington Bay and Bear River support massive numbers of migratory birds. Because of Farmington Bay’s high nutrient loading and hypereutrophic condition, the Utah DWQ has proposed to list it as impaired under EPA’s and Utah’s 303d criteria. There is concern, however, that changing nutrient loading might influence invertebrate prey of birds, but it is not known if this would be a positive or negative effect. Bear River Bay is far less eutrophic, but has a similar shallow morphometry, and thus presents an ideal comparative opportunity to assess the influence of eutrophication on birds.

From 2007‐2011 the ...


Avian Jurisprudence And The Protection Of Migratory Birds In North America, Marshall A. Bowen Aug 2018

Avian Jurisprudence And The Protection Of Migratory Birds In North America, Marshall A. Bowen

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


Paul Johnsgard: Comprehensive Vita And Bibliography, Paul A. Johnsgard May 2018

Paul Johnsgard: Comprehensive Vita And Bibliography, Paul A. Johnsgard

Papers in Ornithology

A current curriculum vitae and comprehensive bibliography for Paul A. Johnsgard, Foundation Regents Professor Emeritus at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Dr. Johnsgard has been the author of (at least) 83 books, 140 journal articles or chapters, 100 reviews or popular articles; the subject of 7 profile articles; and the director for 12 Ph.D. dissertations and 12 M.S. theses—all listed here. Dates covered are 1953 through 2018. Dr. Johnsgard is also an illustrator and photographer.

Updated March 2018.


Examining Avian Diversity In Acadia National Park Through Time, Marie I. Ring May 2018

Examining Avian Diversity In Acadia National Park Through Time, Marie I. Ring

Honors College

Ecosystems experience change due to both natural causes and anthropogenic impact such as habitat fragmentation and climate change. Avian species are used as habitat indicators to observe ecosystem integrity and have been observed to experience changes in biodiversity due to anthropogenic impact. This study examines the temporal and spatial changes of avian biodiversity in Acadia National Park. We seek to understand (1) how the alpha diversity has changed over time on Mount Desert Island and Schoodic Peninsula, (2) how beta diversity has changed over time for Mount Desert Island and Schoodic Peninsula (3) how the Schoodic Woods Campground can be ...


Bulletin No. 43: Birds Of The Connecticut College Arboretum: Eighty Years Of Change, Robert Askins Mar 2018

Bulletin No. 43: Birds Of The Connecticut College Arboretum: Eighty Years Of Change, Robert Askins

Bulletins

No abstract provided.


Wyoming’S Ucross Ranch: Its Birds, History, And Natural Environment, Jacqueline Lee Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard Feb 2018

Wyoming’S Ucross Ranch: Its Birds, History, And Natural Environment, Jacqueline Lee Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book profiles 60 of the most abundant, characteristic, and interesting birds that have been regularly reported from the Ucross Ranch and the adjacent Powder River Basin. The 20,000-acre Ucross Ranch lies on the western edge of the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. Ucross is a textbook example of the prairie grassland/ shrubland habitat type referred to as the sagebrush steppe, a landscape that is an icon of Wyoming’s vast open spaces. We focus especially on those species that occur year-round or are present as breeders during the summer months, and we place emphasis on a unique ...


Vertebrate Natural History Notes From Arkansas, 2018, Renn Tumlison, D. Blake Sasse, Henry W. Robison, Matt B. Connior, Chris T. Mcallister, Kelly Jobe, Matthew Anderson Jan 2018

Vertebrate Natural History Notes From Arkansas, 2018, Renn Tumlison, D. Blake Sasse, Henry W. Robison, Matt B. Connior, Chris T. Mcallister, Kelly Jobe, Matthew Anderson

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Because meaningful observations of natural history are not always part of larger studies, important pieces of information often are unreported. Small details, however, can fill gaps in understanding and lead to interesting questions about ecological relationships or environmental change. We have compiled recent important observations of distribution, deformities, and foods of various vertebrates, observations of winter activity of a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and winter torpor of a hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and also report a very unusual case of bilateral gynandromorphism in a Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). These unique observations continue to add immensely to the growth of knowledge of the ...


Avian Frugivory In A Fruiting Mulberry Tree (Morus Rubra) In Arkansas, J. L. Jackson Ii, Ragupathy Kannan Jan 2018

Avian Frugivory In A Fruiting Mulberry Tree (Morus Rubra) In Arkansas, J. L. Jackson Ii, Ragupathy Kannan

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

A fruiting Mulberry tree (Morus rubra) was observed for 67 hours in the spring of 2016 and 2017 in Fort Smith, Arkansas. A total of 172 five-minute scans were performed, during which the following parameters were recorded: species visited, number of individuals of each species, time of visitations, and foraging tier. Between each scan, the foraging rate (number of fruits consumed/min) and inter- and intra- specific aggressive interactions were recorded. A total of 3465 observations of individual birds from 32 species was recorded. Species diversity index was higher in the upper half of the tree. The mean foraging rates ...


Cryptic Diversification Of Two Widespread Species In Madagascar, Lynika Sharlice Strozier Jan 2018

Cryptic Diversification Of Two Widespread Species In Madagascar, Lynika Sharlice Strozier

Master's Theses

Using phylogenetic and phylogeographic tools to uncover hidden diversity within the genus Newtonia in Madagascar

Madagascar is known for its rich biodiversity and high level of endemic species that are found nowhere else. Cryptic diversification, defined as genetically and evolutionarily distinct species that are hard to detect because they are morphologically indistinguishable from their closest relatives, has been hypothesized to occur in many groups on Madagascar. Currently it is unclear to what extent this phenomenon occurs in birds because only a few studies have been conducted. My study examined the phylogenetic and phylogeographic patterns within a songbird genus, Newtonia, that ...


Development Of An Avian Index Of Biological Integrity For Kentucky Wetlands, Kaitlyn Kelly Jan 2018

Development Of An Avian Index Of Biological Integrity For Kentucky Wetlands, Kaitlyn Kelly

Online Theses and Dissertations

Bird communities are frequently used as bioindicators to assess environmental conditions, including in wetland habitats. I developed an avian index of biological integrity (IBI) for wetlands of Kentucky as an intensive assessment method to supplement an existing rapid assessment method used in regulatory programs. Birds are useful indicators because they are sensitive to environmental changes, abundant in various landscapes, occupy higher trophic levels, and can be sampled in a cost-effective manner. Breeding bird point count data from 103 sites were used to calculate a set of 49 avian community metrics. Avian metrics were tested for correlation with independent landscape, hydrology ...


0841: Mary Lois Garrett Collection, 1941-1954, Marshall University Special Collections Jan 2018

0841: Mary Lois Garrett Collection, 1941-1954, Marshall University Special Collections

Guides to Manuscript Collections

This collection spans the years 1941-1954, with the bulk of the research covering the years 1950-1954. File contents were maintained in the way in which they were originally received, but folders have been arranged in a more chronological order. Some notes are entirely handwritten, while logs and records consist of typed templates which have been filled-in by hand. Notes contain illustrations of birds and nests, graphs of bird activity during observance, and descriptions of bird behavior. Nesting logs have mostly been filled out by Mary Lois Garrett, but other authors contributed, including Twila Hessin, Ruth Geib, and an unspecified ornithology ...


Impacts Of Acid Mine Drainage On Breeding Birds And Benthic Invertebrates In The Snake River Watershed, Summit County, Colorado, Kelly Elsbeth Watson Jan 2018

Impacts Of Acid Mine Drainage On Breeding Birds And Benthic Invertebrates In The Snake River Watershed, Summit County, Colorado, Kelly Elsbeth Watson

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Acid rock drainage (ARD) and acid mine drainage (AMD) are widespread problems affecting streams in the Rocky Mountain west and other areas with historic mining activity. Streams affected by ARD have low pH and elevated metal concentrations that can negatively impact aquatic biota by eliminating sensitive species and reducing the complexity of the food web. While the impacts of acid drainage on aquatic ecosystems are somewhat well documented, there has been much less investigation into how ARD affects nearby terrestrial organisms and ecosystems. A previous study in the Snake River watershed in Summit County, Colorado, showed that nestling Tree Swallows ...


The Role Of Song In Reproductive Isolation In A New Secondary Contact Zone Of White-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Leucophrys), William Brooks Jan 2018

The Role Of Song In Reproductive Isolation In A New Secondary Contact Zone Of White-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Leucophrys), William Brooks

Summer Research

Within the past thirty years, two formerly isolated subspecies of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) have formed an overlap in geographic range. This creates a natural experiment in speciation and reproductive isolation. Understanding how song acts as a reproductive barrier in this overlap can contribute to our understanding of behavioral isolation. We preformed playback experiments on territorial males to measure subspecific vocal discrimination. Additionally, we looked to see if hybridization was occurring. In the playback experiments we found that Z. l. pugetensis discriminates more strongly between songs, while Z. l. gambelii demonstrates little to no difference in response. We also found ...


Efficacy Of Avian Radar Systems For Tracking Birds On The Airfield Of A Large International Airport, Adam C. Phillips, Siddhartha Majumdar, Brian E. Washburn, David Mayer, Ryan M. Swearingin, Edwin E. Herricks, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, Craig K. Pullins Jan 2018

Efficacy Of Avian Radar Systems For Tracking Birds On The Airfield Of A Large International Airport, Adam C. Phillips, Siddhartha Majumdar, Brian E. Washburn, David Mayer, Ryan M. Swearingin, Edwin E. Herricks, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, Craig K. Pullins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian radar technologies have the potential to serve an important role in the quantification of bird movements and determining patterns of bird use in areas where human–wildlife conflicts might occur (e.g., airports, wind-energy facilities). However, capabilities and limitations of these technologies are relatively unknown and ground-truthing studies are needed to help wildlife managers understand the biological meaning of radar information. We evaluated the efficacy of 3 X-band marine radar sensors for tracking birds and flocks of birds observed on the airfield at Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport, USA, during March 2011– November 2012.We used specific information ...


Influences Of Anthropogenic Noise On Flight Initiation Distance, Foraging Behavior, And Feeder Community Structure Of Wild Birds, Alissa R. Petrelli Dec 2017

Influences Of Anthropogenic Noise On Flight Initiation Distance, Foraging Behavior, And Feeder Community Structure Of Wild Birds, Alissa R. Petrelli

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Throughout the world, birds represent the primary type of wildlife that people experience on a daily basis. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that alterations to the acoustic environment can negatively affect birds as well as humans in a variety of ways, and altered acoustics from noise pollution has the potential to influence human interactions with wild birds. In this thesis, I investigated how anthropogenic noise impacts daily behavior as well as community structure of wild birds. In the first component of this thesis, I assessed the distance at which a bird initiates flight or escape behavior (i.e ...


Land Use Type, Forest Cover, And Forest Edges Modulate Avian Cross-Habitat Spillover, A. L. Boesing, Elizabeth Nichols, J. P. Metzger Oct 2017

Land Use Type, Forest Cover, And Forest Edges Modulate Avian Cross-Habitat Spillover, A. L. Boesing, Elizabeth Nichols, J. P. Metzger

Biology Faculty Works

1. Natural habitats adjacent to agricultural areas are often considered sources of species that provide beneficial regulating ecosystem services through cross-habitat spillover. Both inter-habitat matrix and landscape configuration can influence spillover by controlling organismal ability to disperse through landscapes, and affecting the provision of additional or supplementary resources that impact organism survival. 2. To understand how landscape structure in terms of matrix land use type, forest cover, and edge density might facilitate avian cross-habitat spillover, we sampled avian communities in forest patches and adjacent land use types (coffee plantations or cattle pastures) using a well-replicated study design across 92 sampling ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard Oct 2017

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


Common Birds Of The Brinton Museum And Bighorn Mountains Foothills, Jackie Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard Aug 2017

Common Birds Of The Brinton Museum And Bighorn Mountains Foothills, Jackie Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Part I. The Brinton Museum and Its Birds

Part II. Profiles of 48 Common Local and Regional Birds: Ring-necked Pheasant, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Great Blue Heron, Turkey Vulture, Osprey, Bald Eagle, Cooper’s Hawk, Red-tailed Hawk, Rough-legged Hawk, Sandhill Crane, Killdeer, Eastern Screech-Owl, Great Horned Owl, Broad-tailed Hummingbird, Calliope Hummingbird, Belted Kingfisher, Downy Woodpecker, Red-naped Sapsucker, Northern Flicker, American Kestrel, Western Wood-Pewee, Say’s Phoebe, Eastern Kingbird, Black-billed Magpie, American Crow, Common Raven, Tree Swallow, Cliff Swallow, Black-capped Chickadee, Mountain Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, House Wren, American Dipper, Mountain Bluebird, Cedar Waxwing, Yellow Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Spotted Towhee, Vesper Sparrow ...


Effects Of An Early Life Immune Challenge On Body Growth, Personality, Mating Behaviors, And Brain Development Of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Ahmet Kerim Uysal Jun 2017

Effects Of An Early Life Immune Challenge On Body Growth, Personality, Mating Behaviors, And Brain Development Of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Ahmet Kerim Uysal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The developmental stress hypothesis predicts that an aversive condition, such as decreased food intake, predation, and social isolation, in the early developmental stage could have long term effects on behaviors and brain development of an animal. In nature, bird nestlings are susceptible to various factors, such as malnutrition, infections, and parasites. Effects of early life stress on adulthood have been extensively studied with some stressors including malnutrition. However, immune challenges as an early life stressor and their long-term programming effects on adult behaviors are yet to be studied in detail. The goal of the current study was to investigate changes ...