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2019

Obesity

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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effectiveness Of Telemedicine For Weight Management In The Move! Program, April D. Ahrendt, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Thomas S. Rector, David A Maddox Jul 2019

The Effectiveness Of Telemedicine For Weight Management In The Move! Program, April D. Ahrendt, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Thomas S. Rector, David A Maddox

Kendra Kattelmann

PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of videoconferencing technology for delivering comprehensive weight management treatment.
METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted by extraction of data from medical records for the years 2008-2010. The treatment included a series of 12 weekly MOVE!® classes delivered using videoconferencing. Data were extracted from the time of baseline weight to 1 year after baseline weight for the MOVE! participants (n = 60) and from a concurrent control group (n = 60) that did not participate in MOVE! treatment.
FINDINGS: Results indicated that the MOVE! group lost weight while the control group gained weight, resulting in a mean ...


Concordance Of Self-Report And Measured Height And Weight Of College Students, Virginia Quick, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Suzanne Shoff, Adrienne A. White, Barbara Lohse, Tanya Horacek, Kendra Kattelmann, Beatrice Phillips, Sharon L Hoerr, Geoffrey Greene Jul 2019

Concordance Of Self-Report And Measured Height And Weight Of College Students, Virginia Quick, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Suzanne Shoff, Adrienne A. White, Barbara Lohse, Tanya Horacek, Kendra Kattelmann, Beatrice Phillips, Sharon L Hoerr, Geoffrey Greene

Kendra Kattelmann

OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight.

METHODS: Participants (N = 1,686) were 77% white, 62% female, aged 18-24 years (mean ± SD, 19.1 ± 1.1 years), and enrolled at 8 US universities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for self-report (via online survey); trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal (18.5 to < 25), overweight (25 to < 30), obese (30 to < 35), and morbidly obese (≥ 35).

RESULTS: Concordance of self-report vs objectively measured BMI groups using chi-square revealed that 93% were accurate, 4% were underestimated, and 2.7% were overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report ...


Healthy Food As A New Technology—The Implications Of Technological Diffusion And Food Price For Changes In Eating Habits, Anne E. Dohmen, D. Raj Raman Jul 2019

Healthy Food As A New Technology—The Implications Of Technological Diffusion And Food Price For Changes In Eating Habits, Anne E. Dohmen, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

Diet influences health and poor diets drive up healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole. Multiple governmental programs in the US have aimed to educate citizens about diet choices, resulting in documented successes, as well as, unintended consequences such as increased food waste. Here we examine some of the relationships between healthy diets, food prices, and wealth by drawing parallels between the diffusion of technological innovation and healthy food diets. We introduce a simple modeling framework to estimate the adoption rates of healthy diets based on income and food prices, and describe the implications of the modeling results ...


"We Didn't Know": An Examination Of Health And Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors And Clinical Risk Factors To Guide A Pilot Health Education Intervention For Refugees From Burma, Elizabeth B. Smith, Lauren R. Sastre Jun 2019

"We Didn't Know": An Examination Of Health And Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors And Clinical Risk Factors To Guide A Pilot Health Education Intervention For Refugees From Burma, Elizabeth B. Smith, Lauren R. Sastre

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

No abstract provided.


Pre-Training Muscle Characteristics Of Subjects Who Are Obese Determine How Well Exercise Training Will Improve Their Insulin Responsiveness, Charles A. Stuart, Michelle L. Lee, Mark A. South, Mary E. A. Howell, Brian M. Cartwright, Michael W. Ramsey, Michael H. Stone Jun 2019

Pre-Training Muscle Characteristics Of Subjects Who Are Obese Determine How Well Exercise Training Will Improve Their Insulin Responsiveness, Charles A. Stuart, Michelle L. Lee, Mark A. South, Mary E. A. Howell, Brian M. Cartwright, Michael W. Ramsey, Michael H. Stone

Mark A. South

Pre-training muscle characteristics of subjects who are obese determine how well exercise training will improve their insulin responsiveness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 798–808, 2017—Only half of prediabetic subjects who are obese who underwent exercise training without weight loss increased their insulin responsiveness. We hypothesized that those who improved their insulin responsiveness might have pretraining characteristics favoring a positive response to exercise training. Thirty nondiabetic subjects who were obese volunteered for 8 weeks of either strength training or endurance training. During training, subjects increased their caloric intake to prevent weight loss. Insulin responsiveness by euglycemic clamps and ...


Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones May 2019

Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Childhood obesity, especially in ethnic minority populations, is a growing problem with no signs of improvement over the past decade. The Latino population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Unfortunately, they have experienced substantial health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantages that contribute to the high rates of obesity in their youth. Decreasing obesity rates would not only have many health advantages, but also financial benefits as well. It would reduce the risk of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and depression. Healthy children are more likely to grow into healthy adults, ultimately lowering the cost ...


Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins May 2019

Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Due to the obesity epidemic, many studies have compared nutrient intake to human body composition. However, previous studies have not used gold standard measures of body composition in a college population. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how dietary behaviors, overall energy intake, and macronutrient intake are associated with the body composition factors measured in a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. We hypothesize higher body fat percentage will be associated with higher fat and carbohydrate intake, but not total energy intake. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done as part of Exercise is Medicine® On Campus ...


Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin May 2019

Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is relevant to understanding energy homeostasis and obesity. The AKT kinases are insulin effectors with critical in vivo functions in adipocytes; however, their role in adipocyte development remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate AKT function in BAT development.

METHODS: We conditionally deleted Akt1 and Akt2 either individually or together with Myf5-Cre, which targets early mesenchymal precursors that give rise to brown adipocytes. Because Myf5-Cre also targets skeletal muscle and some white adipocyte lineages, comparisons were made between AKT function in BAT versus white ...


Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors And Physical Fitness In Volunteer Firefighters, Zachary T. Martin, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Jade K. Hemenway, Jillian R. Coulter, Jeremy L. Knous, John E. Lowry, Joshua J. Ode Apr 2019

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors And Physical Fitness In Volunteer Firefighters, Zachary T. Martin, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Jade K. Hemenway, Jillian R. Coulter, Jeremy L. Knous, John E. Lowry, Joshua J. Ode

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 764-776, 2019. Forty-seven percent of volunteer firefighter line of duty deaths are caused by cardiovascular events. Aggressive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor reduction and improved physical fitness could reduce CVD mortality within this population. We assessed CVD risk factors and physical fitness in a large cohort of volunteer firefighters to help establish a health and fitness profile of this population, which may serve as evidence for the need to initiate programs aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality caused by CVD in the volunteer fire service. Seventy-four male volunteer firefighters were assessed for eight ...


Effects Of Two Cognitive-Behavioral Physical Activity And Nutrition Treatments On Psychosocial Predictors Of Changes In Fruit/Vegetable And High-Fat Food Intake, And Weight, James J. Annesi, Monica Nandan, Kristin L. Mcewen Apr 2019

Effects Of Two Cognitive-Behavioral Physical Activity And Nutrition Treatments On Psychosocial Predictors Of Changes In Fruit/Vegetable And High-Fat Food Intake, And Weight, James J. Annesi, Monica Nandan, Kristin L. Mcewen

Monica Nandan

Improved mood may increase the consumption of healthy foods and decrease the intake of unhealthy foods. Increased physical activity might improve mood and, thus, eating behaviors. Adults (Mage = 45 years) with severe and morbid obesity (Mbody mass index = 41kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 6 months of either cognitive-behavioral physical activity and nutrition-support methods alone (n = 92), or those methods plus mood regulation training (n = 92). There were significant improvements in physical activity, mood, self-regulation and selfefficacy for controlling eating, and weight that did not differ by group. Improvement in mood was associated with greater fruit/vegetable intake. Change in ...


Gene Lifestyle Interactions With Relation To Obesity, Cardiometabolic, And Cardiovascular Traits Among South Asians, Shafqat Ahmad, Syeda Sadia Fatima, Gull Rukh, Caren E. Smith Apr 2019

Gene Lifestyle Interactions With Relation To Obesity, Cardiometabolic, And Cardiovascular Traits Among South Asians, Shafqat Ahmad, Syeda Sadia Fatima, Gull Rukh, Caren E. Smith

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

The rapid rise of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the last few decades among South Asians has been largely attributed to a major shift in lifestyles including physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary patterns, and an overall pattern of sedentary lifestyle. Genetic predisposition to these cardiometabolic risk factors may have interacted with these obesogenic environments in determining the higher cardiometabolic disease prevalence. Based on the premise that gene-environment interactions cause obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, we systematically searched the literature and considered the knowledge gaps that future studies might fulfill. We identified only seven published studies that ...


Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro Apr 2019

Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro

Nader G. Abraham

We have previously reported that the alpha1 subunit of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), acts as a receptor and an amplifier for reactive oxygen species, in addition to its distinct pumping function. On this background, we speculated that blockade of Na/K-ATPase-induced ROS amplification with a specific peptide, pNaKtide, might attenuate the development of steatohepatitis. To test this hypothesis, pNaKtide was administered to a murine model of NASH: the C57Bl6 mouse fed a "western" diet containing high amounts of fat and fructose. The administration of pNaKtide reduced obesity as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Of interest, we ...


Childhood Obesity: What You Can Do For Your Child, Gabrielle Parks Apr 2019

Childhood Obesity: What You Can Do For Your Child, Gabrielle Parks

All Student-Created Educational Resources

This handout provides information to parents regarding the causes of obesity. It provides several ways parents can help prevent obesity in their children as well as health outcome should children remain obese into adulthood.


Easy Adjustments To Create Success In Your Health Journey, Stephanie Menagh Apr 2019

Easy Adjustments To Create Success In Your Health Journey, Stephanie Menagh

All Student-Created Educational Resources

This handout informs readers about different ways to utilize healthy defaults in daily life. Definition of healthy defaults, prevalence and concerns with obesity, and methods to create small everyday lifestyle changes are discussed.


Teen Obesity: Solutions To Address The Nutritional And Socio-Economic Factors, Jaya Balasubramanian Apr 2019

Teen Obesity: Solutions To Address The Nutritional And Socio-Economic Factors, Jaya Balasubramanian

All Student-Created Educational Resources

This handout provides solutions to the various challenges facing obese teenagers ranging from how to eat right, plan out the day’s nutrition, smart way to choose school meals, tips to manage weight, how to eat less calories and still feel satiated, including workouts to the daily regimen, cooking at home and lastly, managing the monthly budget to allow finances for grocery and food till the month end.


Too Much Workplace Sitting: A Brief Historical Perspective, Raymond Jones, Daniel P. Credeur, Stephanie M. Mccoy Apr 2019

Too Much Workplace Sitting: A Brief Historical Perspective, Raymond Jones, Daniel P. Credeur, Stephanie M. Mccoy

Faculty Publications

Sedentary behavior is a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases, especially those of cardiovascular and metabolic origins. Prolonged sitting is one of the most common sedentary behaviors among adults. Individuals sit for hours every day for several reasons, including work and or physical limitations. Historical accounts regarding the negative health effects of prolonged sitting began with early epidemiological studies, which sparked a breakout of research examining this behavior in the workplace setting. Understanding the risks associated with prolonged workplace sitting is important when considering workplace interventions, such as sit-stand workstations. These interventions appear to be beneficial in reducing ...


Cooking Frequency Associated With Dietary Quality In Icook-4h Youth Participants At Baseline, Amber D. Ford, Sarah E. Colby, Marissa Mcelrone, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White Apr 2019

Cooking Frequency Associated With Dietary Quality In Icook-4h Youth Participants At Baseline, Amber D. Ford, Sarah E. Colby, Marissa Mcelrone, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Increased intakes of ready-made and fast foods paralleled with decreased homemade food consumption have been associated with increased rates of obesity. Researchers have shown associations between cooking self-efficacy (SE) and cooking frequency (CF) with dietary quality and weight status. Some cooking interventions have shown positive associations with dietary outcomes, such as increased fruit and vegetable intake and decreased fast food consumption. There is still much unknown about SE and CF, especially among youth.
Objective: Determine baseline SE and CF and the associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) of youth enrolled in iCook 4H.
Methods: Youth (n ...


Healthy Families: A Family-Based Community Intervention To Address Childhood Obesity, Danae Dinkel, Melissa Tibbits, Emily Hanigan, Kelly Nielsen, Leah Jorgensen, Kay Grant Mar 2019

Healthy Families: A Family-Based Community Intervention To Address Childhood Obesity, Danae Dinkel, Melissa Tibbits, Emily Hanigan, Kelly Nielsen, Leah Jorgensen, Kay Grant

Danae Dinkel

The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Healthy Families, a family-based community intervention, in improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors of overweight/obese children and their families as well as to explore the lessons learned. Results showed families who completed the program had significant improvements for children and parents in areas such as nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy in making healthy eating choices as well as participating in physical activity. Additionally, families reported decreasing their intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Participating families and community partners provided valuable lessons for other communities seeking to implement a similar program.


He’S Just Content To Sit: A Qualitative Study Of Mothers’ Perceptions Of Infant Obesity And Physical Activity, Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Victoria Molfese Mar 2019

He’S Just Content To Sit: A Qualitative Study Of Mothers’ Perceptions Of Infant Obesity And Physical Activity, Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Victoria Molfese

Danae Dinkel

Background: Rates of obesity among children ages zero to five are rapidly increasing. Greater efforts are needed to promote healthy behaviors of young children. Mothers are especially important targets for promoting health as mothers’ views play a vital role in helping their children foster healthy habits from an early age. Research has found parents’ views of infants’ weight may influence their feeding practices; however, limited research has explored mothers’ view of infants’ weight in relation to the promotion of physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of mothers of normal weight infants and overweight ...


Pre-Training Muscle Characteristics Of Subjects Who Are Obese Determine How Well Exercise Training Will Improve Their Insulin Responsiveness, Charles A. Stuart, Michelle L. Lee, Mark A. South, Mary E. A. Howell, Brian M. Cartwright, Michael W. Ramsey, Michael H. Stone Feb 2019

Pre-Training Muscle Characteristics Of Subjects Who Are Obese Determine How Well Exercise Training Will Improve Their Insulin Responsiveness, Charles A. Stuart, Michelle L. Lee, Mark A. South, Mary E. A. Howell, Brian M. Cartwright, Michael W. Ramsey, Michael H. Stone

Michael W. Ramsey

Pre-training muscle characteristics of subjects who are obese determine how well exercise training will improve their insulin responsiveness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 798–808, 2017—Only half of prediabetic subjects who are obese who underwent exercise training without weight loss increased their insulin responsiveness. We hypothesized that those who improved their insulin responsiveness might have pretraining characteristics favoring a positive response to exercise training. Thirty nondiabetic subjects who were obese volunteered for 8 weeks of either strength training or endurance training. During training, subjects increased their caloric intake to prevent weight loss. Insulin responsiveness by euglycemic clamps and ...


Sugar- Sweetened Beverages: A Survey To Assess Adults Knowledge, Attitudes, And Consumption Patterns Of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Jeff Schafer Jan 2019

Sugar- Sweetened Beverages: A Survey To Assess Adults Knowledge, Attitudes, And Consumption Patterns Of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Jeff Schafer

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have a direct impact on the general health of the country when looking at the rising obesity levels (CDC, 2017a). The USDA’s dietary guidelines suggest that the daily intake of added sugar should be limited to 6 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men (Hughes, 2017). However, the average American consumes 20 teaspoons of sugar daily (Hughes, 2017). These extra calories are converted into fat and stored in the body. Data collected throughout the years indicates a rise in the number of Americans living with a weight above healthy recommendations, which is termed, obese. Obesity ...


Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo Jan 2019

Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function. In recent studies, hyperactive autophagy in WAT was observed in obese and diabetic patients, and inhibition of adipose autophagy ...


Eat Smart, Play Hard The Oyate Way: Impact Of A Culturally Tailored Nutrition And Physical Activity Curriculum On Elementary Youth, Abbey Hillestad Jan 2019

Eat Smart, Play Hard The Oyate Way: Impact Of A Culturally Tailored Nutrition And Physical Activity Curriculum On Elementary Youth, Abbey Hillestad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To assess changes in nutrition and physical activity (PA) knowledge and behavior in elementary-age participants from school districts with high American Indian enrollment after completion of a culturally tailored education curriculum.
Design: Pre-post intervention study assessing knowledge and behavior using quantitative methods. Participants: A total of 248 participants (Kindergarten through 5th grade, n=248) throughout 13 elementary classrooms in tribal communities participated in Eat Smart. Play Hard.: The Oyate Way. Intervention(s): Baseline and post intervention data from a culturally tailored nutrition and PA knowledge and behavior curriculum.
Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were nutrition and PA knowledge ...


Relationship Of Weight-Related Eating Behaviors And Weight-Loss Of Participants In A Proprietary Weight-Loss Program, Megan Tschakert Jan 2019

Relationship Of Weight-Related Eating Behaviors And Weight-Loss Of Participants In A Proprietary Weight-Loss Program, Megan Tschakert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study is to evaluate weight-related eating behaviors of participants with clinically significant weight loss (CSWL) in a proprietary weight loss program. A crosssectional sample of participants (n=1,454) enrolled in a proprietary weight-loss program that includes meal replacements and health coaching were queried for weight-related eating behaviors (using Weight Related Eating Questionnaire) of routine restraint (RR), compensatory restraint (CR), susceptibility to external cues (SEC), and emotional eating (EE) in relation to CSWL (defined as having achieved a weight loss greater than 10% of starting weight). Participants were dichotomized into those with CSWL (n=973) and ...


Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo Jan 2019

Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function. In recent studies, hyperactive autophagy in WAT was observed in obese and diabetic patients, and inhibition of adipose autophagy ...


Male Weight Control: Crowdsourcing And An Intervention To Discover More, Tiffany Rounds Jan 2019

Male Weight Control: Crowdsourcing And An Intervention To Discover More, Tiffany Rounds

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Men and women have similar rates of obesity but the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among men. Men who are overweight are a high-risk group for many obesity-related chronic diseases, as they are more likely to carry excess weight in the abdomen, which is generally more harmful than weight stored in the lower body. Men are also less likely than women to perceive themselves as overweight, and thus are less likely to initiate weight loss through organized weight loss programs. On average, less than 27% of weight loss trial participants have been men.

Internet-based research is a ...