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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phylogeography Of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Estimated By Diversity At Ribosomal 16s And Cytochrome Oxidase I Mitochondrial Genes, J. G. Marquez, M. A. Cummings, Elliot S. Krafsur Aug 2019

Phylogeography Of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Estimated By Diversity At Ribosomal 16s And Cytochrome Oxidase I Mitochondrial Genes, J. G. Marquez, M. A. Cummings, Elliot S. Krafsur

Elliot Krafsur

The blood-feeding cosmopolitan stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is thought to disperse rapidly and widely, and earlier studies of allozyme variation were consistent with high vagility in this species. The geographic origins of New World populations are unknown. Diversity at mitochondrial loci r16S and cytochrome oxidase I was examined in 277 stable flies from 11 countries, including five zoogeographical regions. Of 809 nucleotides, 174 were polymorphic and 133 were parsimony informative. Seventy-six haplotypes were found in frequencies consistent with the Wright–Fisher infinite allele model. None were shared among four or more zoogeographical regions. The null hypothesis of ...


Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang Apr 2019

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Effects Of The Invasive Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus Sanguineus, On New England Trophic Cascade: Diet And Predation, Madison Bradley Jan 2019

Effects Of The Invasive Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus Sanguineus, On New England Trophic Cascade: Diet And Predation, Madison Bradley

Writing Across the Curriculum

Trophic cascades occur when the community structure is influenced by indirect effects of predation on the lower trophic levels. The trophic cascade can be disrupted when an invasive species is introduced. The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus has invaded ecosystems in New England and we predict this invasion will negatively affect the classic New England trophic cascade. By the predation indirectly affecting lower trophic levels, H. sanguineus can influence the community structure and diversity at the lower levels. To understand the trophic cascade, we manipulated the food source and competitors in four different mini-ecosystems. By introducing H. sanguineus into an ...


Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff Jan 2019

Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) damage to livestock producers in 13 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service in the summer of 2017 to a sample of livestock producers in the 13-state region. Findings indicate that predation and disease-related damage can be substantial in certain states and for certain types of livestock. In particular, damage to cattle operations in Texas and Arkansas was substantially higher than damage in other states and types ...


Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers Jan 2019

Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world's most destructive invasive species wherever they are found, with translocations figuring prominently in their range expansions. In contrast, sea turtles are beloved species that are listed as threatened or endangered throughout the world and are the focus of intense conservation efforts. Nest predation by feral swine severely harms sea turtle reproduction in many locations around the world. Here we quantify and economically assess feral swine nest predation at North Island, South Carolina, an important loggerhead sea turtle nesting beach. Feral swine depredation of North Island sea turtle nests was first detected in 2005 ...


Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2019

Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many grasslands have been transformed by exotic species with potentially novel ecological interactions. We hypothesized that exotic and native plant species differ, on average, in their percentage mycorrhizal colonization, and that mycorrhizal colonization is positively related to plant performance in the field. We compared colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi in perennial native and exotic species that were paired phylogenetically and by functional groups and grown under a common environment in field plots in Central Texas, USA. Roots were collected from plants in monoculture plots, stained, and percent colonization was assessed with a microscope. Aboveground biomass and dominance in mixture ...