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2019

Diabetes

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster Jun 2019

Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster

Donna Winham

African Americans are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and this risk may be influenced by familial experiences and cultural norms throughout the life course. This led us to conduct this study of 20 African American families with strong histories of T2DM to explore familial complexities that prevent or help manage diabetic symptoms. Experiences were analyzed inductively through individual family profiles created using content-analytic summaries. When profiles were further analyzed for emerging and theoretically informed data patterns, two themes emerged: (a) family interactions characterized by T2DM-related actions and communication patterns, and (b) intergenerational patterns of openness ...


Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster Jun 2019

Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster

Tera R. (Hurt) Jordan

African Americans are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and this risk may be influenced by familial experiences and cultural norms throughout the life course. This led us to conduct this study of 20 African American families with strong histories of T2DM to explore familial complexities that prevent or help manage diabetic symptoms. Experiences were analyzed inductively through individual family profiles created using content-analytic summaries. When profiles were further analyzed for emerging and theoretically informed data patterns, two themes emerged: (a) family interactions characterized by T2DM-related actions and communication patterns, and (b) intergenerational patterns of openness ...


Whole Blueberry Protects Pancreatic Beta-Cells In Diet-Induced Obese Mouse, Weixiang Liu, Yiping Mao, Jacob Schoenborn, Zhihong Wang, Guiliang Tang, Xiaoqing Tang May 2019

Whole Blueberry Protects Pancreatic Beta-Cells In Diet-Induced Obese Mouse, Weixiang Liu, Yiping Mao, Jacob Schoenborn, Zhihong Wang, Guiliang Tang, Xiaoqing Tang

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Background

Blueberry is rich in bioactive substances and possesses powerful antioxidant potential, which can protect against oxidant-induced and inflammatory cell damage and cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine how blueberry affects glucose metabolism and pancreatic β-cell proliferation in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.

Methods

Wild type male mice at age of 4 weeks received two different kinds of diets: high-fat diet (HFD) containing 60% fat or modified HFD supplemented with 4% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole blueberry powder (HFD + B) for 14 weeks. A separate experiment was performed in mice fed with low-fat diet (LFD) containing ...


The Effects Of Metformin, Aminoguanidine, And Pyridoxamine On Methylglyoxal Induced Cardiac Myocyte Injury, Amanda Harvey, Rose Martorana, Julia Colangeli, Hafsa Ahmed, Dean Delgado, Alisa Kim, Robinderpaul Sandhu, Robert J. Barsotti, Lindon H. Young, Qian Chen May 2019

The Effects Of Metformin, Aminoguanidine, And Pyridoxamine On Methylglyoxal Induced Cardiac Myocyte Injury, Amanda Harvey, Rose Martorana, Julia Colangeli, Hafsa Ahmed, Dean Delgado, Alisa Kim, Robinderpaul Sandhu, Robert J. Barsotti, Lindon H. Young, Qian Chen

Research Day

Advanced glycation end (AGE) products have been under investigation for their role in cardiovascular disease in complications. Methylglyoxal, a byproduct of glucose metabolism, is elevated in the blood of diabetic patients and has shown to be an important intermediate in the production of AGEs. Due to the highly reactive structure of methylglyoxal, it can produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell via mitochondrial modification which results in a loss of cell membrane potential and possible cell death. The role of methylglyoxal in cardiac cells is not well known; in this study methylglyoxal induced cell injury and ...


Treatments, Islet Transplantation And Beta Cell Research, Maria Estrada May 2019

Treatments, Islet Transplantation And Beta Cell Research, Maria Estrada

BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers

Diabetes is a disease that affects millions of people in the United States, but also all around the world. With different types of diabetes that exist, it has been hard for researchers to find a cure for diabetes. Current diabetes treatments are expensive, and not always available for patients around the world. Researchers have tried to understand how insulin, Islets of Langerhans and diabetes functions in order to try to find more efficient treatments and possibly a cure in the future. Islet B-cells are found in the pancreas and produce the hormone insulin. In patients with Type 1 diabetes, islet ...


Cd4 + Th1 Helper Cells: The Unifying Link Between Diabetes And Periodontitis, Jocelyn Stewart May 2019

Cd4 + Th1 Helper Cells: The Unifying Link Between Diabetes And Periodontitis, Jocelyn Stewart

BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers

Type II diabetes and Periodontitis are both chronic inflammatory diseases that affect people worldwide. Periodontitis is characterized by the obliteration of teeth. It affects 10-15% of adults and causes many problems on the quality of life (Preshaw et al., 2012). Diabetes is a disease that arises when your blood sugar is too high. Your blood glucose is the primary source of energy which is consumed by the food you eat. The hormone insulin is produced by the pancreas, which helps the glucose from allowing food to enter your cells. Many studies have shown that type 2 diabetes is a major ...


Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster Apr 2019

Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

African Americans are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and this risk may be influenced by familial experiences and cultural norms throughout the life course. This led us to conduct this study of 20 African American families with strong histories of T2DM to explore familial complexities that prevent or help manage diabetic symptoms. Experiences were analyzed inductively through individual family profiles created using content-analytic summaries. When profiles were further analyzed for emerging and theoretically informed data patterns, two themes emerged: (a) family interactions characterized by T2DM-related actions and communication patterns, and (b) intergenerational patterns of openness ...


Taking Charge Of Adolescent Obesity, Katelyn Gass Apr 2019

Taking Charge Of Adolescent Obesity, Katelyn Gass

All Student-Created Educational Resources

This handout provides basic information and simple tips to work on the overall health and well-being of the obese adolescent through evidence based research.


Too Much Workplace Sitting: A Brief Historical Perspective, Raymond Jones, Daniel P. Credeur, Stephanie M. Mccoy Apr 2019

Too Much Workplace Sitting: A Brief Historical Perspective, Raymond Jones, Daniel P. Credeur, Stephanie M. Mccoy

Faculty Publications

Sedentary behavior is a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases, especially those of cardiovascular and metabolic origins. Prolonged sitting is one of the most common sedentary behaviors among adults. Individuals sit for hours every day for several reasons, including work and or physical limitations. Historical accounts regarding the negative health effects of prolonged sitting began with early epidemiological studies, which sparked a breakout of research examining this behavior in the workplace setting. Understanding the risks associated with prolonged workplace sitting is important when considering workplace interventions, such as sit-stand workstations. These interventions appear to be beneficial in reducing ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske Mar 2019

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Rudy Valentine

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks Mar 2019

The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks

Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between distress and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the presence of established risk factors. Distress secondary to mental health disparities, stressful life events, and work conditions has been shown to promote insulin resistance and the development of T2DM.

Subjects (N=79) diagnosed with T2DM within the previous six months were recruited from SSM Health Centers and VA Medical Centers in the greater St. Louis area. They completed the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire, ENRICHD Social Support Instrument, and a demographic survey and analyses were conducted to determine differences between the veteran and ...


Multi-Dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling By Physiological Insulin In Vivo, Thiago M. Batista, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T. O'Neill, Masaji Sakaguchi, Jong Hun Kim, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn Mar 2019

Multi-Dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling By Physiological Insulin In Vivo, Thiago M. Batista, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T. O'Neill, Masaji Sakaguchi, Jong Hun Kim, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn

Open Access Articles

Regulation of gene expression is an important aspect of insulin action but in vivo is intertwined with changing levels of glucose and counter-regulatory hormones. Here we demonstrate that under euglycemic clamp conditions, physiological levels of insulin regulate interrelated networks of more than 1,000 transcripts in muscle and liver. These include expected pathways related to glucose and lipid utilization, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, as well as unexpected pathways, such as chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing, and Notch signaling. These acutely regulated pathways extend beyond those dysregulated in mice with chronic insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and involve a broad network of ...


Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet (Pkd) In Chronic Diseases: Clinical And Research Data, Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth Mar 2019

Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet (Pkd) In Chronic Diseases: Clinical And Research Data, Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske Mar 2019

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


Effects Of Eight Weeks Of High Intensity Functional Training On Glucose Control And Body Composition Among Overweight And Obese Adults, Yuri Feito, Pratik Patel, Andrea Sal Redondo, Katie M. Heinrich Feb 2019

Effects Of Eight Weeks Of High Intensity Functional Training On Glucose Control And Body Composition Among Overweight And Obese Adults, Yuri Feito, Pratik Patel, Andrea Sal Redondo, Katie M. Heinrich

Faculty Publications

High-intensity exercise has been found to positively influence glucose control, however, the effects of high-intensity functional training (HIFT) for overweight and obese sedentary adults without diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition and glucose control from eight weeks of aerobic and resistance training (A-RT) compared to HIFT. Session time spent doing daily workouts was recorded for each group. Baseline and posttest measures included height, weight, waist circumference, dual X-ray absorptiometry (body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass), and fasting blood glucose. Participants completing the intervention (78%, n = 9 per group) were 67 ...


Human Islets Expressing Hnf1a Variant Have Defective Beta Cell Transcriptional Regulatory Networks, Rachana Haliyur, Sambra D. Redick, David M. Harlan, Alvin C. Powers Jan 2019

Human Islets Expressing Hnf1a Variant Have Defective Beta Cell Transcriptional Regulatory Networks, Rachana Haliyur, Sambra D. Redick, David M. Harlan, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Using an integrated approach to characterize the pancreatic tissue and isolated islets from a 33-year-old with 17 years of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we found that donor islets contained beta cells without insulitis and lacked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion despite a normal insulin response to cAMP-evoked stimulation. With these unexpected findings for T1D, we sequenced the donor DNA and found a pathogenic heterozygous variant in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1A). In one of the first studies of human pancreatic islets with a disease-causing HNF1A variant associated with the most common form of monogenic diabetes, we found that HNF1A dysfunction ...


Small Fruit Phenolics: Phenolic Variations And Related Health Relevance, Susan Cheplick Jan 2019

Small Fruit Phenolics: Phenolic Variations And Related Health Relevance, Susan Cheplick

Doctoral Dissertations

Berries, specifically, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries, are considered an integral part of a healthy plant-based diet. Berries contain high levels of phenolic compounds, which contribute to the health benefits of berry consumption. Many phenolic compounds exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity and other health related benefits, including anti- microbial, anti-inflammatory and cardio-vascular related functional capabilities.

Strawberry and raspberry fruit were screened and evaluated for potential in dietary management of type 2 diabetes and related hypertension using in vitro assay models. There were differences between cultivars within each crop related to antioxidant activity. Inhibition of α- amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE-1 ...