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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part Ii. Commissioning, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Yi Sun, Luis F. Rodríguez, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates Aug 2019

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part Ii. Commissioning, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Yi Sun, Luis F. Rodríguez, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates

Brett Ramirez

The Ruminant Emission Measurement System (REMS) supports research on the relationships between bovine nutrition, genetics, and management strategies by measuring eructated CH4 emissions from ruminal activity. Part I of this series provides the description and design evaluation of the newly developed REMS using uncertainty analysis tools. Part II of this series describes REMS commissioning and documents the whole system and subsystem performance. Subsystem assessments included verification of chamber positive pressurization, thermal environmental control performance, and integrity of the gas sampling system. Integrity of the entire system was verified through a steady-state mass recovery percent (SSMRP) analysis, which compared the ...


A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part I. Design Evaluation And Description, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Luis F. Rodríguez, Jacob R. Segers, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates Aug 2019

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part I. Design Evaluation And Description, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Luis F. Rodríguez, Jacob R. Segers, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates

Brett Ramirez

Methane (CH4) generated by cattle is both a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and a powerful indicator of feed conversion efficiency; thus, accurate quantification of CH4 production is required for addressing future global food security without neglecting environmental impacts. A newly developed Ruminant Emission Measurement System (REMS) supports research on the relationships between bovine nutrition, genetics, and management strategies by measuring eructated CH4 emissions from ruminal activity. REMS is a substantial improvement and extension of the chamber technique, which is considered the standard method to quantify ruminant CH4 generation. Part I of this two-part series describes the design and ...


Will Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests Be Sensitive Or Resistant To Future Changes In Rainfall Regimes?, Kara Allen, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Maria G. Gei, Catherine Hulshof, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Christina M. Smith, Annette Trierweiler, Skip J. Van Bloem, Bonnie G. Waring, Xiangtao Xu, Jennifer S. Powers Jul 2019

Will Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests Be Sensitive Or Resistant To Future Changes In Rainfall Regimes?, Kara Allen, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Maria G. Gei, Catherine Hulshof, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Christina M. Smith, Annette Trierweiler, Skip J. Van Bloem, Bonnie G. Waring, Xiangtao Xu, Jennifer S. Powers

Skip Van Bloem

Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are located in regions with alternating wet and dry seasons, with dry seasons that last several months or more. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict substantial changes in rainfall regimes across these regions, but little is known about how individuals, species, and communities in SDTF will cope with the hotter, drier conditions predicted by climate models. In this review, we explore different rainfall scenarios that may result in ecological drought in SDTF through the lens of two alternative hypotheses: 1) these forests will be sensitive to drought because they are already ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jul 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Jordan Smith

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...


Project Green - Performance Assessment - Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman Apr 2019

Project Green - Performance Assessment - Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

No abstract provided.


In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger Apr 2019

In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Given the changing climate and increasing impact of agriculture on global resources, it is important to identify phenotypes which are global and sustainable optima. Here, an in silico framework is constructed by coupling evolutionary optimization with thermodynamically sound crop physiology, and its ability to rationally design phenotypes with maximum productivity is demonstrated, within well‐defined limits on water availability. Results reveal that in mesic environments, such as the North American Midwest, and semi‐arid environments, such as Colorado, phenotypes optimized for maximum productivity and survival under drought are similar to those with maximum productivity under irrigated conditions. In hot and ...


In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger Apr 2019

In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger

Daniel Attinger

Given the changing climate and increasing impact of agriculture on global resources, it is important to identify phenotypes which are global and sustainable optima. Here, an in silico framework is constructed by coupling evolutionary optimization with thermodynamically sound crop physiology, and its ability to rationally design phenotypes with maximum productivity is demonstrated, within well‐defined limits on water availability. Results reveal that in mesic environments, such as the North American Midwest, and semi‐arid environments, such as Colorado, phenotypes optimized for maximum productivity and survival under drought are similar to those with maximum productivity under irrigated conditions. In hot and ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo Mar 2019

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Bernhard Riegl

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo Mar 2019

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Joana Figueiredo

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Using Scientific Data To Determine Climate Change - Activity 1 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Using Scientific Data To Determine Climate Change - Activity 1 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This first activity in the Going Green Unit begins with students understanding what "proxy data is" by looking at tree rings and matching it with rainfall in the area. Extra data can be found on the web site https://0-sites.google.com.library.simmons.edu/uni.edu/itsnoteasygoinggreen/home


Can You Have The Greenhouse Without The Gas? -Activity 2 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Can You Have The Greenhouse Without The Gas? -Activity 2 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This is the second activity of the Going Green Unit where students model the atmosphere using 2 liter bottles filled with different gases and look at the different temperature changes of these bottles with placed in the sun.


Unit Overview_Its Not Easy Going Green.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Unit Overview_Its Not Easy Going Green.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This is the overview of the Going Green Unit on Climate Change. This lists the five activities in this unit and gives a general overview. The main thrust of this unit is to provide students with the scientific data on climate factors and have them make their own minds about climate change.


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani Jan 2019

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Mark P. Simmonds, O.B.E.

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...