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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote Aug 2019

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research presents three case studies of low temperature anomalies that occurred during the winter–spring seasons and their influence on extreme events and crop production. We investigate causes and effects of each climate event and developed prediction methods for crops based on the climate diagnostic information. The first study diagnosed the driven environmental-factors, including climate pattern, climate change, soils moisture, and sea level height, associated with the 2011 great flood in Thailand and resulting total crop loss. The second study investigated climate circulation and indices that contributed to wet-and-cold (WC) events leading to significant crop damage in Taiwan. We ...


The Vulnerability Of Littoral Structures Under Multiyear Drought Conditions, Jenna M. Keeton Aug 2019

The Vulnerability Of Littoral Structures Under Multiyear Drought Conditions, Jenna M. Keeton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is associated with altered environmental conditions and shifting mosaics of suitable habitats for organisms. Climate change in the form of drought can shift important lake shoreline habitats downslope, altering the lakes chemistry and habitat availability. Additionally, negative biological consequences can occur after a loss of submerged habitat along shorelines, hereafter littoral habitat. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether littoral habitat is lost (cobble, coarse woody habitat (fallen trees; CWH), and aquatic vegetation) under drought conditions across the United States. I used the National Lakes Assessment physical habitat data collected in summer 2012, when 75% of ...


Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston Jul 2019

Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

We examined the relationship between climate variables and grassland area burned in Xilingol, China, from 2001 to 2014 using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and describe the application of this econometric method to studies of climate influences on wildland fire. We show that there is a stationary linear combination of non-stationary climate time series (cointegration) that can be used to reliably estimate the influence of different climate signals on area burned. Our model shows a strong relationship between maximum temperature and grassland area burned. Mean monthly wind speed and monthly hours of sunlight were also strongly associated with area ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jun 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...


Radiometric Method For Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance In Controlled Environments, Oscar Monje, Bruce Bugbee Feb 2019

Radiometric Method For Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance In Controlled Environments, Oscar Monje, Bruce Bugbee

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Canopy stomatal conductance is a key physiological factor controlling transpiration from plant canopies, but it is extremely difficult to determine in field environments. The objective of this study was to develop a radiometric method for calculating canopy stomatal conductance for two plant species—wheat and soybean from direct measurements of bulk surface conductance to water vapor and the canopy aerodynamic conductance in controlled-environment chambers. The chamber provides constant net radiation, temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate to the plant canopy. In this method, stepwise changes in chamber CO2 alter canopy temperature, latent heat, and sensible heat fluxes simultaneously. Sensible heat ...


Ecological Consequences Of Anomalies In Atmospheric Moisture And Snowpack, Aaron N. Johnston, Jason E. Bruggeman, Aidan T. Beers, Erik A. Beever, Roger G. Christophersen, Jason I. Ransom Feb 2019

Ecological Consequences Of Anomalies In Atmospheric Moisture And Snowpack, Aaron N. Johnston, Jason E. Bruggeman, Aidan T. Beers, Erik A. Beever, Roger G. Christophersen, Jason I. Ransom

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Although increased frequency of extreme‐weather events is one of the most secure predictions associated with contemporary climate change, effects of such events on distribution and abundance of climate‐sensitive species remain poorly understood. Montane ecosystems may be especially sensitive to extreme weather because of complex abiotic and biotic interactions that propagate from climate‐driven reductions in snowpack. Snowpack not only protects subnivean biotas from extreme cold, but also influences forage availability through timing of melt‐off and water availability. We related relative abundances of an alpine mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), to measures of weather and snowpack dynamics ...


Climate Change Adaptation In The Delta Nile Region Of Egypt: Implications For Agricultural Extension, Hazem S. Kassem, Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello, Bader M. Alotaibi, Fahd O. Aldosri, Gary S. Straquadine Jan 2019

Climate Change Adaptation In The Delta Nile Region Of Egypt: Implications For Agricultural Extension, Hazem S. Kassem, Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello, Bader M. Alotaibi, Fahd O. Aldosri, Gary S. Straquadine

Extension Research

This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data, using questionnaires and interviews, from 792 randomly-selected farmers in two of the governorates in the Nile Delta Region, Egypt. A workshop was organized for 59 extension professionals working in the two governorates, looking at how the adaptive capacity of the agricultural sector towards climate change was being guided by policy-makers. Two focus groups were used: one with senior officials from the regional governorates and the other with central government administrators from the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. The study findings suggested that 51.9% of the investigated farmers at ...


Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack Jan 2019

Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack

Biology Faculty Publications

Climate change is causing the timing of key behaviors (i.e., phenology) to shift differently across trophic levels and among some interacting organisms (e.g., plants and pollinators, predators and prey), suggesting that interactions among species are being disrupted (1, 2). Studying the phenology of interactions, however, is difficult, which has limited researchers’ ability to zero in on changes in specific interactions or on the consequences of mismatches. In PNAS, Hassall et al. (3) use a combination of citizen science techniques to investigate the effects of climate change on dozens of specific interactions. They focus on a Batesian mimicry complex ...