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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Ann E. Russell

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Will Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests Be Sensitive Or Resistant To Future Changes In Rainfall Regimes?, Kara Allen, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Maria G. Gei, Catherine Hulshof, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Christina M. Smith, Annette Trierweiler, Skip J. Van Bloem, Bonnie G. Waring, Xiangtao Xu, Jennifer S. Powers Jul 2019

Will Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests Be Sensitive Or Resistant To Future Changes In Rainfall Regimes?, Kara Allen, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Maria G. Gei, Catherine Hulshof, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Christina M. Smith, Annette Trierweiler, Skip J. Van Bloem, Bonnie G. Waring, Xiangtao Xu, Jennifer S. Powers

Skip Van Bloem

Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are located in regions with alternating wet and dry seasons, with dry seasons that last several months or more. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict substantial changes in rainfall regimes across these regions, but little is known about how individuals, species, and communities in SDTF will cope with the hotter, drier conditions predicted by climate models. In this review, we explore different rainfall scenarios that may result in ecological drought in SDTF through the lens of two alternative hypotheses: 1) these forests will be sensitive to drought because they are already ...


Guidelines For Aspen Restoration In Utah With Applicability To The Intermountain West, Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel K. Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary O'Brien, David Tart Jul 2019

Guidelines For Aspen Restoration In Utah With Applicability To The Intermountain West, Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel K. Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary O'Brien, David Tart

Aspen Bibliography

As highly productive and biologically diverse communities, healthy quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides; hereafter aspen) forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services across western North America. Western aspen decline during the last century has been attributed to several causes and their interactions, including altered fire regimes, drought, excessive use by domestic and wild ungulates, and conifer encroachment. Today’s managers need science-based guidance to develop and implement strategies and practices to restore structure, processes, and resilience to the full range of aspen functional types across multiple spatial scales. In these guidelines, we detail a process for making step-by-step decisions about ...


Beaver And Aspen: Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen N. Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers May 2019

Beaver And Aspen: Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen N. Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers

Aspen Bibliography

In the West, climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought. Restoration of soils and water storage capacity can help create resilient uplands and riverscapes (i.e., streams and the valley bottoms). Over the past two centuries, common land uses, the removal of beaver and wood, straightening of streams, and damage to riparian areas have created simplified, structurally starved, riverscapes. Degraded streams are very efficient at transporting water, sediment, and nutrients downstream. Aspen forests are also biological hotspots that have been degraded by past land uses such as overbrowsing ungulates, land clearing, fire suppression, and ...


Adaptation Strategies And Approaches For Forested Watersheds, P. Danielle Shannon, Christopher Swanston, Maria Janowiak, Stephen D. Handler, Kristen M. Schmitt, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia Butler-Leopold Feb 2019

Adaptation Strategies And Approaches For Forested Watersheds, P. Danielle Shannon, Christopher Swanston, Maria Janowiak, Stephen D. Handler, Kristen M. Schmitt, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia Butler-Leopold

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Intentional climate adaptation planning for ecosystems has become a necessary part of the job for natural resource managers and natural resource professionals in this era of non-stationarity. One of the major challenges in adapting ecosystems to climate change is in the translation of broad adaptation concepts to specific, tangible actions. Addressing management goals and values while considering the long-term risks associated with local climate change can make forested watershed management plans more robust to uncertainty and changing conditions. We provide a menu of tiered adaptation strategies, which we developed with a focus on forests of the Midwest and Northeastern U ...


Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides Serve As Phosphate Traps In Tundra And Boreal Peat Soils, Elizabeth M. Herndon, Lauren Kinsman-Costello, Kiersten A. Duroe, Jonathan Mills, Evan Kane, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Aaron A. Thompson, Stan D. Wullschleger Jan 2019

Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides Serve As Phosphate Traps In Tundra And Boreal Peat Soils, Elizabeth M. Herndon, Lauren Kinsman-Costello, Kiersten A. Duroe, Jonathan Mills, Evan Kane, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Aaron A. Thompson, Stan D. Wullschleger

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Arctic and boreal ecosystems are experiencing pronounced warming that is accelerating decomposition of soil organic matter and releasing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Future carbon storage in these ecosystems depends on the balance between microbial decomposition and primary production, both of which can be regulated by nutrients such as phosphorus. Phosphorus cycling in tundra and boreal regions is often assumed to occur through biological pathways with little interaction with soil minerals; that is, phosphate released from organic molecules is rapidly assimilated by plants or microorganisms. In contrast to this prevailing conceptual model, we use sequential extractions and spectroscopic techniques to ...


Ecological Considerations And Application Of Urban Tree Selection In Massachusetts, Ashley Mcelhinney Jan 2019

Ecological Considerations And Application Of Urban Tree Selection In Massachusetts, Ashley Mcelhinney

Masters Theses

Trees provide countless environmental, economic, and societal benefits to the urban environment, and may become increasingly important to maintaining environmental quality and human well-being in the face of increasing urbanization and climate change. However, trees in these urban areas are rapidly diminishing across the United States. Much of this loss can be prevented with proper planning and management, focused on selecting tree species that are both well-suited to the area’s growing conditions and able to survive the many stress factors in an urban setting. Choosing which tree species to plant in Massachusetts is especially challenging considering the lack of ...


Influence Of Climate Change And Prescribed Fire On Habitat Suitability And Abundance Of The High-Elevation Endemic Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon Punctatus), Carl David Jacobsen Jan 2019

Influence Of Climate Change And Prescribed Fire On Habitat Suitability And Abundance Of The High-Elevation Endemic Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon Punctatus), Carl David Jacobsen

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Amphibians are facing global declines due to climate change, loss and degradation of habitat, invasive species, and disease. The Appalachian region of the eastern USA is a global biodiversity hotspot for salamanders, which are considered keystone species that influence nutrient dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic food webs. There are high rates of salamander endemism in the Appalachian region, with many species restricted to isolated, high elevation areas. The Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon punctatus) is one such species. It is only found at elevations >675 m (most populations are above 900 m) on Shenandoah Mountain, North Mountain, and Nathaniel Mountain in ...


Reexamining The Utility Of Existing Climate Adaptation Frameworks Through Application On A Northern Forest, Alexander Rice Jan 2019

Reexamining The Utility Of Existing Climate Adaptation Frameworks Through Application On A Northern Forest, Alexander Rice

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A review of the literature reveals the strengths and limitations of various climate adaptation frameworks and illuminates a general path by which a type of adaptation can be achieved. A number of useful frameworks exist but the number of independent case studies demonstrating the adaptation process in a detailed manner is much more limited. Additionally, components of the various adaptation processes can often seem vague and concepts such as adaptability ill-defined. For land managers approaching climate adaptation independently can be difficult, particularly in the areas of goal creation and vulnerability assessment. Within frameworks where user-defined adaptation goals dictate whether or ...