Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2019

Climate change

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 45

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote Aug 2019

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research presents three case studies of low temperature anomalies that occurred during the winter–spring seasons and their influence on extreme events and crop production. We investigate causes and effects of each climate event and developed prediction methods for crops based on the climate diagnostic information. The first study diagnosed the driven environmental-factors, including climate pattern, climate change, soils moisture, and sea level height, associated with the 2011 great flood in Thailand and resulting total crop loss. The second study investigated climate circulation and indices that contributed to wet-and-cold (WC) events leading to significant crop damage in Taiwan. We ...


Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston Jul 2019

Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

We examined the relationship between climate variables and grassland area burned in Xilingol, China, from 2001 to 2014 using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and describe the application of this econometric method to studies of climate influences on wildland fire. We show that there is a stationary linear combination of non-stationary climate time series (cointegration) that can be used to reliably estimate the influence of different climate signals on area burned. Our model shows a strong relationship between maximum temperature and grassland area burned. Mean monthly wind speed and monthly hours of sunlight were also strongly associated with area ...


Invasion During Extreme Weather: Success And Failure In A Temperate Perennial Grassland, James C. Han, Stephen L. Young Jun 2019

Invasion During Extreme Weather: Success And Failure In A Temperate Perennial Grassland, James C. Han, Stephen L. Young

Stephen L. Young

Invasive and native plant species compete for resources in similar pools, with disturbances often favoring the invader. Yet, increased climate variability may be shifting the competitive edge back toward the natives. We conducted field studies in perennial grasslands to determine the effects of clipping and drought on resource availability (light and moisture) and subsequent establishment of Carduus nutans. We measured light penetration and soil moisture content in C. nutans monoculture, clipped and non clipped grassland with C. nutans, and bare ground control plots. We also tracked phenology of the invader and grasses. Our studies revealed that light was a limiting ...


Climate Dynamics, Invader Fitness, And Ecosystem Resistance In An Invasion-Factor Framework, Stephen L. Young, David R. Clements, Antonio Ditommaso Jun 2019

Climate Dynamics, Invader Fitness, And Ecosystem Resistance In An Invasion-Factor Framework, Stephen L. Young, David R. Clements, Antonio Ditommaso

Stephen L. Young

As researchers and land managers increasingly seek to understand plant invasions and the external (climate) and internal (plant genetics) conditions that govern the process, new insight is helping to answer the elusive question of what makes some invasions successful and others not. Plant invasion success or failure is based on a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Abiotic (e.g., climate) and biotic (e.g., plant competition) conditions in the environment and plant genetics (e.g., fitness) combine in either decreasing or increasing invasion, yet it has proven challenging to know exactly which of these conditions leads to success for ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jun 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...


Dietary Plasticity In A Specialist Predator, The Gyrfalcon (Falco Rusticolus): New Insights Into Diet During Brood Rearing, Bryce W. Robinson, Travis L. Booms, Marc J. Bechard, David L. Anderson Jun 2019

Dietary Plasticity In A Specialist Predator, The Gyrfalcon (Falco Rusticolus): New Insights Into Diet During Brood Rearing, Bryce W. Robinson, Travis L. Booms, Marc J. Bechard, David L. Anderson

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate and landscape change are expected to affect species’ distributions and interactions, with potentially harmful consequences for specialist predators. Availability of optimal prey can affect reproductive success in raptors, especially in the Arctic, where dramatic differences in prey availability occur both within and between years. However, behavioral responses of dietary specialist, resident predators such as Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) to changes in prey availability remain poorly understood. To improve understanding of how climate-driven changes in prey availability may affect diet of avian predators in the Arctic, we characterized Gyrfalcon diet on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 from images ...


Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee May 2019

Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hydrological changes attributable to global warming increase the severity and frequency of droughts, which in turn affect agriculture. Hence, we proposed the Standardized Agricultural Drought Index (SADI), which is a new drought index specialized for agriculture and crops, and evaluated current and expected droughts in the Korean Peninsula. The SADI applies crop phenology to the hydrological cycle, which is a basic element that assesses drought. The SADI of rice and maize was calculated using representative hydrological variables (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the crop growing season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of SADI, the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index, which ...


A Revised Land Ethic: Sustainable And Spiritual Agriculture, Environmental Studies, Brooke Maitlan Parrett May 2019

A Revised Land Ethic: Sustainable And Spiritual Agriculture, Environmental Studies, Brooke Maitlan Parrett

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper proposes a return to the land and reconnection of spiritual practices through ethical teachings. Such a land ethic would involve answering the woes of industrial agriculture and providing a framework for farmers, consumers, and policymakers based on sustainable and spiritual considerations of the land. I analyze the loss of spiritual literacy and traditional ecological knowledge in the United States and discuss the spiritual history of agriculture in order to analyze contemporary religious perspectives on farming and agricultural ethics and thereby develop my own recommendations. The land ethic I propose combines sustainability and spirituality to develop intrinsic respect for ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler May 2019

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of lake ecology, as it contributes to light attenuation and carbon cycling. In recent years, DOC declined in a suite of lakes in Greenland. I performed experiments to test potential mechanisms of DOC loss. The tested mechanisms did not reduce DOC concentration, but DOC composition was affected. I also paired water quality data with meteorological observations to evaluate effects of climate drivers on lake variables. The lake variables were temporally coherent and associated with patterns of mean annual precipitation.

In the northeastern U.S., recovery from acidification and climate change have contributed ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley May 2019

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Biogeography Of Endemic Dragonflies Of The Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands, Wade Alexander Boys May 2019

Biogeography Of Endemic Dragonflies Of The Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands, Wade Alexander Boys

Theses and Dissertations

A common pattern across many taxonomic groups is that relatively few species are widespread while the majority are restricted in their geographic ranges. Such species distributions are used to inform conservation status, which poses unique challenges for rare or cryptic species. Further, priority status is often designated within geopolitical boundaries, which may include only a portion of a species range. This, coupled with lack of distributional data, has resulted in species being designated as apparently rare throughout some portions of their range, which may not accurately reflect their overall conservation need. The Interior Highlands region of the central United States ...


Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner May 2019

Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In boreal regions, increased precipitation events have been linked to increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however less is known about the extent and implications of these events on lakes. We assessed the effects of precipitation events on six drinking water lakes in Maine, USA to better understand how DOC concentration and quality change in response to precipitation events. Our results revealed three types of responses: (1) an initial spike in DOC concentrations and quality metrics; (2) a sustained increase in DOC concentrations and quality metrics and; (3) no change during all sampling periods. Lake residence time was a ...


Project Green - Performance Assessment - Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman Apr 2019

Project Green - Performance Assessment - Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

No abstract provided.


Indirect Legacy Effects Of An Extreme Climatic Event On A Marine Megafaunal Community, Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thompson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich, Aaron Wirsing Apr 2019

Indirect Legacy Effects Of An Extreme Climatic Event On A Marine Megafaunal Community, Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thompson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich, Aaron Wirsing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

While extreme climatic events (ECEs) are predicted to become more frequent, reliably predicting their impacts on consumers remains challenging, particularly for large consumers in marine environments. Many studies that do evaluate ECE effects focus primarily on direct effects, though indirect effects can be equally or more important. Here, we investigate the indirect impacts of the 2011 “Ningaloo Niño” marine heatwave ECE on a diverse megafaunal community in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We use an 18‐year community‐level data set before (1998–2010) and after (2012–2015) the heatwave to assess the effects of seagrass loss on the abundance of ...


In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger Apr 2019

In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Given the changing climate and increasing impact of agriculture on global resources, it is important to identify phenotypes which are global and sustainable optima. Here, an in silico framework is constructed by coupling evolutionary optimization with thermodynamically sound crop physiology, and its ability to rationally design phenotypes with maximum productivity is demonstrated, within well‐defined limits on water availability. Results reveal that in mesic environments, such as the North American Midwest, and semi‐arid environments, such as Colorado, phenotypes optimized for maximum productivity and survival under drought are similar to those with maximum productivity under irrigated conditions. In hot and ...


In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger Apr 2019

In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger

Daniel Attinger

Given the changing climate and increasing impact of agriculture on global resources, it is important to identify phenotypes which are global and sustainable optima. Here, an in silico framework is constructed by coupling evolutionary optimization with thermodynamically sound crop physiology, and its ability to rationally design phenotypes with maximum productivity is demonstrated, within well‐defined limits on water availability. Results reveal that in mesic environments, such as the North American Midwest, and semi‐arid environments, such as Colorado, phenotypes optimized for maximum productivity and survival under drought are similar to those with maximum productivity under irrigated conditions. In hot and ...


Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow Apr 2019

Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow

Student Scholarship

Climate change and weather affect the phenology of bird migration; however, specific climatological factors associated with these observed effects have only recently been described. The relationship between local, regional, and global climate patterns and avian migration are increasingly important to understand due to the widespread, and potentially negative, implications (such as reduced fecundity) of rapid human induced climate change on bird populations. Migratory birds are under selective pressure to arrive at breeding areas at the optimal time to set up nesting territories and exploit seasonally abundant food resources, and because climate change has the potential to occur more rapidly than ...


The Living Archive In The Anthropocene, Nora Almeida, Jen Hoyer Apr 2019

The Living Archive In The Anthropocene, Nora Almeida, Jen Hoyer

Publications and Research

This paper presents the concept of the living archive as a system which reflects how social behavior and cultural production are part of the Anthropocene. The authors explore how dominant narratives of both the Anthropocene and the archive work to consolidate power and maintain cultural and disciplinary divisions. The authors refute conceptions of the Anthropocene as a purely biophysical phenomenon that is alienated from cultural practice and of the archive as a comprehensive and nostalgic space. They then introduce the living archive as an alternative representational, creative, and reactive space and illustrate how the living archive can intervene in ecological ...


Characterization Of Psychromonas Aquimarina, A New Model Organism For Climate Change, Carrie Carpenter Apr 2019

Characterization Of Psychromonas Aquimarina, A New Model Organism For Climate Change, Carrie Carpenter

Experiential Learning Projects

The current increase of average global temperature puts 25 to 35 percent of plant and animal species at an increased risk of extinction (Climate Change, 2018). Changing any environmental factor, such as increasing growth temperature, can significantly impact any organisms’ ability to survive. Because of the diversity of organisms on the planet, it is not feasible to study how each individually might adapt, but rather it is more efficient to study select organisms. This research focuses on a psychrophilic bacterium, Psychromonas aquimarina, which can survive in colder regions where most bacteria would not. This bacterium was chosen because climate change ...


The Role Of Temperature In Affecting Carry-Over Effects And Larval Competition In The Globally Invasive Mosquito Aedes Albopictus, Nnaemeka F. Ezeakacha, Donald Yee Mar 2019

The Role Of Temperature In Affecting Carry-Over Effects And Larval Competition In The Globally Invasive Mosquito Aedes Albopictus, Nnaemeka F. Ezeakacha, Donald Yee

Faculty Publications

Background

Ectotherms, like mosquitoes, have evolved specific responses to variation in environmental conditions like temperature, and these responses could confer a fitness benefit or cost when carried-over to different life stages. However, effects of temperature on animals with complex life-cycles often only focus on part of their life-cycle, or only consider how single aspects of life-history may carry over to new stages. Herein we investigated how temperature affects intraspecific larval competition and carry-over effects from larval to adult stages in the widespread invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

Methods

For larval competition, larvae were reared at three densities (10, 20 ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo Mar 2019

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Bernhard Riegl

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo Mar 2019

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Joana Figueiredo

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Using Scientific Data To Determine Climate Change - Activity 1 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Using Scientific Data To Determine Climate Change - Activity 1 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This first activity in the Going Green Unit begins with students understanding what "proxy data is" by looking at tree rings and matching it with rainfall in the area. Extra data can be found on the web site https://0-sites.google.com.library.simmons.edu/uni.edu/itsnoteasygoinggreen/home


Can You Have The Greenhouse Without The Gas? -Activity 2 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Can You Have The Greenhouse Without The Gas? -Activity 2 Going Green Unit, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This is the second activity of the Going Green Unit where students model the atmosphere using 2 liter bottles filled with different gases and look at the different temperature changes of these bottles with placed in the sun.


Unit Overview_Its Not Easy Going Green.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Unit Overview_Its Not Easy Going Green.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This is the overview of the Going Green Unit on Climate Change. This lists the five activities in this unit and gives a general overview. The main thrust of this unit is to provide students with the scientific data on climate factors and have them make their own minds about climate change.


2016 - California Land Use And Management - A Resource Management Strategy Of The California Water Plan Mar 2019

2016 - California Land Use And Management - A Resource Management Strategy Of The California Water Plan

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

Land use planning and management cuts across many resource management strategies. More efficient and effective land use is linked to several resource management strategies including watershed, water use efficiency, groundwater quality, flood management, parks and recreation, climate change adaptive management and agricultural lands stewardship. Directly development away from agricultural lands permits multi-objective management of these lands for agricultural preservation, floodplain management, water quality, habitat conservation, and sustainable development. In addition, planning for more compact and sustainable communities, both urban and rural, will assist in reducing reliance on the state-s water supply, and result in more efficient use of California’s ...


2018 - California Water Plan Update - Public Review Draft Mar 2019

2018 - California Water Plan Update - Public Review Draft

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

California Water Plan Update 2018 provides recommended actions, funding scenarios, and an investment strategy to bolster efforts by water and resource managers, planners, and decision-makers to overcome California’s most pressing water resource challenges. It builds on progress made in California Water Plan Update 2013; reaffirms State government’s unique role and commitment to sustainable, equitable, long-term water resource management; and introduces implementation tools to inform sound decision-making.


Radiometric Method For Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance In Controlled Environments, Oscar Monje, Bruce Bugbee Feb 2019

Radiometric Method For Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance In Controlled Environments, Oscar Monje, Bruce Bugbee

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Canopy stomatal conductance is a key physiological factor controlling transpiration from plant canopies, but it is extremely difficult to determine in field environments. The objective of this study was to develop a radiometric method for calculating canopy stomatal conductance for two plant species—wheat and soybean from direct measurements of bulk surface conductance to water vapor and the canopy aerodynamic conductance in controlled-environment chambers. The chamber provides constant net radiation, temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate to the plant canopy. In this method, stepwise changes in chamber CO2 alter canopy temperature, latent heat, and sensible heat fluxes simultaneously. Sensible heat ...


Hawaiian Picture‐Winged Drosophila Exhibit Adaptive Population Divergence Along A Narrow Climatic Gradient On Hawaii Island, Jon Eldon, M. Renee Bellinger, Donald K. Price Feb 2019

Hawaiian Picture‐Winged Drosophila Exhibit Adaptive Population Divergence Along A Narrow Climatic Gradient On Hawaii Island, Jon Eldon, M. Renee Bellinger, Donald K. Price

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

1. Anthropogenic influences on global processes and climatic conditions are increasingly affecting ecosystems throughout the world. 2. Hawaii Island’s native ecosystems are well studied and local long‐term climatic trends well documented, making these ecosystems ideal for evaluating how native taxa may respond to a warming environment. 3.This study documents adaptive divergence of populations of a Hawaiian picture‐winged Drosophila, D. sproati, that are separated by only 7 km and 365 m in elevation. 4.Representative laboratory populations show divergent behavioral and physiological responses to an experimental low‐intensity increase in ambient temperature during maturation. The significant interaction ...