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2019

Cancer

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Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable For Infection Of Epithelial, Endothelial, And Fibroblast Cell Types, Murali Muniraju, Lorraine Z. Mutsvunguma, Joslyn Foley, Gabriela M. Escalante, Esther Rodriguez, Romina Nabiee, Jennifer Totonchy, David H. Mulama, Joshua Nyagol, Felix Wussow, Anne K. Barasa, Michael A. Brehm, Javier Gordon Ogembo May 2019

Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable For Infection Of Epithelial, Endothelial, And Fibroblast Cell Types, Murali Muniraju, Lorraine Z. Mutsvunguma, Joslyn Foley, Gabriela M. Escalante, Esther Rodriguez, Romina Nabiee, Jennifer Totonchy, David H. Mulama, Joshua Nyagol, Felix Wussow, Anne K. Barasa, Michael A. Brehm, Javier Gordon Ogembo

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an emerging pathogen and is the causative infectious agent of Kaposi sarcoma and two malignancies of B cell origin. To date, there is no licensed KSHV vaccine. Development of an effective vaccine against KSHV continues to be limited by a poor understanding of how the virus initiates acute primary infection in vivo in diverse human cell types. The role of glycoprotein H (gH) in herpesvirus entry mechanisms remains largely unresolved. To characterize the requirement for KSHV gH in the viral life cycle and in determination of cell tropism, we generated and characterized a mutant KSHV ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli May 2019

The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli

Student Honors Theses By Year

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia in adults and while it has a high remission rate, relapse with therapy resistance is common, indicating the need for more targeted and effective therapies. It is possible to reprogram AML cells in culture to undergo cell cycle arrest, differentiation into “normal” macrophage-like cells, and apoptosis using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a diacyl glycerol (DAG) mimic. While this is effective in “curing” leukemia in culture, PMA is too toxic to serve as a therapy in AML patients. During these PMA-induced changes, approximately 1250 genes change in expression. The goal ...


Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin May 2019

Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women, with metastasis the principle cause of mortality. New non-invasive prognostic markers are needed for the early detection of metastasis, facilitating treatment decision optimisation. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression and involved in many cellular processes, including metastasis. As biomarkers, circulating miRNAs (in blood) hold great promise for informing diagnosis or monitoring treatment responses.

METHODS: Plasma extracted RNA from age matched local Luminal A (n = 4) or metastatic disease (n = 4) were profiled using Next Generation Sequencing. Selected differentially expressed miRNA were validated on a ...


Exploring The Effects Of Protein Kinase C-Alpha Gene Knockout On The Proliferation Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Emma J. Kuntz May 2019

Exploring The Effects Of Protein Kinase C-Alpha Gene Knockout On The Proliferation Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Emma J. Kuntz

Honors Program Projects

Signaling molecules have important roles in many cellular functions, but because these pathways are incredibly complex, the exact mechanisms often remain unknown. One signaling molecule, protein kinase C alpha (PKCa), is involved in cell proliferation and is expressed at high levels in many cancers. Interestingly, its activity as a tumor promoter or tumor suppressor varies depending on the cell type for reasons not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of PKCa in cell proliferation in order to better understand its function as a signaling molecule. To asses this, a knockout line was generated using CRISPR-Cas9 and ...


Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost May 2019

Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost

Honors Program Projects

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is a very common mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud May 2019

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


How Have Patients' Experiences Of Cancer Care Been Linked To Survival? A Systematic Review, Saleh A. Alessy, Margreet Lüchtenborg Dr, Elizabeth A. Davies Dr. Apr 2019

How Have Patients' Experiences Of Cancer Care Been Linked To Survival? A Systematic Review, Saleh A. Alessy, Margreet Lüchtenborg Dr, Elizabeth A. Davies Dr.

Patient Experience Journal

Patient experience of care remains an important indicator of health care quality. Although studies show care experiences are associated with health outcomes for some conditions, the situation for cancer is unclear. New datasets on cancer patients in the US, Canada, and UK linking information on experiences and survival may enable an exploration of any association. This review aimed to identify studies linking any aspect of cancer patients’ experiences to their survival, to inform future analyses. We performed a systematic review using Medline database from January 1998 until March 2018.

The settings included outpatient oncology clinics, primary care, hospitals, and cancer ...


Epigenetic Modifiers And Their Effect On Hla And Pd-L1 Expression In Mcf-7 And Mda-Mb-231 Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis Apr 2019

Epigenetic Modifiers And Their Effect On Hla And Pd-L1 Expression In Mcf-7 And Mda-Mb-231 Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with epigenetic effects. 5- Azacytidine is a methylation inhibitor. In previous research, it has been shown that both drugs can result in an increase in gene expression. The goal of our experiments was to see if Vorinostat and/or 5-Azacytidine could upregulate HLA expression without upregulating PD-L1 expression. While an increase in HLA expression would be beneficial for immune cells to kill cancer cells, an increase in PD-L1 expression would be detrimental because it prevents the activation of T cells, thereby allowing cancer cells to evade the immune response. To demonstrate the effects of ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost Apr 2019

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


Investigating The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Mrn Complex Using Yeast, Caitlin Harris Apr 2019

Investigating The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Mrn Complex Using Yeast, Caitlin Harris

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

A screening method using yeast to determine which cancer mutations disrupt the function of Mre11 after exposure to DNA damaging agents.


Ability Of Flavonoids To Mimic The Estrogen Receptor To Drive Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation, Megan Bland, Cecilie Elliott, Kathryn Kosiorek Apr 2019

Ability Of Flavonoids To Mimic The Estrogen Receptor To Drive Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation, Megan Bland, Cecilie Elliott, Kathryn Kosiorek

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Flavonoids are natural compounds found in dietary elements such as soy, grains, and vegetables that have the potential to bind to the estrogen receptor. Activation of the estrogen receptor drives myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation, cells that increase during cancer, inflammation, and infection. In this study, we are investigating specific flavonoids, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, naringenin, daidzein, and genistein, for their ability to mimic estrogen. After examination, we expect that MDSC differentiation will decrease upon treatment of the chosen flavonoids, leading to reduced carcinogenic effects.


The Use Hela Derived Telomerase On Nk Cells In The Treatment Of Ovarian Cancer, Juwairyah Gunter Apr 2019

The Use Hela Derived Telomerase On Nk Cells In The Treatment Of Ovarian Cancer, Juwairyah Gunter

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

A research proposal for a novel immunotherapy for treating ovarian cancer.


Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet (Pkd) In Chronic Diseases: Clinical And Research Data, Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth Mar 2019

Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet (Pkd) In Chronic Diseases: Clinical And Research Data, Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Extracellular Matrix In Development And Disease, Julia Thom Oxford, Jonathon C. Reeck, Makenna J. Hardy Jan 2019

Extracellular Matrix In Development And Disease, Julia Thom Oxford, Jonathon C. Reeck, Makenna J. Hardy

Biomolecular Research Center Publications and Presentations

The evolution of multicellular metazoan organisms was marked by the inclusion of an extracellular matrix (ECM), a multicomponent, proteinaceous network between cells that contributes to the spatial arrangement of cells and the resulting tissue organization. The development of an ECM that provides support in larger organisms may have represented an advantage in the face of selection pressure for the evolution of the ECM.


Effects Of H-Ras Disease Mutations On Binding To The Ras Binding Domain Of Pi3ky Measured By Micro-Scale Thermophoresis, Justin Martyr Jan 2019

Effects Of H-Ras Disease Mutations On Binding To The Ras Binding Domain Of Pi3ky Measured By Micro-Scale Thermophoresis, Justin Martyr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

H-Ras is a G-protein responsible for the activation of multiple signaling pathways that control cell growth. Our primary interest is examining its role in the regulation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade, as H-Ras has been previously shown to recruit PI3K to the plasma membrane where this lipid kinase phosphorylates PIP2 to PIP3, a signal for cellular growth. The H-Ras-PI3K-PIP3 signaling pathway is known to be highly oncogenic, with constitutive activation of H-Ras leading to increased PIP3 production and cell growth. We hypothesize that disease-linked mutations on the binding interface between Ras and PI3K increase the ...


The Grass Is Always Greener On The Other Side (Of The Basement Membrane): Prostate Cancer Metastasis As Intracorporeal Dispersal, Matthew Oh Jan 2019

The Grass Is Always Greener On The Other Side (Of The Basement Membrane): Prostate Cancer Metastasis As Intracorporeal Dispersal, Matthew Oh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dispersal ecology offers a possible explanation for the behavior of prostate cancer (PCa), which disproportionately metastasizes to the bone. Organisms become more likely to leave their home patch when conditions are unfavorable, with the goal of becoming established in more favorable patches. Similarly, PCa cells are pushed from the prostate tumor by hypoxic stress and pulled toward the bone by the presence of bone stromal cells (BSCs), which support PCa growth and proliferation. When PCa settles in the bone, it leads to the formation of a feedforward loop in which PCa enhances osteoblast differentiation; osteoblasts in turn promote PCa proliferation ...


Genes Regulating Cell Movement During Regeneration In Drosophila Melanogaster Following Radiation Damage, Michelle Ledru Jan 2019

Genes Regulating Cell Movement During Regeneration In Drosophila Melanogaster Following Radiation Damage, Michelle Ledru

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Each year, 1.7 million people are diagnosed with cancer and 610,000 people die from the disease (“Cancer Statistics,” 2018). Ionizing radiation therapy is a commonly used method of treatment for many cancers because it kills cancer cells (Baskar et al., 2012). However, cancer cells that have not been eradicated can proliferate, leading to resistance to treatment (Hanahan & Weinberg, 2011). Drosophila melanogasteris an excellent model organism because they have a short life cycle and share 75% of human disease-causing genes, while the larvae can withstand high amounts of radiation and have regenerative properties. Different genes were investigated to ...


The Association Between Hysterectomy And Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Record-Linkage Study, Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen, Penelope M. Webb, Louise F. Wilson, Karen Tuesley, Louise M. Stewart, Susan J. Jordan Jan 2019

The Association Between Hysterectomy And Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Record-Linkage Study, Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen, Penelope M. Webb, Louise F. Wilson, Karen Tuesley, Louise M. Stewart, Susan J. Jordan

Health Sciences Papers and Journal Articles

Background: Recent studies have called into question the long-held belief that hysterectomy without oophorectomy protects against ovarian cancer. This population-based longitudinal record-linkage study aimed to explore this relationship, overall and by age at hysterectomy, time period, surgery type, and indication for hysterectomy.

Methods: We followed the female adult Western Australian population (837 942 women) across a 27-year period using linked electoral, hospital, births, deaths, and cancer records. Surgery dates were determined from hospital records, and ovarian cancer diagnoses (n¼1640) were ascertained from cancer registry records.We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ...


A 3d Bioprinter Platform For Mechanistic Analysis Of Tumoroids And Chimeric Mammary Organoids, John A. Reid, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Peter A. Mollica, Nicole Northam, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2019

A 3d Bioprinter Platform For Mechanistic Analysis Of Tumoroids And Chimeric Mammary Organoids, John A. Reid, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Peter A. Mollica, Nicole Northam, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The normal mammary microenvironment can suppress tumorigenesis and redirect cancer cells to adopt a normal mammary epithelial cell fate in vivo. Understanding of this phenomenon offers great promise for novel treatment and detection strategies in cancer, but current model systems make mechanistic insights into the process difficult. We have recently described a low-cost bioprinting platform designed to be accessible for basic cell biology laboratories. Here we report the use of this system for the study of tumorigenesis and microenvironmental redirection of breast cancer cells. We show our bioprinter significantly increases tumoroid formation in 3D collagen gels and allows for precise ...