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Life Sciences Commons

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2019

Biology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Darwin At The Drugstore? Testing The Biological Fitness Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Alan L. Gillen, Sarah Anderson Jul 2019

Darwin At The Drugstore? Testing The Biological Fitness Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Alan L. Gillen, Sarah Anderson

Alan L. Gillen

The issue of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is growing. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen. New strains of MRSA are resistant to methicillin and numerous other antibiotics, placing the patient in significant danger. Indeed, the Centers for Disease Control revealed in 2007 that the number of deaths due to MRSA exceeded that of AIDS in the United States. It is no wonder that antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant and important health care issues. The ability of bacterial pathogens to evade traditional antibiotics is faster than the drug makers’ ability to make new ...


Open Textbook Project [Poster], Sue Ann Gardner Jun 2019

Open Textbook Project [Poster], Sue Ann Gardner

Library Conference Presentations and Speeches

Details of a porject undertaken to collaboratively write and produce an open access parasitology textbook for undergraduate and graduate students. The book will be published by Zea Books at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2020 and be available in English and Spanish both online and print-on-demand through lulu.com.

Co-Executive Editors: Sue Ann Gardner and Scott L. Gardner, University of nebraska-Lincoln. Copyeditor: Linnea Fredrickson, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Spanish Translator: Yoanna Esquivel Greenwood, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Project Coordinator: Sue Ann Gardner.

Project website: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/parasittext/.


Do Stands Of Native Trees Harbor Different Invasive Species Than Stands Of Planted Pine?, Carly Mccameron, John Mccarthy, Dr. Kevin Geedey May 2019

Do Stands Of Native Trees Harbor Different Invasive Species Than Stands Of Planted Pine?, Carly Mccameron, John Mccarthy, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

The most outstanding invasive species that can be found at Augustana’s Green Wing Environmental Laboratory are honeysuckle, buckthorn, multiflora rose, garlic mustard, autumn olive, and oriental bittersweet. These plants are not only disrupting the ecosystem at Green Wing, but they are doing it all over the country. The result of their disruption is that they have taken over entire habitats and left natural species with no way to compete for survival. To study this we used the line-point method as well as other forms of data collection to compare a non-native pine tree habitat to an area dominated by ...


Genetic Sequencing For Measuring Biodiversity In Recent And Ancient Marine Sediments, Lauren Judge May 2019

Genetic Sequencing For Measuring Biodiversity In Recent And Ancient Marine Sediments, Lauren Judge

Celebration of Learning

Taxonomic biodiversity, measured by counting the number of species present in a given area, is the most common method of capturing ecosystem biodiversity in recent and ancient environments. While this method is widely accepted, it is limited by poor preservation and identification of many individuals, making it impossible to include every species within an ecosystem and resulting in the loss of some diversity information. To address this issue, we measured the genetic biodiversity (in which species are determined based on sequencing of their DNA) of shallow marine ecosystems by extracting and sequencing the 18S ribosomal gene from bulk carbonate sediment ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark May 2019

A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark

HCNSO Student Capstones

Cephalopods are both important predators and prey in many marine environments and important fishery resources in many countries. The global fishery has expanded almost continuously from landings of 580,000 metric tonnes in 1950 to over 4 m.t. in 2007. Cephalopods are ecological opportunists with highly plastic biological characteristics and varied population dynamics. Nearly all commercially harvested species are short-lived and can reproduce quickly, enabling them to evolve more rapidly under high selection pressure relative to many fish competitors and predators. As a result, they may have the biological means to be successful under conditions of long-term global climate ...


Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost May 2019

Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost

Honors Program Projects

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is a very common mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research ...


Advancing Natural History Research Using The Collections Of The Owu Brant Museum Of Zoology, Josh Pletcher, Kyle Davis Apr 2019

Advancing Natural History Research Using The Collections Of The Owu Brant Museum Of Zoology, Josh Pletcher, Kyle Davis

Student Symposium

Natural history collections are important repositories of biological and geological material. Biological collections provide raw data to interpret the ecology, anatomy, and evolution of living and fossil organisms. OWU’s zoological collections play an important role in undergraduate research and educating future preparators. Two projects are currently in progress: Kyle Davis’ work on size variation in house sparrows and Josh Pletcher’s work digitizing OWU’s collection of Ward’s fossil casts. We travelled to museums in New York and Connecticut to further pursue our research. Kyle Davis’ research focuses on Bergmann’s Rule, which states that as temperature decreases ...


Law And Biology: Toward An Integrated Model Of Human Behavior, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Law And Biology: Toward An Integrated Model Of Human Behavior, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

As first year law students unhappily discover, the meaning of "law" is frustratingly protean, shifting by usage and user. Depending on whom you ask, law is a system of rules, a body of precedents, a legislative enactment, a collection of norms, a process by which social goals are pursued, or some dynamic mixture of these. Law's principal purpose is to define and protect individual rights, to ensure public order, to resolve disputes, to redistribute wealth, to dispense justice, to prevent or compensate for injury, to optimize economic efficiency, or perhaps to do something else. And yet one thing is ...


On The Nature Of Norms: Biology, Morality, And The Disruption Of Order, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

On The Nature Of Norms: Biology, Morality, And The Disruption Of Order, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This essay discusses the legal implications of bio-behavioral underpinnings to norms, morality, and economic order. It first discusses the recent book "The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order," in which Francis Fukuyama explores the importance of evolved human nature to the reconstruction of social order and a thriving economy. It then addresses the extent to which we can usefully view law-relevant norms as products of evolutionary - as well as economic - processes.


Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith Apr 2019

Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith

Owen Jones

Society uses law to encourage people to behave differently than they would behave in the absence of law. This fundamental purpose makes law highly dependent on sound understandings of the multiple causes of human behavior. The better those understandings, the better law can achieve social goals with legal tools. In this Article, Professors Jones and Goldsmith argue that many long held understandings about where behavior comes from are rapidly obsolescing as a consequence of developments in the various fields constituting behavioral biology. By helping to refine law's understandings of behavior's causes, they argue, behavioral biology can help to ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost Apr 2019

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


Study Guides And Videos For Openstax Biology, Chapters 5-7 (Egsc), Martiana Sega, David Chevalier Apr 2019

Study Guides And Videos For Openstax Biology, Chapters 5-7 (Egsc), Martiana Sega, David Chevalier

Biological Sciences Ancillary Materials

This set of videos and study guides for OpenStax Biology was created under an ALG Mini-Grant for Ancillary Materials Creation and Revision. Two videos on energy coupling and osmosis are included, along with study guides for chapters 5-8:

  • Plasma Membrane
  • Metabolism
  • Cellular Respiration

All files are included in one .zip folder.


Ability Of Flavonoids To Mimic The Estrogen Receptor To Drive Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation, Megan Bland, Cecilie Elliott, Kathryn Kosiorek Apr 2019

Ability Of Flavonoids To Mimic The Estrogen Receptor To Drive Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation, Megan Bland, Cecilie Elliott, Kathryn Kosiorek

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Flavonoids are natural compounds found in dietary elements such as soy, grains, and vegetables that have the potential to bind to the estrogen receptor. Activation of the estrogen receptor drives myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation, cells that increase during cancer, inflammation, and infection. In this study, we are investigating specific flavonoids, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, naringenin, daidzein, and genistein, for their ability to mimic estrogen. After examination, we expect that MDSC differentiation will decrease upon treatment of the chosen flavonoids, leading to reduced carcinogenic effects.


Investigating The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Activity Of P300, Meghan Hall Apr 2019

Investigating The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Activity Of P300, Meghan Hall

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Investigating the effects of cancer mutations on the activity of p300


The Use Hela Derived Telomerase On Nk Cells In The Treatment Of Ovarian Cancer, Juwairyah Gunter Apr 2019

The Use Hela Derived Telomerase On Nk Cells In The Treatment Of Ovarian Cancer, Juwairyah Gunter

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

A research proposal for a novel immunotherapy for treating ovarian cancer.


Consistency Is Futile!: Selecting Phycoremediators For Consortia, Tori Spencer Apr 2019

Consistency Is Futile!: Selecting Phycoremediators For Consortia, Tori Spencer

BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers

Bioremediation is the process by which organisms remove and transform toxic compounds in a contaminated source. This is a waste management technique currently used to clean up man-made contamination. Many organisms act as natural remediators; in the case of algae, they are called phycoremediators who perform phycoremediaton. The term algae encompasses a variety of taxonomic groups and their diversity is still being realized; there are over 44,000 named species of the 72,000 species that we have identified. Some estimates calculate that there are over 200,000 diatom species alone. This diversity continues to be difficult to organize, which ...


H/L Ratio As A Measurement Of Immune Function In Terrapene Ornata Species, Vesa Govori Mar 2019

H/L Ratio As A Measurement Of Immune Function In Terrapene Ornata Species, Vesa Govori

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

White blood cells are a key part of the immune system, and changes in white cell count can reveal the overall state of health and the immune systems functional ability of a species. White blood such as heterophils and lymphocytes are essential for being able to fight off infections. Analyzing different cell ratios has been commonly done before as a way to observe immune function in bird species as well as other species. Understanding that there are different functions between the different white blood cells provides an extra interesting perspective to what could be happening in the immune system function ...


Activity 2 Can You Have The Greenhouse Without The Gas.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Activity 2 Can You Have The Greenhouse Without The Gas.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

In this second activity of the Going Green Unit students develop a model of the atmosphere using a 2 liter bottle and different gases to determine the effect of these gases on temperature change when the bottles are placed in the sun.


Unit Overview_Its Not Easy Going Green.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman Mar 2019

Unit Overview_Its Not Easy Going Green.Docx, Lyn L. Countryman

Lyn Countryman

This is the overview of the Going Green Unit on Climate Change. This lists the five activities in this unit and gives a general overview. The main thrust of this unit is to provide students with the scientific data on climate factors and have them make their own minds about climate change.


Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov Mar 2019

Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

During normal cell metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are utilized in the cell as a signaling molecule and can be maintained at healthy levels by cellular antioxidants. However, when the cell experiences oxidative stress due to environmental or genetic conditions, levels of ROS can exceed healthy levels and inhibit necessary life functions by damaging biomolecules and cellular structures. This loss of function can lead to physiological decline and neurodegeneration, such as in diseases like Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and, potentially, Huntington’s disease. The following experiments use the model ...


Student Perceptions Of Reasons For Lecture And Active Learning, Calan Koch Mar 2019

Student Perceptions Of Reasons For Lecture And Active Learning, Calan Koch

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

With perceived student resistance to active learning in the classroom, instructors are hesitant to implement such methods into their classroom structure despite how effective they may be. This research seeks to understand student perceptions related to the transition to higher prevalence of active learning techniques. We aimed to find answers to how students perceive the ideal classroom to be structured, what reasons they perceive for lecture and active learning components, and possible explanations to concerns of groupwork during class time. We analyzed 64 interviews with undergraduate biology students at the University of Nebraska- Lincoln, developed coding rubrics from commonly found ...


Using Motion-Activated Trail Cameras To Study Diet And Productivity Of Cliff-Nesting Golden Eagles, Jordan T. Harrison, Michael N. Kochert, Benjamin P. Pauli, Julie A. Heath Mar 2019

Using Motion-Activated Trail Cameras To Study Diet And Productivity Of Cliff-Nesting Golden Eagles, Jordan T. Harrison, Michael N. Kochert, Benjamin P. Pauli, Julie A. Heath

Raptor Research Center Publications and Presentations

Studies of cliff-nesting raptors can be challenging because direct observations of nest contents are difficult. Our goals were to develop a protocol for installing motion-activated trail cameras at Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests to record diet information and productivity, and to estimate prey detection probability using different diet study methods. In 2014 and 2015, we installed cameras at 12 Golden Eagle nests with 18–42-d-old nestlings. Following installation, we monitored adult behavior using direct observation and post-installation image review. At two nests, adult eagles did not return to nests or exhibited behaviors suggesting avoidance of the cameras, but returned to ...


Velvet Longhorned Beetle (Trichoferus Campestris (Faldermann), Taryn M. Rodman, Lori R. Spears, Diane G. Alston, Cami Cannon, Kristopher Watson, Joey Caputo Mar 2019

Velvet Longhorned Beetle (Trichoferus Campestris (Faldermann), Taryn M. Rodman, Lori R. Spears, Diane G. Alston, Cami Cannon, Kristopher Watson, Joey Caputo

All Current Publications

The velvet longhorned beetle is an invasive wood-boring pest that is native to Asia and Russia. It infests fruit, forest, and ornamental trees, as well as green and dry wood, such as timber and lumber. This fact sheet provides a description, and information on life history, plant hosts, injury symptoms, monitoring, and management.


The Social Construction Of Life: Critical Thinking About Biology In Society, Peter J. Taylor Feb 2019

The Social Construction Of Life: Critical Thinking About Biology In Society, Peter J. Taylor

Working Papers on Science in a Changing World

This book aims to expand the boundaries of the influences that readers consider when interpreting the practices and products of the life sciences ("biology") and their impact on society. The chapter topics include: Interpreting Ideas of Nature; The structure of origin stories; Multiple layers in influencing an audience: The case of Darwin's On the Origin of Species; Metaphors of coordination and development; What causes a disease?—the consequences of hereditarianism in the case of pellagra; How changeable are IQ test scores?; Social negotiations around genetic screening; Intersecting processes involving genes and environment.

Each chapter consists of 5 parts:

1 ...


Life Line - February 2019, Otterbein University Feb 2019

Life Line - February 2019, Otterbein University

Life Line - The Biology Department Newsletter

Curricular Changes, Dr. Young's Sabbatical, Coal, Gas & Oil - Geology trip to eastern Ohio, Rebekah Perry is engaging the community in natural history, Student Research, Fem in STEM, Zoo students on Belize Trip, Scientific Art


Extracellular Matrix In Development And Disease, Julia Thom Oxford, Jonathon C. Reeck, Makenna J. Hardy Jan 2019

Extracellular Matrix In Development And Disease, Julia Thom Oxford, Jonathon C. Reeck, Makenna J. Hardy

Biomolecular Research Center Publications and Presentations

The evolution of multicellular metazoan organisms was marked by the inclusion of an extracellular matrix (ECM), a multicomponent, proteinaceous network between cells that contributes to the spatial arrangement of cells and the resulting tissue organization. The development of an ECM that provides support in larger organisms may have represented an advantage in the face of selection pressure for the evolution of the ECM.


City Limits: Heat Tolerance Is Influenced By Body Size And Hydration State In An Urban Ant Community, Dustin Jerald Johnson Jan 2019

City Limits: Heat Tolerance Is Influenced By Body Size And Hydration State In An Urban Ant Community, Dustin Jerald Johnson

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Cities are rapidly expanding, and global warming is intensified in urban environments due to the urban heat island effect. Therefore, urban animals may be particularly susceptible to warming associated with ongoing climate change. Thus, I used a comparative and manipulative approach to test three related hypotheses about the determinants of heat tolerance or critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in urban ants—specifically, that (1) body size, (2) hydration status, and (3) preferred micro-environments influence CTmax. I further tested a fourth hypothesis that native species are particularly physiologically vulnerable in urban environments. I manipulated water access and determined CTmax for 11 species ...


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade Jan 2019

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


Lifelines Winter 2019, Southern Adventist University Jan 2019

Lifelines Winter 2019, Southern Adventist University

Lifelines Newsletter

No abstract provided.