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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer Oct 2019

Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson Jun 2019

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson

Western Research Forum

Using stable isotope measurements of insect tissues to determine origin and migratory patterns is well established. However, isotopically determining nutritional origins of lipids, the primary fuel of migration, has not been as thoroughly researched. We explored isotopic links between diet and stored lipids in laboratory raised True armyworm moths (Mythimna unipuncta) using δ13C and δ2H measurements. Pupae were randomly separated into four groups (n=20) and fed isotopically distinct nectar, each consisting of a combination of high δ13C (C4 sugar), or low δ13C (C3 sugar) carbohydrate, with high δ2H (deuterium ...


Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensitivity By Torc1 Signalling In Yeast, Khadija Ahmed, Patrick Lajoie Jun 2019

Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensitivity By Torc1 Signalling In Yeast, Khadija Ahmed, Patrick Lajoie

Western Research Forum

Incorrect folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in an aberrant accumulation of misfolded proteins (ER stress) and activates a coping mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). While the mechanisms of UPR activation have been well established, how it integrates with other stress responses remains unclear.

Given that TORC1 is an important regulator of cell growth during protein misfolding stress, we sought to investigate how TORC1 signalling acts in parallel with the UPR to regulate ER stress sensitivity. Our studies employ the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a biochemically traceable model organism that allows for extensive ...


Uncovering The Role Of Ovol1 In Placental Stem Cell Differentiation Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Maram Albakri, Patrick Lajoie, Stephen Renaud, Gargi Jaju, Hazel Dhaliwal Jun 2019

Uncovering The Role Of Ovol1 In Placental Stem Cell Differentiation Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Maram Albakri, Patrick Lajoie, Stephen Renaud, Gargi Jaju, Hazel Dhaliwal

Western Research Forum

OVOL1 is a conserved transcription factor involved in regulating cytrophoblast differentiation in the placenta. Our objective for this study is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae to uncover the role of OVOL1 in placental stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Previous research suggests that OVOL1 regulates cytotrophoblast progenitor state by regulating genome acetylation. Therefore, our study aims to determine how OVOL1 effect yeast growth and the yeast acetylome, and to use the yeast model to determine downstream targets of OVOL1. In order to understand the role of OVOL1, we will develop a yeast model and employ growth assays to assess growth defects and ...


Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet Jun 2019

Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet

Western Research Forum

Background:

In chronic HIV patients, the viral populations are genetically diverse due to mutations introduced by the viral reverse transcriptase during HIV replication. However, more than 80% new infections result from single transmission founder (TF) viruses; therefore, targeting the TFs is key to control AIDS worldwide.

Gp120 is a glycosylated envelope protein required for HIV infection, propagation, and transmission. Glycans on gp120 influence HIV infectivity through their interactions with lectins, the carbohydrate-binding immune proteins in the host mucosa. To transmit sexually, viruses must overcome the lectin traps to access more target T cells.

Hypothesis:

TF viruses are less likely to ...


Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D. Jun 2019

Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D.

Western Research Forum

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, one of many different protein signaling pathways found in mammals, is vital in many stage of neural development. A major negative regulator of Hh signaling is a protein known as Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), which acts to sequester the full length Gli transcription factors, proteins that can turn genes on and off, in the cytoplasm or facilitates its conversion to a repressive form. The P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line is a model of hind-brain neuronal differentiation and the involvement of Hh signaling, in particular the role of SUFU in this process has yet to be explored. We ...


The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd Jun 2019

The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd

Western Research Forum

Background: Emotional information has privileged access to processing resources, which can cause it to have a distracting or facilitating effect on task performance for reasons that are poorly understood. The sensory modality through which it is presented may be one determining factor. Some findings suggest that auditory stimuli facilitate visual task performance while visual stimuli interfere with it, but there are conflicting findings.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that emotional content of a different sensory modality from the task improves task-related performance via a general alerting and arousing effect for all stimuli, while emotional content of the same modality disrupts performance when ...


An Application Of The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: Optimizing Cluster Method Parameters To Produce Predictive Data For Hiv Outbreaks, Connor J. Chato, Art Fy Poon Jun 2019

An Application Of The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: Optimizing Cluster Method Parameters To Produce Predictive Data For Hiv Outbreaks, Connor J. Chato, Art Fy Poon

Western Research Forum

Background

A popular approach to study HIV outbreaks is to cluster cases based on genetic similarity. However, there is no widely-used statistical criterion which optimizes the parameters for sequence-based clustering methods. The relationship between a cluster-defining similarity threshold and it’s associated set of clusters can be analogized to the aggregation level in the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP).

Hypothesis

Based on the selection of aggregation level for study partitions in MAUP, we present a statistical framework to optimize the similarity threshold for pairwise distance algorithm TN93 (http://github.com/veg/tn93). We hypothesize that defining this threshold includes case ...


The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer Jun 2019

The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background:

Due to its complex branching structure, direct drug delivery to the remote areas of the lung is a major challenge. Consequently, most therapies, such as those treating pulmonary infection and inflammation, must utilize large systemic dosing, with the potential for adverse side effects. A novel alternative strategy is to use exogenous surfactant, a material capable of distributing throughout the lung, as a pulmonary drug delivery vehicle.

Objective:

Utilize an in vitro transferring system to assess exogenous surfactant (BLES) as a pulmonary delivery vehicle for different therapeutics.

Methods:

An in vitro technique was developed to simultaneously study surfactant delivery and ...


Dairy Intake And Cognitive Function In Canadian Older Adults, Mariam R. Ismail Miss, Alan Salmoni Jun 2019

Dairy Intake And Cognitive Function In Canadian Older Adults, Mariam R. Ismail Miss, Alan Salmoni

Western Research Forum

Background: Dietary intake is one of the modifiable factors that may affect older adults’ cognitive function in their later years. Few research has considered the potential role of dairy foods on cognitive function. Methods: Across-sectional study was undertaken in 2014. Cognitive function was assessed using The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial (RCFT), Trail-Making Test (TMT), Victoria Stroop Test (VST) and the Digit Span Test (DST). Dietary intake was assessed via estimated 5-day food intake records and analyzed for saturated fat, vitamin D and calcium. Results: A total of 32 participants (8 males and 24 ...


Optimization Of The Touchscreen-Based Visuomotor Conditional Learning Task In Mice, Oren Princz-Lebel, David I. Wasserman, Miguel Skirzewski, Penny A. Macdonald, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey Jun 2019

Optimization Of The Touchscreen-Based Visuomotor Conditional Learning Task In Mice, Oren Princz-Lebel, David I. Wasserman, Miguel Skirzewski, Penny A. Macdonald, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

The translational gap between animal models and clinical trials is a longstanding, yet largely unresolved, limitation in the study of cognition. This discrepancy is largely due to the differences in how cognition is assessed in animal models compared to those in clinical populations. In the stimulus-response (S-R) learning literature, for example, the techniques used to assess the acquisition of habitual behaviour differ greatly across species, leading to poor cross-species translation and often conflicting results. As a result, we set out to optimize a S-R learning task in mice using the touchscreen-based operant technologies. Similar to human studies, this touchscreen technique ...


Genomic Analysis Of Mitochondria Of Metschnikowia, Dong Kyung Lee Jun 2019

Genomic Analysis Of Mitochondria Of Metschnikowia, Dong Kyung Lee

Western Research Forum

Genomic Analysis of Mitochondria of Metschnikowia

Background

Our current understanding of mitochondrial genomes is biased toward metazoans, which represent the majority of sequenced mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). The high diversity in size, shape, and gene synteny among yeast mitochondrial genomes make them an appealing alternative to those of metazoans for studying genomic diversity and evolution. Recently, more than 60 draft-genome assemblies of large-spored Metschnikowia species have been determined. Complete mitochondrial genomes of these yeasts, however, are yet to be constructed and characterized. Therefore, I propose to construct and analyze the mitochondrial genomes of all 61 strains of large-spored Metschnikowia species.

Hypothesis ...


Cell-Free Dna Release During Programmed Cell Death In Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Alexander Dionne, Anthony M. Jevnikar, Zhu-Xu Zhang Jun 2019

Cell-Free Dna Release During Programmed Cell Death In Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Alexander Dionne, Anthony M. Jevnikar, Zhu-Xu Zhang

Western Research Forum

Transplantation is invariably associated with acute allograft injury caused by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). This injury causes cells of the allograft to undergo various forms of programmed cell death including apoptosis and necroptosis. During programmed cell death, immunogenic molecules are released from cells, one of which is cell-free DNA (cfDNA). We hypothesize that cfDNA is released by microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) during programmed cell death of IRI and that cfDNA acts as both a biomarker for cellular injury as well as a biologically active molecule capable of amplifying inflammation and organ injury.

Our results indicate that cfDNA is released by ...


Ecological Researcher, Alex Demmers Jun 2019

Ecological Researcher, Alex Demmers

Celebration of Learning

This is my field research I complete during the summer of 2018.


Snake Fungal Disease In Lake Eerie Water Snakes And Its Affect On Attitude And Behavior During Treatment, Kelcie Fredrickson Jun 2019

Snake Fungal Disease In Lake Eerie Water Snakes And Its Affect On Attitude And Behavior During Treatment, Kelcie Fredrickson

Celebration of Learning

Snake fungal disease (SFD) is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Infection occurs when the outer skin is breached, and the organism enters the epidermis. The epidermis becomes necrotic and produces a yellow/brown crust. When the crust breaks off, ulcerations/lesions are formed along the snake’s body, head and tail. It has been found that SFD can be treated with a terbinafine nebulization treatment. Ellen Haynes, a PhD student, created a study in which 26 Lake Eerie water snakes are separated into treatment and control groups to determine the effectiveness of the nebulization treatment. Through daily observations, this ...


Diversity Of The Brown Alga Dictyota Between Deep And Shallow Reefs Of Hawaii, Mary Ade, Rachael M. Wade, Heather L. Spalding, Alison R. Sherwood Jun 2019

Diversity Of The Brown Alga Dictyota Between Deep And Shallow Reefs Of Hawaii, Mary Ade, Rachael M. Wade, Heather L. Spalding, Alison R. Sherwood

Celebration of Learning

In this presentation, I compile the results of 10 weeks of an NSF-funded REU during the summer of 2018. This research is regarding the biodiversity of Dictyota species found in the mesophotic and shallow reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian islands.


Optimization Of Simultaneous Facial Emg And Fmri, Maggie Prenger Jun 2019

Optimization Of Simultaneous Facial Emg And Fmri, Maggie Prenger

Western Research Forum

The scientific study of emotion began in the 19th century with Duchenne’s study of the “universal and immutable” language of facial expressions. In The Mechanism of Human Physiognomy, he manipulates human facial expressions by electrically stimulating facial muscles. Facial electromyography (EMG) is a modern technique that is reminiscent of Duchenne’s work; it allows researchers to measure facial muscle activity through surface recording electrodes, providing a real-time measure of natural emotional reactions.

Although facial EMG is a reliable measure of emotional behavior, it fails to provide any information about brain activity responsible for emotional processes. Functional magnetic resonance ...


Spontaneous Mimicry Of Emotional Facial Expressions As A Function Of Trait Sadism, Cathleen Fleury, Mary Ritchie, Derek Mitchell Jun 2019

Spontaneous Mimicry Of Emotional Facial Expressions As A Function Of Trait Sadism, Cathleen Fleury, Mary Ritchie, Derek Mitchell

Western Research Forum

Using electromyography (EMG), it has been shown that facial muscles imperceptibly mirror the facial expressions of others, a phenomenon referred to as spontaneous facial mimicry. Facial mimicry may be involved in empathy processing, and is impaired in several empathy deficit disorders. It was previously believed to follow the direct-matching principle, a theory postulating that spontaneous facial mimicry involves the observer mirroring their partner’s expression exactly. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that context and individual differences may be influencing factors of spontaneous facial mimicry. In the present study, we propose to investigate the relationship between facial mimicry and empathy ...


Tracking Residual-Yolk Energy In Dormant Hatchling Turtles, Tom Pham, Dr. Tim J. Muir, Samira Radi, Jacob Wyco Jun 2019

Tracking Residual-Yolk Energy In Dormant Hatchling Turtles, Tom Pham, Dr. Tim J. Muir, Samira Radi, Jacob Wyco

Celebration of Learning

Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) spend their first winter inside natal nests without food and must rely on maternally derived energy in the form of residual yolk for up to nine months. In this study, we take a closer look at the use and movement of residual-yolk energy during the first 33 weeks (~8 mo.) after hatching by measuring changes in mass, lipid content, & protein content of yolk, liver, small intestine, and carcass. Our data showed a significant decrease in yolk mass by 64% and significant increases in carcass & liver masses of 9% & 16%, respectively, during the first 2 weeks ...


Neurobiological Effects Of Probiotic-Supplemented Diets In Acutely Stressed Male Long-Evans Rats: Evidence Of Enhanced Resilience, Nicholas Natale, Bilal Hindi, Peter Santore, Molly H. Kent, Kelly Lambert Jun 2019

Neurobiological Effects Of Probiotic-Supplemented Diets In Acutely Stressed Male Long-Evans Rats: Evidence Of Enhanced Resilience, Nicholas Natale, Bilal Hindi, Peter Santore, Molly H. Kent, Kelly Lambert

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

~Considering that the human intestine is home to almost 100 trillion microorganisms including bacteria (Cryan, 2011), recent research has focused on the role of the microbiome in neurobiological functions such as stress, anxiety and coping responses.

~Focusing on animal models, previous findings indicate that modifications of the gut microbiota via antibiotics and certain probiotics alter the anxiety response via the vagus nerve & immune system mediation (MacQueen et al., 2017).

~Recently, the concept of Psychobiotics has been introduced to refer to the use of microbiota to positively influence mental health outcomes (Foster et al., 2017).


Invertebrate Diversity Of Ponds Within Gremel Wildlife Sanctuary And Amboy Marsh, Dalton Howard, Madison Lape May 2019

Invertebrate Diversity Of Ponds Within Gremel Wildlife Sanctuary And Amboy Marsh, Dalton Howard, Madison Lape

Celebration of Learning

This project tested the water quality of different ponds and used macroinvertebrates as the overall indicator. The invertebrates give us a lot of knowledge about the health of the ecosystem and possible pollutants that could be harming the environments.


Do Stands Of Native Trees Harbor Different Invasive Species Than Stands Of Planted Pine?, Carly Mccameron, John Mccarthy, Dr. Kevin Geedey May 2019

Do Stands Of Native Trees Harbor Different Invasive Species Than Stands Of Planted Pine?, Carly Mccameron, John Mccarthy, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

The most outstanding invasive species that can be found at Augustana’s Green Wing Environmental Laboratory are honeysuckle, buckthorn, multiflora rose, garlic mustard, autumn olive, and oriental bittersweet. These plants are not only disrupting the ecosystem at Green Wing, but they are doing it all over the country. The result of their disruption is that they have taken over entire habitats and left natural species with no way to compete for survival. To study this we used the line-point method as well as other forms of data collection to compare a non-native pine tree habitat to an area dominated by ...


Sense Of Community And Space, Amanda Corona May 2019

Sense Of Community And Space, Amanda Corona

Celebration of Learning

Sense of community (SOC) is defined as a person’s experience of a group or specific area (Kenkmann et al, 1996). Physical spaces can affect SOC; small colleges have higher SOC on average than universities (Lounsbury & DeNeui, 1996). A person’s identity, especially ethnic identity, can also influence SOC (Rivas-Drake, 2012; Liu, 2005). However, there is less work on the intersection of physical space and ethnic identity (Devlin et al, 2008). This raises the questions: how does the experience of a community space affect someone’s SOC, and would it vary by ethnicity?

The relationship between communal spaces and identity can be could explored by asking different individuals how they perceive a space. In one ...


Genetic Sequencing For Measuring Biodiversity In Recent And Ancient Marine Sediments, Lauren Judge May 2019

Genetic Sequencing For Measuring Biodiversity In Recent And Ancient Marine Sediments, Lauren Judge

Celebration of Learning

Taxonomic biodiversity, measured by counting the number of species present in a given area, is the most common method of capturing ecosystem biodiversity in recent and ancient environments. While this method is widely accepted, it is limited by poor preservation and identification of many individuals, making it impossible to include every species within an ecosystem and resulting in the loss of some diversity information. To address this issue, we measured the genetic biodiversity (in which species are determined based on sequencing of their DNA) of shallow marine ecosystems by extracting and sequencing the 18S ribosomal gene from bulk carbonate sediment ...


Socially Regulated Neural Circuits Activation Via Endocannabinoid And Dopaminergic Signaling In Zebrafish, Choongseok Park May 2019

Socially Regulated Neural Circuits Activation Via Endocannabinoid And Dopaminergic Signaling In Zebrafish, Choongseok Park

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Predicting Tgf-Β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Using Data Assimilation, Mario J. Mendez, Matthew J. Hoffman, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Seth Weinberg May 2019

Predicting Tgf-Β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Using Data Assimilation, Mario J. Mendez, Matthew J. Hoffman, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Seth Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen May 2019

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Differences In The Interferon Signaling Network Across Cell Types, Sivan Leviyang, Igor Griva, Nate Strawn May 2019

Quantifying Differences In The Interferon Signaling Network Across Cell Types, Sivan Leviyang, Igor Griva, Nate Strawn

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku May 2019

Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Computational Modeling Of Cilia Dynamics In The Human Airways, Uduak George May 2019

Computational Modeling Of Cilia Dynamics In The Human Airways, Uduak George

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.