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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley Sep 2019

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley

Papers in Plant Pathology

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides worldwide and are typically deployed as seed treatments (hereafter NST) in many grain and oilseed crops, including soybeans. However, there is a surprising dearth of information regarding NST effectiveness in increasing soybean seed yield, and most published data suggest weak, or inconsistent yield benefit. The US is the key soybean-producing nation worldwide and this work includes soybean yield data from 194 randomized and replicated field studies conducted specifically to evaluate the effect of NSTs on soybean seed yield at sites within 14 states from 2006 through 2017. Here we show that across the ...


When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Jan 2019

When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Just as human beings can catch a cold, plants can also get viral infections. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the interactions between plants and viruses is the first step towards developing better management strategies and using biotechnology methods to immunise plants and engineer genetic resistance to viruses in plants. This is the focus of research by Dr Hernan Garcia-Ruiz and his team based at the University of Nebraska, USA.

Viral diseases in plants can cause important economic losses as a result of poor-quality products and lower yield. This impact can particularly seriously affect developing countries which are more likely to be ...


Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2019

Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant virus genome replication and movement is dependent on host resources and factors. However, plants respond to virus infection through several mechanisms, such as autophagy, ubiquitination, mRNA decay and gene silencing, that target viral components. Viral factors work in synchrony with pro-viral host factors during the infection cycle and are targeted by antiviral responses. Accordingly, establishment of virus infection is genetically determined by the availability of the pro-viral factors necessary for genome replication and movement, and by the balance between plant defence and viral suppression of defence responses. Sequential requirement of pro-viral factors and the antagonistic activity of antiviral factors ...


Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm Jan 2019

Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

Papers in Plant Pathology

Best practices in laboratory culture management often include cryopreservation of microbiota, but this can be challenging with some virus particles. By preserving viral isolates researchers can mitigate genetic drift and laboratory-induced selection, thereby maintaining genetically consistent strains between experiments. To this end, we developed a method to cryopreserve the model, green-alga infecting virus, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). We explored cryotolerance of the infectivity of this virus particle, whereby freezing without cryoprotectants was found to maintain the highest infectivity (~2.5%). We then assessed the cryopreservation potential of PBCV-1 during an active infection cycle in its Chlorella variabilis NC64A ...


A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2019

A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

Papers in Plant Pathology

Some algal viruses have coding sequences for proteins with structural and functional characteristics of pore modules of complex K+ channels. Here we exploit the structural diversity among these channel orthologs to discover new basic principles of structure/function correlates in K+ channels. The analysis of three similar K+ channels with ≤ 86 amino acids (AA) shows that one channel (Kmpv1) generates an ohmic conductance in HEK293 cells while the other two (KmpvSP1, KmpvPL1) exhibit typical features of canonical Kir channels. Like Kir channels, the rectification of the viral channels is a function of the K+ driving force. Reconstitution ...