Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information May 2019

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


Table Of Contents May 2019

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


Advertising And Orders May 2019

Advertising And Orders

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the advertising and orders.


Conservation Of Threatened Canada-Usa Trans-Border Grizzly Bears Linked To Comprehensive Conflict Reduction, Michael F. Proctor, Wayne F. Kasworm, Kimberly M. Annis, A. Grant Machutchon, Justin E. Teisberg, Thomas G. Radandt, Chris Servheen May 2019

Conservation Of Threatened Canada-Usa Trans-Border Grizzly Bears Linked To Comprehensive Conflict Reduction, Michael F. Proctor, Wayne F. Kasworm, Kimberly M. Annis, A. Grant Machutchon, Justin E. Teisberg, Thomas G. Radandt, Chris Servheen

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Erratum to "Conservation of Threatened Canada-USA Trans-border Grizzly Bears Linked to Comprehensive Conflict Reduction". https://doi.org/10.26077/yjy6-0m57


The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Robert M. Timm Jan 2019

The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Robert M. Timm

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Predation by wild carnivores challenges livestock producers worldwide. To reduce or offset losses due to predation, a variety of predator control methods and compensation schemes have been developed. In 2001, Marin County, California, USA replaced its U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services (WS) cooperative predator damage management program with a county-run program that emphasized nonlethal methods for preventing and controlling coyote (Canis latrans) predation on domestic sheep (Ovis aries). This new Livestock Protection Program (LPP) cost-shared with livestock producers’ efforts to improve fencing, obtain and maintain guard animals, and other such nonlethal methods, and initially it compensated producers for ...


In The News, Jason Matthews, Joe N. Caudell Jan 2019

In The News, Jason Matthews, Joe N. Caudell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

No abstract provided.


Did Predator Control Go To The Dogs? A 40-Year Retrospective, John M. Tomeček Jan 2019

Did Predator Control Go To The Dogs? A 40-Year Retrospective, John M. Tomeček

Human–Wildlife Interactions

In 1980, Green and Woodruff published an article entitled, “Is Predator Control Going to the Dogs?” At that time, the use of Livestock Guardian Dogs (hereafter LGDs) was a relatively new wildlife damage management tool in North America. Although this tool passed the test of time in its point of origin, early North American adopters stepped into a brave new world with little to guide them. In the modern world, knowledge of methods and means of wildlife damage management exists in written texts, films, and other guides. For LGDs, however, such materials did not exist 40 years ago. Over the ...


Temporal Trends In Florida Panther Food Habits, Gretchen Caudill, David P. Onorato, Mark W. Cunningham, Danny Caudill, Erin H. Leone, Lisa M. Smith, Deborah Jansen Jan 2019

Temporal Trends In Florida Panther Food Habits, Gretchen Caudill, David P. Onorato, Mark W. Cunningham, Danny Caudill, Erin H. Leone, Lisa M. Smith, Deborah Jansen

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Once on the brink of extinction, the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) has reoccupied parts of its extirpated range in southern Florida, USA over the past 20 years, which has largely been attributed to genetic restoration efforts initiated in 1995 to combat inbreeding depression and subsequent deleterious traits. Concurrent to the resurgence, an increase in documented livestock depredation events has heightened concern over human– panther conflicts. We examined 312 stomach content, scat, and feces (large intestine contents) samples collected 1989 to 2014 across the endemic range in southern Florida. We compared frequency of occurrence of prey items in samples by ...


Who Takes The Bait? Non-Target Species Use Of Bear Hunter Bait Sites, Ellen M. Candler, William J. Severud, Joseph K. Bump Jan 2019

Who Takes The Bait? Non-Target Species Use Of Bear Hunter Bait Sites, Ellen M. Candler, William J. Severud, Joseph K. Bump

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Hunting bears (Ursus spp.) over baits is legal in many countries, states, and provinces, but the practice remains a controversial topic among wildlife managers, hunting groups, and the general public. The baits used to attract bears may also provide a pulsed resource on the landscape that can be used by other wildlife species, particularly carnivores. To determine what other species might use bear bait sites, we constructed and monitored 21 bear bait sites with camera traps from August to October 2016 in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. The sites mimicked typical American black bear (U. americanus) hunter bait ...


Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith Jan 2019

Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Developing the capacity to predict black bear (Ursus americanus; bear) activity in a diversity of habitats will help conserve bear populations and their habitats and minimize human–bear conflicts. This capacity will be particularly important in areas that provide bear habitat and offer backcountry hiking and camping experiences. Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA), located on the edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau in southern Utah, USA, provides important bear habitat and offers visitors 12 backcountry campsites. To effectively manage these areas to minimize human–bear conflicts, park managers will need better information about black bear use of these campsites and other ...


First Record Of White Stork In A Birdstrike In South Africa Above 3,300 M Agl, Desire Dalton, Marli De Bruyn, Monica Mwale, Kim Labuschagne, Melissa Hofmann, Albert Froneman, Hanneline A. Smit-Robinson, Antoinette Kotze Jan 2019

First Record Of White Stork In A Birdstrike In South Africa Above 3,300 M Agl, Desire Dalton, Marli De Bruyn, Monica Mwale, Kim Labuschagne, Melissa Hofmann, Albert Froneman, Hanneline A. Smit-Robinson, Antoinette Kotze

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Birdstrikes to aircrafts are increasing on an annual basis and pose significant aviation safety risks. Identification of the birds involved is key to developing mitigation strategies. Often the only information available to make identifications are feather and/or tissue samples. Relying on feathers alone to identify the bird species requires special expertise and access to museum collections for specimen comparisons. In 2017, feathers and tissue samples were recovered from the engine cowling of an airplane that had just landed at the Oliver Reginald (O. R.) Tambo international airport in South Africa after striking a bird at 3,353 m. To ...


Population Dynamics And Control Of Exotic South African Oryx In The Chihuahuan Desert, South-Central New Mexico, Louis Bender, Patrick Morrow, Mara Weisenberger, Bryce Krueger Jan 2019

Population Dynamics And Control Of Exotic South African Oryx In The Chihuahuan Desert, South-Central New Mexico, Louis Bender, Patrick Morrow, Mara Weisenberger, Bryce Krueger

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Introductions of exotic species can benefit certain publics but can also have many unanticipated consequences. South African oryx (Oryx gazella gazella) were introduced into the Chihuahuan Desert on White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico, USA to alleviate a perceived lack of large mammal hunting opportunities. Because of conflicts with oryx as the population increased, we modeled population growth and determined survival of radio-collared oryx to identify rates of population increase, limiting factors to population growth, and levels of harvest necessary to control population growth. Following introductions in 1969–1977, oryx significantly increased their range and showed a rate of ...


Control Efforts And Serologic Survey Of Pseudorabies And Brucellosis In Wild Pigs Of Tennessee, Lisa I. Muller, Neelam C. Poudyal, Roger Applegate, Chuck Yoest Jan 2019

Control Efforts And Serologic Survey Of Pseudorabies And Brucellosis In Wild Pigs Of Tennessee, Lisa I. Muller, Neelam C. Poudyal, Roger Applegate, Chuck Yoest

Human–Wildlife Interactions

European wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an introduced invasive species that now constitute a major threat to agriculture and the natural ecology of the environments they now inhabit. Wild pigs also carry many diseases known to infect wildlife, humans, and livestock. Two of these diseases, pseudorabies (PRV) and brucellosis, constitute major diseases in the United States. Better data are needed regarding the prevalence of these diseases in wild pigs to understand and manage the potential risks to wildlife, humans, and livestock. From July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2017, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency personnel trapped and euthanized 4,727 wild ...


Spatial Associations Of Livestock Guardian Dogs And Domestic Sheep, Julie Young, John P. Draper, Daniel Kinka Jan 2019

Spatial Associations Of Livestock Guardian Dogs And Domestic Sheep, Julie Young, John P. Draper, Daniel Kinka

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Livestock guardian dogs (Canis lupus familiaris; LGDs) have been used for centuries to protect livestock, primarily domestic sheep (Ovis aries), from depredation by large carnivores. While previous studies have shown their efficacy, the mechanisms in which LGDs protect livestock have largely remained unstudied. Livestock guardian dogs are often considered to be effective only if they remain in spatial proximity to the livestock they are protecting. We determined space use of LGDs relative to domestic sheep on open-range grazing allotments used by working ranches in the Rocky Mountains area of the northwest United States between August 2012 and October 2016. We ...


Factors Influencing The Movement Of Livestock Guardian Dogs In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Implications For Efficacy, Behavior, And Territoriality, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, John W. Walker, Nova J. Silvy, Nicholas A. Bromen Jan 2019

Factors Influencing The Movement Of Livestock Guardian Dogs In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Implications For Efficacy, Behavior, And Territoriality, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, John W. Walker, Nova J. Silvy, Nicholas A. Bromen

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Livestock guardian dog (Canis lupus familiaris; LGD) breeds of domestic dog worldwide provide a degree of control over predation losses. The application of LGDs as a wildlife damage management tool evolved as a cultural practice in the Old World. In the 1970s, this tool emerged in North America. Despite several decades of science and application, gaps still exist in our knowledge regarding applications for LGDs. From February 2016 to November 2017, we deployed global positioning system transmitters on 4 LGDs on a 20-km2 ranch in Menard County, Texas, USA operated by Texas A&M AgriLife Research to investigate their ...


Spatial Relationships Between Livestock Guardian Dogs And Mesocarnivores In Central Texas, Nicholas A. Bromen, Justin T. French, John Walker, Nova J. Silvy, John M. Tomeček Jan 2019

Spatial Relationships Between Livestock Guardian Dogs And Mesocarnivores In Central Texas, Nicholas A. Bromen, Justin T. French, John Walker, Nova J. Silvy, John M. Tomeček

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The use of livestock guardian dogs (Canis lupus familiaris; LGDs) to deter predators from preying on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra spp.) herds continues to increase across the United States. Most research regarding the efficacy of LGDs has been based on queries of rancher satisfaction with LGD performance, yet little is known regarding LGD influence on mesocarnivores, including those species against which they protect livestock. Here, we provide some preliminary observations regarding the effect of LGDs deployed with sheep and goat herds from May 2016 to April 2017 on the detected activity of mesocarnivores within occupied pastures on ...


Carnivore-Livestock Conflicts In Chile: Evidence And Methods For Mitigation, Valeska Rodriguez, Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz, Luis E. Escobar, Francisca Astorga, Gonzalo Medina-Vogel Jan 2019

Carnivore-Livestock Conflicts In Chile: Evidence And Methods For Mitigation, Valeska Rodriguez, Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz, Luis E. Escobar, Francisca Astorga, Gonzalo Medina-Vogel

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human population growth and habitat loss have exacerbated human–wildlife conflicts worldwide. We explored trends in human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) in Chile using scientific and official reports to identify areas and species with higher risk of conflicts and tools available for their prevention and mitigation. The puma (Puma concolor) was considered the most frequent predator; however, fox (Lycalopex spp.) and free-ranging or feral dog (Canis lupus familiaris) attacks were also common. Our results suggest that the magnitude of puma conflicts may be overestimated. Domestic sheep (Ovis spp.) and poultry (Galliformes) were the most common species predated. Livestock losses were widespread ...


Capsaicin As A Tool For Repelling Southern Flying Squirrels From Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities, Robert T. Meyer, James A. Cox Jan 2019

Capsaicin As A Tool For Repelling Southern Flying Squirrels From Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities, Robert T. Meyer, James A. Cox

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) is an important kleptoparasite of cavities excavated by the imperiled red-cockaded woodpecker (Dryobates borealis). Flying squirrel usurpation of cavities may affect woodpecker productivity, but current efforts to manage flying squirrels are costly and time consuming. We assessed whether capsaicin could deter flying squirrel use of woodpecker cavities on a site in southwest Georgia, USA. Twenty-nine cavity tree clusters received 4 treatments: capsaicin, water, air, and a control (no treatment). Only capsaicin both removed more flying squirrels from the cavity immediately after its application and decreased the probability of a flying squirrel occupying the cavity ...


Human-Wildlife Conflict In And Around Borena Sayint National Park, Northern Ethiopia, Ayenew Biset, Girma Mengesha, Zerihun Girma Jan 2019

Human-Wildlife Conflict In And Around Borena Sayint National Park, Northern Ethiopia, Ayenew Biset, Girma Mengesha, Zerihun Girma

Human–Wildlife Interactions

We identified causes, impact, and traditional management measures of human– wildlife conflict (HWC) in and around Borena Sayint National Park, Ethiopia. We employed questionnaires, focus group discussions, direct observations, and key informant interviews to collect data. The respondents perceived an increase in the number of wildlife population (56 respondents; 42.4%) followed by human proximity to park areas (44 respondents; 33.3%) as the main causes of HWC. The respondents perceived leopards (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) among the top livestock depredators while grivet monkeys (Cercopethicus aethiops) and porcupines (Hystrix cristata) were perceived as notorious crop raiders. Gelada ...


Nest-Defense Behavior Of Mississippi Kites In Urban And Exurban Areas, Ben R. Skipper, Clint W. Boal Jan 2019

Nest-Defense Behavior Of Mississippi Kites In Urban And Exurban Areas, Ben R. Skipper, Clint W. Boal

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Mississippi kites (Ictinia mississippiensis) have become an abundant raptor in many urban and exurban areas throughout the Southern Great Plains of the United States. Unfortunately, human–wildlife conflicts have resulted from this juxtaposition of suitable breeding areas for kites and areas that humans frequent, with some kites responding aggressively to humans near nests. To date, there are no data describing the prevalence of aggressive nest defense in the species, making informed management of human and kite conflicts difficult. We assessed and compared the prevalence of aggressive nest-defense by Mississippi kites in an urban area and an exurban area by simulating ...