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The Retinal Immune Response To Injury And Protein Misfolding: Insights From Models Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Parkinson’S Disease, And Prion Disease., Najiba Mammadova Jan 2019

The Retinal Immune Response To Injury And Protein Misfolding: Insights From Models Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Parkinson’S Disease, And Prion Disease., Najiba Mammadova

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Retinal manifestations have been described in several neurodegenerative insults and disorders. The strong similarities between the retina and the brain and the accessibility of the retina has potentiated studies to investigate retinal pathology in an effort to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis, as well as for monitoring the progression of disease and efficacy of therapies as they become available. However, there is a limited understanding of retinal pathological landmarks of disease progression.

In the studies conducted in this dissertation, we investigate retinal changes associated with ocular blast injury, and protein-misfolding - in a mouse model of Parkinsonism, and in bovine spongiform ...


Design And Evaluation Of Single-Dose Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against Bacterial Respiratory Pathogens, Danielle Ann Wagner Jan 2019

Design And Evaluation Of Single-Dose Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against Bacterial Respiratory Pathogens, Danielle Ann Wagner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Design of a high-quality vaccine requires more than just initiation of a robust immune response, as there are several other factors that should be considered during development. An ideal vaccine should be efficacious and cost-effective, with minimal side effects and reactogenicity. Additionally, it is important to consider required number of doses and storage requirements.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, a debilitating disease and the leading cause of death in children under the age of five worldwide. There are several existing vaccines against S. pneumoniae, though none are protective across all serotypes. Pneumococcal surface protein A ...


Use Of Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Mass Spectrometry For The Development Of A Rapid Untargeted Screening Method For Veterinary Drug Residues In Animal Tissues, Laura Burns Jan 2019

Use Of Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Mass Spectrometry For The Development Of A Rapid Untargeted Screening Method For Veterinary Drug Residues In Animal Tissues, Laura Burns

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Veterinary diagnostic laboratories provide a variety of services to livestock producers and companion animal owners. One of these services is a general untargeted screening of animal tissues for veterinary drug residues. Results from this assay are used to determine animal cause of death or emergency treatment options in the case of toxic exposure. The established analytical methods used for this type of screening require a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction and cleanup along with a liquid or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS or GC/MS) analysis. Although these current methods are sensitive they require several ...


Algorithms For Synteny-Based Phylostratigraphy And Gene Origin Classification, Zebulun Arendsee Jan 2019

Algorithms For Synteny-Based Phylostratigraphy And Gene Origin Classification, Zebulun Arendsee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With every newly sequenced species we discover hundreds of novel protein coding genes. Many of these "orphan" genes have been experimentally proven to have dramatic functions in development, sexual dimorphism, pathogen resistance, and social traits like symbiosis. Whereas in the past, researchers viewed genes as the product of continuous variation acting on ancient material, we now know that novel genes may arise de novo from non-genic sequence. Thus evolutionary experimentation is not limited to tweaking existing genes or their regulatory patterns. Any orphan genes that arose in the distant past, should appear today as lineage-specific genes (or gene families). The ...


Impact Of Nutrition Education Centers On Food And Nutrition Security In Kamuli District, Uganda, Samuel Ikendi Jan 2019

Impact Of Nutrition Education Centers On Food And Nutrition Security In Kamuli District, Uganda, Samuel Ikendi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Achieving food and nutrition security is among the goals of many public-private partnerships in Uganda. This study examined the impacts of Nutrition Education Centers’ (NECs) training programs on food and nutrition security in Kamuli, Uganda. Using a comparative approach, the study explored the relationship between participants’ affiliation with NECs, dimensions and quality of their participation, as well as their household characteristics, and food and nutrition security. The study was based on survey of 454 households, 606 children aged 0-59 months from two sub-counties. Anthropometric measures were also taken off caretakers, children, which were transformed into Z-score using WHO-Anthro. Respondents were ...


Biomechanical Effects Of Shod Vs. Unshod Deadlift In Males, Jacob La Marche Jan 2019

Biomechanical Effects Of Shod Vs. Unshod Deadlift In Males, Jacob La Marche

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are many forms of resistance training, with the barbell squat, bench press, and deadlift being three of the most popular exercises. The squat and bench press have been examined extensively, while the deadlift has not. The purpose of this study was to examine participants performing the barbell deadlift while wearing their normal lifting shoes and while barefoot. Thirty male participants aged 18-30 and with at least one year of deadlift experience were recruited for this study. An eight camera system and a force platform was used to measure three-dimensional movements and ground reaction forces during 80% one repetition maximum ...


Novel Approaches To The Low-Cost, Portable And Rapid Detection Of Bacterial Pathogens In Foods And Food-Processing Environments, Stephanie Adeline Hice Jan 2019

Novel Approaches To The Low-Cost, Portable And Rapid Detection Of Bacterial Pathogens In Foods And Food-Processing Environments, Stephanie Adeline Hice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Continued outbreaks of foodborne illness involving dairy products in the United States stress the importance for rapid methods of detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food processing environments. Pathogenic microorganisms, such as Salmonella are widespread, and can be found in a variety of foods, ingredients and in industrial environments. The presence of pathogens in dairy products constitutes great risk for increased exposure, illness and reduces overall quality of the foodstream. As a result, emphasis has been placed on adapting or developing sensitive techniques to rapidly detect notable pathogens, such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both contaminated ...


A Feminist Political Ecology Of Food Justice In Iowa, Carrie Michelle Chennault Jan 2019

A Feminist Political Ecology Of Food Justice In Iowa, Carrie Michelle Chennault

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I study strategies for local and alternative food initiatives to advance more just and equitable approaches to food insecurity. My research focuses on one emerging type of local food initiative designed to address food insecurity, community donation gardening. I engaged in a three-year feminist and ethnographic study of a community-run and USDA- and Cooperative Extension-sponsored donation gardening and food rescue program, Growing Together Iowa. In Growing Together, community gardeners grow or glean food to distribute directly to community members experiencing food insecurity or alternatively to donate to partnering emergency food organizations, such as area food pantries. I ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Rumen-Protected Glucose (Rpg) On Production, Metabolism, And Inflammation In Transitioning Dairy Cows, Carrie Suzanne Mccarthy Jan 2019

Evaluating The Effects Of Rumen-Protected Glucose (Rpg) On Production, Metabolism, And Inflammation In Transitioning Dairy Cows, Carrie Suzanne Mccarthy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected glucose supplementation on milk production, post-absorptive metabolism, and inflammatory biomarkers in transition dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous cows were blocked by previous 305 mature equivalent milk yield and randomly assigned to one of two iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous treatments: 1) control diet (CON; n = 26) or 2) a diet containing RPG (RPG, pre-fresh 8.4% RPG DM basis, post-fresh 9.5% RPG DM basis; n = 26). Cows received their respective dietary treatments from d -21 to 28 relative to calving. Weekly body weight (BW), milk composition, and fecal pH were recorded until 28 d ...


Factors Influencing Choice Of Major In The College Of Agriculture And Life Sciences At Iowa State University, Amy Margaret Powell Jan 2019

Factors Influencing Choice Of Major In The College Of Agriculture And Life Sciences At Iowa State University, Amy Margaret Powell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Agriculture is a fast-growing career field and employers are looking to universities for graduates to fill the myriad of employment opportunities that are available; therefore, recruiting students into colleges of agriculture is important to meet the growing job demand. The purpose of this research study was to determine the demographic profile of students; find out what factors influence a student’s decision to major in the field of agriculture and discover if these factors are different based on major, demographics or type of entrance into the university. The quantitative survey that was administered to all first-year students in Iowa State ...


Chemical And Sensory Evaluation Of Volatile Aroma Compounds From Selected Cold-Hardy Grapes And Wines, Somchai Rice Jan 2019

Chemical And Sensory Evaluation Of Volatile Aroma Compounds From Selected Cold-Hardy Grapes And Wines, Somchai Rice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hybrid wine grape cultivars such as St. Croix (E.S. 283 x E.S. 193), Brianna

(‘Kay Gray’ x E.S. 2-12-13), Frontenac (‘Landot 4511’ x University of Minnesota 89),

La Crescent (‘St. Pepin’ x E.S. 6-8-25), Frontenac gris (single bud sport cane from

‘Frontenac’), Marquette (MN 1094 x Ravat 262) have been developed to be cold-hardy

and disease-resistant in order to thrive in the cold climates such as the upper Midwest.

Grape growers, area of grape production, wineries, and wine production has been

increasing since the early 2000. The Iowa wine industry generated a $420 million (USD)

economic ...


Mixed-Methods Assessment Of A Local Meals On Wheels Program, Catherine Suzanne Rudolph Jan 2019

Mixed-Methods Assessment Of A Local Meals On Wheels Program, Catherine Suzanne Rudolph

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Community food and nutrition programs, such as home-delivered meals (HDM), support the health and well-being of older adults. The purpose of this study was to conduct a needs assessment of a local Meals on Wheels (MOW) program using a mixed-methods approach.

Study One assessed nutritional risk (NR) and dietary intake frequencies (DIF) among newly enrolled MOW participants (n=167), utilizing the dietary screening tool. Participants were primarily female (62.9%), and enrolled in MOW during a winter month (85%). Nearly all (97.6%) were “at NR” or “at possible NR.” NR was attributed to “low” DIF of dairy, lean protein ...


A Statistical Analysis Of Zea Mays Grain Yield Response To Nitrification-Inhibitor Amendments Under Field Conditions Utilizing Parametric And Non-Parametric Techniques, Elliot H. Sully Jan 2019

A Statistical Analysis Of Zea Mays Grain Yield Response To Nitrification-Inhibitor Amendments Under Field Conditions Utilizing Parametric And Non-Parametric Techniques, Elliot H. Sully

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrification is a matter of economic and ecological importance in nitrogen-tensive agricultural practices such as corn (Zea mays) grain production. When ammonium is bacterially oxidized into nitrate it becomes more susceptible to leaching and denitrification as nitrous oxide. The nitrification process not only adds to water and air pollution but also impacts on farm productivity by reducing grains yields and increasing fertilizer demands. Nitrification inhibiting fertilizer amendments can potentially improve grain yields by retarding the growth of nitrifying soil bacteria. Multiple field studies conducted across various locations and timespans have generated mixed results regarding the grain yield difference attributed to ...


The Non-Specificity Of Prosopagnosia: Can Prosopagnosics Distinguish Sheep?, Alexander Robert Toftness Jan 2019

The Non-Specificity Of Prosopagnosia: Can Prosopagnosics Distinguish Sheep?, Alexander Robert Toftness

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The impact that prosopagnosia (face-blindness) has on the human visual system has long been hypothesized with regard to the specifics of the impairment. The leading hypothesis in the literature, the face-specificity hypothesis, proposes that prosopagnosia is specific only to human faces. Other hypotheses have offered alternative explanations for what sorts of identification tasks might be affected by damage to the fusiform face area resulting in prosopagnosia, including the biological recognition, expert recognition, and subordinate-level recognition hypotheses. An additional hypothesis, the coordinate relations hypothesis, offers a compelling explanation for the underlying process disrupted by prosopagnosia: that the brain’s ability to ...


Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan Jan 2019

Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The premise of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC) is that a joint fermentative-catalytic process can be exercised to manufacture commodity chemicals from bio-based carbon (e.g., five and six carbon sugar) at prices that are competitive with existing petro-derived chemicals, and with development costs that are far low. Strong technoeconomic analysis (TEA) capabilities exist commercially in tools such as SuperPro Designer® and Aspen Plus®, both of which provide estimations of capital and operating costs. These tools also require a level of detail that is typically unavailable at early stages of process evaluation. To address early – stage ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Light Quantity And Quality On Culinary Herb Physiology, Alexander Gaston Litvin-Zabal Jan 2019

Quantifying The Effects Of Light Quantity And Quality On Culinary Herb Physiology, Alexander Gaston Litvin-Zabal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lighting influences plant growth and development on a quantity and quality basis, promoting the production of both primary and secondary metabolites. While the amount of light necessary for culinary herb production is species-specific, with growth curves for increasing daily light integrals (DLI), the specific spectra of incidental light absorbed plays a role in photosynthetic efficiency, biomass partitioning, and secondary metabolites related health and nutrition. The two primary objectives of this research were to 1) Quantify morphological growth of culinary herbs under increasingly higher DLI, and 2) Identify the morphological, physiological, and phytochemical responses of selected herbs to the spectral composition ...


Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour Jan 2019

Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The agriculture sector is the largest source of employment for Ghanaians and it is dominated by smallholder farmers. The challenges in the agriculture sector are many which include food insecurity. Maize offers a significant source of calories, and accounts for 50% of the total cereal production in Ghana, with the reported postharvest loss (PHL) between 5% and 70%. Improving food security through a reduction of PHL is imperative for meeting current development objectives. Sitophilus zeamais can inflict serious damage to maize in storage leading to about 20% to 50% or more losses within 3 to 6 months. The lack of ...


Development And Utilization Of Genome Editing Tools In Maize, Sorghum And Rice, Si Nian Char Jan 2019

Development And Utilization Of Genome Editing Tools In Maize, Sorghum And Rice, Si Nian Char

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the world of biology. Genome editing for site-specific genomic alterations started with engineered meganucleases, followed by programmable zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat associated protein (CRISPR/Cas). The latter consists of CRISPR-Cas9, -Cpf1(Cas12a), -C2c1(Cas12b), -C2c2(Cas13a) and CRISPR derived base editor (Adenine and Cytosine Base Editor) are state-of-the-art targeted mutagenesis toolkits for basic and applied research. Users have more options to edit, delete, insert, inactivate, activate, repress, label, methylate and acetylate the genetic elements (DNA or RNA) as they need.

In this dissertation ...


Characterization And Application Of Arkansas Male Sterile Lines For Hybrid Rice Production, Dustin North Jan 2019

Characterization And Application Of Arkansas Male Sterile Lines For Hybrid Rice Production, Dustin North

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hybrid rice production using the two-line system requires developing environment genetic male-sterile (EGMS) lines which become male sterile in certain environmental conditions. EGMS lines contain genes that can be induced to express male sterility by temperature (TGMS), day length (PGMS), or both (PTGMS). Eight EGMS were tested including four lines designated as 236s, 801s, 805s, and 811s developed by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture's Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) near Stuttgart, Ark.; and four mutant male-sterile lines designated as GSOR 1, GSOR 2, GSOR 3, and GSOR 4 developed by the Dale Bumpers National Rice ...


Effects Of Preseason Concussion Education On Self-Reported Likelihood And Confidence In Concussion Reporting, Dana Edward Cash Jan 2019

Effects Of Preseason Concussion Education On Self-Reported Likelihood And Confidence In Concussion Reporting, Dana Edward Cash

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Around three million concussions happen in the United States from sport and recreational activity alone, and it is estimated 50% of concussions go undiagnosed. Collegiate athletes have been found to not report their symptoms of concussion mainly because they felt their symptoms were not severe enough and they did not think there were any long-term consequences from continuing to play. This study attempts to find if preseason concussion education for collegiate hockey players and club athletes changes their perceptions about concussions, and if these changes are maintained after returning to sport/competition. This study used three identical surveys over three ...


Effects Of Interest Rate Changes On Midwestern U.S. Farmland Values, Albulena Basha Jan 2019

Effects Of Interest Rate Changes On Midwestern U.S. Farmland Values, Albulena Basha

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that over 83% of the 2018 farm sector’s assets were held in real estate. In this study, the effects of recent interest rate hikes on Midwestern farmland values were quantified by developing three first-order autoregressive distributed lag models using annual, inflation-adjusted, state-level farmland value and gross farm income data and real federal funds rate levels. The model estimations used observations from 1963 to 2015 and were evaluated with out-of-sample forecasts for 2016 and 2017. Results were robust with Arellano-Bond estimation and an error correction model. A one-percentage point increase in the ...


The Effect Of Year-To-Year Variability On Planting Date And Relative Maturity Selection For Maize, Mitch Baum Jan 2019

The Effect Of Year-To-Year Variability On Planting Date And Relative Maturity Selection For Maize, Mitch Baum

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current maize (Zea mays L.) planting date recommendations have not been updated in the state of Iowa since 2001. A state that produced 68.8 million tons of maize on 5.5 million hectares in 2016. It is imperative that this information be regularly updated as both climate and maize hybrid selection are constantly changing. We analyzed maize yield and phenology, from a multi-location, year, relative maturity (RM), and planting date (PD) experiment carried out in Iowa, US. The dataset was used to calibrate a site-specific model (Agricultural Production System sIMulation, APSIM) and extrapolate APSIM results across Iowa, using a ...


The Effects Of Dopamine And Dopamine Precursor Medication On Impairments To High-Level Vision In Parkinson's Disease, Stephen Jon Anderson Jan 2019

The Effects Of Dopamine And Dopamine Precursor Medication On Impairments To High-Level Vision In Parkinson's Disease, Stephen Jon Anderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine how dopamine (DA) and dopaminergic medications affect the performance of high-level visual tasks in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Various studies have reported that PD is associated with impairments on visual tasks known to depend on processing in the ventral visual pathway of the brain. Because most behavioral symptoms in PD arise from chronic dopamine deficiency, the author sought to investigate the role that DA played in cognitive vision. Accordingly, five complex visual tasks were chosen that were known to recruit processing from different constellations of brain areas, either in the ...


Food Security And Dietary Acculturation Among College Students At Iowa State University, Molly B. Hiller Jan 2019

Food Security And Dietary Acculturation Among College Students At Iowa State University, Molly B. Hiller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The food security status of college students has a lasting impact during and after their college career. The level of food security has an impact on their diet and their ability to perform in class, and ultimately shapes their eating habits for the rest of their adult life. The Dietary Guidelines from 2010 suggest consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables (FV) per day, at least 20 grams of fiber per day, and less than 30% of total daily calories from fat. International college students coming to the United States to study are experiencing the same dietary changes ...


Application Of Precise Genome Editing Tools In The Zebrafish Model To Elucidate Protein Function With Regards To Developmental Phenotypes, Jordan Michael Welker Jan 2019

Application Of Precise Genome Editing Tools In The Zebrafish Model To Elucidate Protein Function With Regards To Developmental Phenotypes, Jordan Michael Welker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for biologists and geneticists to study the natural world. In general, it allows for asking and answering precise gene or DNA level questions about biological systems. The drawback of genetic engineering is that many applications requires a deep knowledge of multiple disciplines from biology to chemistry, which can make it inaccessible. Here I give a brief history of the field and define four tenets of necessary actions to begin engineering DNA, and four classes of applications using genetic engineering. I present three papers that define an accessible method of genome editing using CRISPR/Cas ...


Influence Of Malaysian Consumers’ Intentions And Use Of Menu Labeling On Purchase Behavior, Syafiqah Rahamat Jan 2019

Influence Of Malaysian Consumers’ Intentions And Use Of Menu Labeling On Purchase Behavior, Syafiqah Rahamat

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Malaysia was reported as having the highest overweight and obesity rates across Southeast Asia. It is recognized that there are many contributors to this epidemic. Given that restaurants are popular places when eating out and restaurant foods are generally high in calories, there is concern that restaurants may be a contributor to this epidemic. To help consumers make healthful dietary decisions when eating at restaurants, the Malaysian government plans to enact a nationwide menu labeling law by 2025. Mixed findings have been reported in the literature about the outcome from labeling foods in restaurants. In Malaysia, research on menu labeling ...


Vitamin D Metabolites And Their Intestinal Responses, Carmen J. Reynolds Jan 2019

Vitamin D Metabolites And Their Intestinal Responses, Carmen J. Reynolds

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vitamin D metabolites regulate calcium absorption in the intestines through activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and resulting in increased expression of calcium-associated proteins. Presently, it is thought that vitamin D metabolizes into a hormonal form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), and the hormone then circulates via blood to the duodenum to stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, Koszewski et al. proposed that delivery of the hormone occurs via digestive passage rather than by the blood (Koszewski et al., 2012). Growing evidence has suggested, instead, that the hormonal precursor, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D), may have functional activity by either providing substrate for ...


An Integrated Approach To Restoring Grassland Function To Working Landscapes, Nicholas J. Lyon Jan 2019

An Integrated Approach To Restoring Grassland Function To Working Landscapes, Nicholas J. Lyon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nearly all of what was historically tallgrass prairie has been lost due to conversion to agriculture and increasing urbanization. This thesis focuses on strategies to restore native species diversity to working (i.e., agricultural) landscapes in the American Midwest. The practicality and efficacy of restoration of prairie function to working lands has been demonstrated for some taxa in the short-term (i.e., years 1-5), but the effects of continuing consistent management in the medium- and long-term are less studied. I focus here on butterflies and floral resources due to (1) the well-known sensitivity of butterflies to habitat changes (2) the ...


Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza Jan 2019

Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The dielectric properties of material play a relevant role when developing moisture content sensors of agricultural products. However, little is known about the permittivity of switchgrass and corn stover in a wider frequency band. Thus, this research goal was to determine their dielectric constant and loss factor at different moisture contents and frequency range of 5 Hz to 13 MHz. Also, an electrical sensor system was developed to predict the amount of water in agricultural products with the material static and in movement.

The dielectric properties of switchgrass and corn stover were calculated by measuring their admittance using an impedance ...


Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott Jan 2019

Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this research, a method for improving spray boom height stability was developed and tested. Self-propelled sprayers played a critical role in agriculture by applying chemicals to crops to control the presence of weeds and pests. The spraying process needed to be controlled in a manner such that the spray boom maintained the necessary target height for uniform coverage. Deviation from target height allowed outside factors such as wind to become more prevalent during chemical application which generated opportunities for spray drift to occur and potentially harm neighboring crops and environment.

On a suspended spray boom system, terrain influences on ...