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Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech Apr 2019

Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does exposure to aerosols expelled from an electronic cigarette affect the APN2 gene expression in Tetrahymena thermophila? It was hypothesized that the expression of APN2 would increase in Tetrahymena that were exposed to aerosol from a vape and that their growth rate would decrease. The mechanism and function of the APN2 gene is known as base excision repair. To test the hypothesis, Tetrahymena were randomly assigned to either a control group or a test group. A contraption was created to extract 12mL of aerosol from a Smok Baby Beast vape ...


Effect Of Mine Runoff Metals On The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3 (Cdk3) Gene Of Tetrahymena Thermophila, Kylee Bailey, Haley Meredith Apr 2019

Effect Of Mine Runoff Metals On The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3 (Cdk3) Gene Of Tetrahymena Thermophila, Kylee Bailey, Haley Meredith

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Heavy metal contamination in Montana streams via mine runoff represents a significant environmental and public health hazard. Butte’s Berkeley Pit, which contains high levels of copper, iron, arsenic, cadmium, zinc, and sulfuric acid, is at risk of contaminating the groundwater of the Butte valley in the near future if measures are not taken to keep its water level from reaching a critical point.1 Heavy metal toxicity in humans results, sometimes irreparably, in neurological and muscular disease.2

This research investigated how heavy metals from mine runoff affected the growth rate and expression of the Cyclin-dependent Kinase-3 (CDK3) gene ...


Effects Of 𝞫-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) On Lc4a Expression And Growth Of Tetrahymena Thermophila, Mackenna Landis, Audrey Yaeger Apr 2019

Effects Of 𝞫-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) On Lc4a Expression And Growth Of Tetrahymena Thermophila, Mackenna Landis, Audrey Yaeger

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

For this project, we wanted to explore how the presence of Beta-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) influences the growth rate of Tetrahymena thermophila and expression of the LC4A gene. BMAA is a modified L-alanine neurotoxin and non-proteinogenic amino acid synthesized by Cyanobacteria. BMAA was originally discovered in the brains of the Chamorro people who died from an Alzheimer's Disease (AD) - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) complex after ingesting bats that contained high concentrations of BMAA. A subsequent study found that the neuron death in the AD-ALS patients was due to hyperexcitation of glutamate receptors that led to an influx of calcium ions, triggering ...


Effect Of Uvb Light Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster Fruitless Gene And Reproductive Capability, Donovan Lucibello, Tess Eaton, Audrey Walker Apr 2019

Effect Of Uvb Light Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster Fruitless Gene And Reproductive Capability, Donovan Lucibello, Tess Eaton, Audrey Walker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

UVB light is a known cause of DNA damage in many different organisms. In this experiment, we tested the effects of UVB exposure on Drosophila melanogaster larvae, and its effects on adult male reproductive capabilities and fruitless gene expression. Fruitless is a gene expressed in the dorsal-posterior protocerebral region of the brain in male Drosophila melanogaster that allows them to court females and arch their abdomen to be able to properly copulate. When this gene is defective, males often will attempt to court other males or not be able to successfully copulate at all with a female. To test our ...


Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend Apr 2019

Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Lead is an environmental toxin that has been sown to have deleterious effects on human health, including neurological defects, developmental delays, and bodily pain. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether prolonged exposure to lead altered expression of the VMA1 gene and feeding behavior in the model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. The VMA1 gene encodes the protein VMA1 (Vacuolar Membrane ATPase) which assists in regulating active transport systems on the vacuolar membrane. We hypothesized that exposure of T. thermophila to lead would result in altered expression of the VMA1 gene and in the feeding behavior of these organisms. For ...


Sunlight Requirements For Flowering Of Humulus Japonicus, Abby Hammermeister Apr 2019

Sunlight Requirements For Flowering Of Humulus Japonicus, Abby Hammermeister

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Japanese hops (Humulus japonicus) are an invasive species that appears to be increasing in distribution and abundance over its current range in the eastern U.S. Anecdotal evidence shows that it may have the potential to spread further west, eventually threatening Montana and the Pacific Northwest. This non-native vine can take over flood plains and riparian areas which could produce lasting harm to native ecosystems. There is currently limited information on the biology and ecology of this invasive species, which makes prediction of future invasions difficult. In order to develop an understanding of the potential ecological factors that limit the ...


Crystal Springs (Helena, Mt) As A Potential Fish Refuge For Tenmile Creek Fish Populations, Maggie Althaus, Jacqui Snyder Apr 2019

Crystal Springs (Helena, Mt) As A Potential Fish Refuge For Tenmile Creek Fish Populations, Maggie Althaus, Jacqui Snyder

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Anthropogenic climate change is likely to produce widespread effects on natural and human systems. For example, as summer temperatures have been increasing, many aquatic ecosystems have been under greater stress. In Lewis and Clark County, MT, Tenmile Creek has been reaching higher temperatures that could become detrimental to fish populations. As a result of these deteriorating conditions, the city of Helena is seeking alternatives to help support the aquatic community in Tenmile Creek. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of creating a summer refuge for fish in the adjacent ground-fed spring, Crystal Springs. In October of ...


Growth Analysis Of Humulus Lupulus (Hops) Varieties In Montana, Taylor Tyson Apr 2019

Growth Analysis Of Humulus Lupulus (Hops) Varieties In Montana, Taylor Tyson

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Montana currently has a booming brewing industry yet there is a state-wide lack in the production of hops, a critical ingredient in the brewing process. Hops (Humulus lupulus) are a perennial vine that can grow up to 7.5 meters tall and produce cones (female flower structures) which are used to flavor and preserve beer. Our research analyzed the growth of nine different hops varieties grown in the Helena Valley to evaluate the survival, growth, and yield compared to other regions. For our research, four hop varieties were planted in the summer of 2017 and five additional varieties were planted ...


Invasion In The Nation: How Does Temperature During Dormancy Influence Germination Rates Of Humulus Japonicus, Anna Sapone, Briauna Bivens Apr 2019

Invasion In The Nation: How Does Temperature During Dormancy Influence Germination Rates Of Humulus Japonicus, Anna Sapone, Briauna Bivens

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Humulus japonicus is currently in the Eastern United States, but is rapidly migrating West and heading straight for Montana. The effects of climate change have already been seen in Montana, and more changes are expected to occur in the future. These shifts could produce a climate that would allow H. japonicus to thrive on our open lands. H. japonicus is an annual invasive species that can out compete native species in riparian and floodplain habitats, altering ecosystem function. Previous studies have shown that H. japonicus seeds need some kind of cold stratification in order to break seed dormancy. For our ...


Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones Apr 2019

Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This study examined the impact of phytosterols on DES7 gene expression and feeding behavior in Tetrahymena thermophila. Tetrahymena thermophila are single-celled protists that are often used as model organisms for studying basic processes of Molecular Biology. One major topic in Molecular Biology that has been extensively studied in Tetrahymena is the concept of gene regulation. Gene regulation helps determine whether a certain protein is produced, and this often depends on both the internal and external conditions of the organism. This project took a closer look at the way Tetrahymena process exogenous cholesterol molecules through the production of the DES7 enzyme ...


Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz Apr 2019

Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Alcohol (ethanol) interferes with human health in a variety of ways such as heart damage, liver damage, and specifically, DNA damage. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of ethanol on the growth rate and expression of the uracil DNA N-Glycosylase (UNG1 ) gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. It was hypothesized that expression of UNG1, the gene that codes for the enzyme uracil DNA N-Glycosylase, would increase and that growth rate would decrease in Tetrahymena cells exposed to ethanol. Previous studies suggest that UNG1 expression is increased when DNA is damaged. This enzyme is involved in base excision repair ...


Hawaiian Honeycreeper Explosion: Monophyletic Origins Of Nectivorous Honeycreeper Beak Morphologies, Carter Anderson Apr 2019

Hawaiian Honeycreeper Explosion: Monophyletic Origins Of Nectivorous Honeycreeper Beak Morphologies, Carter Anderson

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The goal of this study was to determine if the primary nectarivorous species of Hawai’ian Honeycreepers were a monophyletic group. A well supported phylogeny, generated using cytB of the mitochondrial genome, indicates a resolved clade of nectivore honeycreepers distinct from other lineages


The Effects Of Shade And Soil Moisture On The Biomass And Growth Rates Of Humulus Japonicus (Japanese Hops), Joshua Stokman Apr 2019

The Effects Of Shade And Soil Moisture On The Biomass And Growth Rates Of Humulus Japonicus (Japanese Hops), Joshua Stokman

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Invasive species are a major problem in the modern world threatening both important ecosystems for conservation as well as our economy. We are looking at the potential for invasion of the species H. Japonicus, quantifying this with the overall growth of the plant. This species has shown signs of increasing its range throughout the United States and could have potential of invading Montana. For this study our independent variables included shade levels and moisture levels with our dependent variables being plant growth. H. Japonicus tends to thrive in full sun riparian environments where there is high accessibility to sunlight as ...


Dax: Archaeological Scent Detection Canine, Hannah Decker Apr 2019

Dax: Archaeological Scent Detection Canine, Hannah Decker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Humans have used the olfactory abilities of canines for years. Any canine has the ability to smell out cancer, explosives, and human remains. No one has ever used the olfactory abilities of canines for archeological mammal bone detection, until now. Dax, a border collie, Australian shepherd mix is currently being trained as an archeological detection dog. Dax has been training on archeological bones since she was 12-weeks old. She trains 5-6 times a week on archeological detection. Methods, procedures and results will be presented. The end goal is for Dax to accompany her owner, who happens to be an archeologist ...


Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows Apr 2019

Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Chytridiomycosis is a potentially deadly skin disease found in amphibian populations all over the world. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that grows on the skin of amphibians. The fungus can cause a disruption in the homeostatic functions of the amphibian skin and can lead to death. The relationship between an amphibian’s antimicrobial skin secretions, cutaneous microbial communities and environmental water quality can affect their resistance and susceptibility to Bd infection. Columbia spotted frogs (Lithobates luteiventris) are native to western Montana and have been affected by chytridiomycosis. Three lakes known to be positive for Bd were ...


Is Ndvi A Predictor Of C. Tarsalis In Eastern Montana, Patrick Oster Apr 2019

Is Ndvi A Predictor Of C. Tarsalis In Eastern Montana, Patrick Oster

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Culex Tarsalis, is a Mosquito species found throughout the Continental United States. With the outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States in the early 90’s, Tarsalis is the largest vector of WNV in Montana Tarsalis is mostly found in the Eastern portion of Montana and in the Mountain Valleys in Western Montana. This is due to a thought that Tarsalis does not like a lot of vegetation, specifically trees. Subsequently, a survey of using current Tarsalis data, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) should allow a model to be made in Eastern Montana possible With collaboration ...


Csx3: A Crispr-Related Protein W/Rnase Activity, Nate Burman Apr 2019

Csx3: A Crispr-Related Protein W/Rnase Activity, Nate Burman

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Csx3 is a CRIPSR related RNase of unknown purpse obtained from the Archaeal strain Archaeoglobus fulgidus. However, previous literature demonstrates that this thermostable protein dimer is capable of binding small RNA’s. The Lawrence Lab hypothesizes that this activity is due to the presence of a secondary binding domain. In order to investigate this proposed function, Csx3 has been expressed and purified in preparation for enzyme assays and crystallization that will demonstrate the activation of RNase activity by allosteric binding of a nucleic acid oligomer.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas, RNAse, Csx3


Effect Of Ethanol Withdrawal On Dunce Gene Expression And Learning In Drosophila Melanogaster, Dylan Jones, Nolan Hofstee, Alex Skoulis Apr 2019

Effect Of Ethanol Withdrawal On Dunce Gene Expression And Learning In Drosophila Melanogaster, Dylan Jones, Nolan Hofstee, Alex Skoulis

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether ethanol withdrawal inhibits short-term memory in Drosophila melanogaster. Prior research has shown that Drosophila who have experienced withdrawal from ethanol display an inability to associate a positive odorant with the negative response of a heat shock. For this experiment, it was hypothesized that these effects are due to a malfunction in cAMP Phosphodiesterase formation, which causes a buildup of cAMP and impairs intracellular neuronal cell signaling. This hypothesis was tested by measuring short-term memory formation and expression of the Dunce gene in Drosophila that experienced ethanol withdrawal. The dunce gene was ...


Effects Of E-Cigarette Vapor On Dalpha7 Gene Expression In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Roma Seal, Bella Maag Apr 2019

Effects Of E-Cigarette Vapor On Dalpha7 Gene Expression In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Roma Seal, Bella Maag

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

While it is commonly known that there are many negative effects of nicotine on humans, the effects of nicotine specifically from vapor produced by Electric Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes), have not yet been determined. In this study, students test to see if a gene specifically related to nicotine addiction in both fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and humans is expressed upon exposure to E-Cigarette vapor. Furthermore, students will test to determine if exposure to E-Cigarette vapor has a deleterious effect on the motor function of flies; as similar studies using nicotine alone have concluded. In this study, students will focus on the expression ...


Effect Of Nicotine On Spitz Gene Expression In Drosophila Melanogaster, Gwendolyn Cooper, Alexandra Steinmetz Apr 2019

Effect Of Nicotine On Spitz Gene Expression In Drosophila Melanogaster, Gwendolyn Cooper, Alexandra Steinmetz

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In humans, nicotine is known to cause various diseases including Cancer, impaired fertilization, insulin resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome. Exposure to nicotine typically occurs via the inhalation of cigarette or cigar smoke (primary or secondary) and vaping. The Spitz gene in Drosophila melanogaster codes for a RAS signaling protein that is involved in a variety of differentiation processes, including ventralization of the embryo. Because RAS mutations are found in 33% of cancerous tumors, using nicotine, a carcinogen, was hypothesized to cause increased expression of Spitz. Also, because nicotine causes aggression in human males, we hypothesized that male flies would show aggressive ...


Effect Of Turmeric On Oxidatively Stressed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cells, Logan Meeks, Luke R. Mcentee Apr 2019

Effect Of Turmeric On Oxidatively Stressed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cells, Logan Meeks, Luke R. Mcentee

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are chemically reactive forms of oxygen that, within a cellular environment, form free radicals that interfere with cellular processes and damage DNA. ROSs are routinely produced during oxidative metabolic processes that occur within the mitochondria and their presence in the cell must be tightly regulated. The OXR1 gene encodes a protein that is essential to the degradation of ROSs primarily in the nucleus and in the mitochondria. In this study, we wanted to determine whether turmeric had a protective effect on ROS-induced oxidative stress through regulation of the OXR1 gene in the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila ...


Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete Apr 2019

Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Phthalates, often referred to as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products including detergents, food packaging, and nail polish. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP) have recently been shown to disrupt endocrine chemical balances, thereby causing reproductive strain. For this project, we wanted to explore how DEHP influences conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila and to determine how DEHP exposure affects expression of the DCL-1 gene. The DCL-1 gene encodes the protein DCL-1 which is essential for transmitting genetic information during the process of conjugation in T. thermophila. We hypothesized that DEHP will act as a repressor of conjugation resulting ...


Effect Of Lead Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster And Expression Of The Neru Gene, Vanessa Rodriguez, Michael Larsen Apr 2019

Effect Of Lead Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster And Expression Of The Neru Gene, Vanessa Rodriguez, Michael Larsen

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Lead is a common environmental toxin that has been shown to have various negative effects on human health including developmental delays, seizures, and high blood pressure. In this study, we wanted to test the effect of lead exposure on neural development and mobility in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. More specifically, we looked at the expression of the Neuralized gene, which is involved in the process of neural development, and at larval crawling. We hypothesized that exposing Drosophila larvae to lead salt would decrease both expressions of the Neur gene and larval mobility. To test our hypothesis, the experimental group ...


Effect Of High Fat/High Sugar Diets On Fruitless Gene Expression And Copulatory Behavior In Drosophila Melanogaster, Megan Bousliman, Jacob Meek Apr 2019

Effect Of High Fat/High Sugar Diets On Fruitless Gene Expression And Copulatory Behavior In Drosophila Melanogaster, Megan Bousliman, Jacob Meek

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

A diet high in fat has been shown to cause Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and different types of Cancer in humans. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a diet high in fat and sugar has been shown to decrease sexual functioning significantly. The fruitless gene in Drosophila is a neuronal gene that codes for a transcription factor whose functional role is to control the mating ability of male fruit flies. Through our research, we attempted to answer the question: Does a diet high in fat and sugar change sexual functioning in Drosophila - and is this change caused by decreased expression of ...


Effect Of Ethanol On The Hangover Gene And Synaptic Growth In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christopher Genin, Benjamin Mcfarland Apr 2019

Effect Of Ethanol On The Hangover Gene And Synaptic Growth In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christopher Genin, Benjamin Mcfarland

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In this project, we aimed to answer the question: ‘How will the development of synaptic growth in the neuromuscular junction and expression of the hangover gene in Drosophila melanogaster be affected by ethanol exposure?’ Exposure to ethanol is significant to the hangover gene (hang) because, among numerous other stressors, hang pertains to rapid ethanol tolerance through a cellular stress pathway. The early development of neuromuscular junctions is also regulated by the expression of hang. It was hypothesized that exposure of Drosophila larvae to ethanol would increase expression of the hangover gene and decrease their mobility due to stunted synaptic growth ...


Pesticides And Parkinson's: An Investigation Of The Effect Of Roundup Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster, Siobhan O'Neill Apr 2019

Pesticides And Parkinson's: An Investigation Of The Effect Of Roundup Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster, Siobhan O'Neill

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

From commercial farms to private households, Roundup is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States. In recent years, exposure to Roundup has been correlated with a variety of health problems including Celiac Disease, birth defects, kidney and liver diseases, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease. To date, the use of Roundup has been banned or restricted in several foreign countries, including the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany and Italy, because it has been classified as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization. The goal of this research was to determine the effects of Roundup exposure on dopaminergic neurons ...


The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker Apr 2019

The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Roundup is a very common herbicide in the United States, but has been linked to many detrimental health effects and was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic’ by the World Health Organization in 1994. Not much research has been done to elucidate the possible effects on non-cancer gene pathways.The goal of this project was to research the influence that exposure to Roundup has on the growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and the expression of the cytochrome p450 gene. It was hypothesized that Roundup exposure would change the expression of cytochrome p450 gene and would decrease the growth rate of Tetrahymena thermophila. Background ...


Effects Of Fatty Acids From Coconut And Olive Oil On Expression Of The Hmg1 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Amelia Konen, Taryn Stewart Apr 2019

Effects Of Fatty Acids From Coconut And Olive Oil On Expression Of The Hmg1 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Amelia Konen, Taryn Stewart

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

HMG-CoA reductase is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathways of sterols in many different organisms. The gene in Tetrahymena thermophila which codes for this protein is HMG1, and has many homologs across many other organisms, from fungi to humans. For this project, we wanted to look at the effect of external fatty acids from coconut and olive oil on the expression of HMG1 in T. thermophila. Previous research has shown that exposure to unsaturated oils result in decreased cholesterol levels. We hypothesized that if T. thermophila are introduced to saturated fats and unsaturated fats, they would exhibit a respectively ...