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2019

University of Nebraska - Lincoln

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Articles 1 - 30 of 45

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Injury Scores And Spatial Responses Of Wolves Following Capture: Cable Restraints Versus Foothold Traps, Eric M. Gese, Patricia A. Terletzky, John D. Erb, Kevin C. Fuller, Jeffery P. Grabarkewitz, John P. Hart, Carolin Humpal, Barry A. Sampson, Julie K. Young Feb 2019

Injury Scores And Spatial Responses Of Wolves Following Capture: Cable Restraints Versus Foothold Traps, Eric M. Gese, Patricia A. Terletzky, John D. Erb, Kevin C. Fuller, Jeffery P. Grabarkewitz, John P. Hart, Carolin Humpal, Barry A. Sampson, Julie K. Young

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wolves (Canis lupus) have been captured with foothold traps for several decades to equip them with radiocollars for population monitoring. However, trapping in most areas is limited to spring, summer, and autumn as cold winter temperatures can lead to frozen appendages in trapped animals. In addition, conflicts arise when domestic dogs encounter these traps in nonwinter seasons. An alternative capture method is the use of cable restraint devices (modified neck snares) in the winter. We evaluated injury scores, movement patterns, and space use of wolves captured in cable restraint devices and foothold traps in north central Minnesota, USA, during 2012 ...


Assessing Public Support For Restrictions On Transport Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Meredith J. Grady, Erin E. Harper, Keith M. Carlisle, Karina H. Ernst, Stephanie A. Shwiff Feb 2019

Assessing Public Support For Restrictions On Transport Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Meredith J. Grady, Erin E. Harper, Keith M. Carlisle, Karina H. Ernst, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a non-native invasive species in the United States that cause significant economic loss, transmit disease, and inflict damage upon natural resources, agriculture, livestock, and property. Geographic distribution of wild pigs in the United States has nearly tripled since 1982, with anthropogenic influences playing a significant role in the expansion. In this regard, there is speculation that a driver of the expansion may be human-mediated movement of wild pigs to new areas for the purpose of sport hunting. In response, states have implemented a variety of wild pig control policies, including legal restrictions on their transport ...


Invasive Feral Swine Damage To Globally Imperiled Steephead Ravine Habitats And Influences From Changes In Population Control Effort, Climate, And Land Use, Richard M. Engeman, Erica Laine, John Allen, Jeremy Preston, William Pizzolato, Brett Williams, Amanda Stevens Kreider, Dennis Teague Feb 2019

Invasive Feral Swine Damage To Globally Imperiled Steephead Ravine Habitats And Influences From Changes In Population Control Effort, Climate, And Land Use, Richard M. Engeman, Erica Laine, John Allen, Jeremy Preston, William Pizzolato, Brett Williams, Amanda Stevens Kreider, Dennis Teague

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Steephead ravines are unusual geological features primarily occurring in Florida’s panhandle, a biodiversity hotspot. The unique habitats formed by steepheads are extremely valuable biodiversity resources within this larger area of great biodiversity. Eglin Air Force Base (EAFB) is essential for global conservation of steepheads because this vast area holds the greatest number under single ownership. Steepheads are significantly threatened by feral swine rooting damage. A decade-long investigation of EAFB’s steepheads assessed the following: (1) severity of swine damage to steepheads, (2) changing levels of swine control on swine population and damage, (3) changing climatic conditions on damage, (4 ...


Behavioral Flexibility Of A Generalist Carnivore, Sarah E. Daniels, Rachel E. Fanelli, Amy Gilbert, Sarah Sarah Benson‑Amram Feb 2019

Behavioral Flexibility Of A Generalist Carnivore, Sarah E. Daniels, Rachel E. Fanelli, Amy Gilbert, Sarah Sarah Benson‑Amram

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Innovative problem solving, repeated innovation, learning, and inhibitory control are cognitive abilities commonly regarded as important components of behaviorally flexible species. Animals exhibiting these cognitive abilities may be more likely to adapt to the unique demands of living in novel and rapidly changing environments, such as urbanized landscapes. Raccoons

(Procyon lotor) are an abundant, generalist species frequently found in urban habitats, and are capable of innovative problem solving, which makes them an ideal species to assess their behavioral flexibility. We gave 20 captive raccoons a multi-access puzzle box to investigate which behavioral and cognitive mechanisms enable the generation of innovative ...


The Past And Future Roles Of Competition And Habitat In The Range-Wide Occupancy Dynamics Of Northern Spotted Owls, Charles B. Yackulic, Larissa L. Bailey, Katie M. Dugger, Raymond J. Davis, Alan B. Franklin, Eric D. Forsman, Steven H. Ackers, Lawrence S. Andrews, Lowell V. Diller, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, Christopher Mccafferty, Janice A. Reid, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Stan G. Sovern Jan 2019

The Past And Future Roles Of Competition And Habitat In The Range-Wide Occupancy Dynamics Of Northern Spotted Owls, Charles B. Yackulic, Larissa L. Bailey, Katie M. Dugger, Raymond J. Davis, Alan B. Franklin, Eric D. Forsman, Steven H. Ackers, Lawrence S. Andrews, Lowell V. Diller, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, Christopher Mccafferty, Janice A. Reid, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Stan G. Sovern

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Slow ecological processes challenge conservation. Short-term variability can obscure the importance of slower processes that may ultimately determine the state of a system. Furthermore, management actions with slow responses can be hard to justify. One response to slow processes is to explicitly concentrate analysis on state dynamics. Here, we focus on identifying drivers of Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) territorial occupancy dynamics across 11 study areas spanning their geographic range and forecasting response to potential management actions. Competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia) has increased Spotted Owl territory extinction probabilities across all study areas and driven recent declines in ...


Taking The Bait: Species Taking Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Intended For Raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, Richard M. Engeman Jan 2019

Taking The Bait: Species Taking Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Intended For Raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, Richard M. Engeman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies in eastern USA is managed by strategically distributing oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits. The attractiveness, palativity, density, and non-target species bait take affect ORV effectiveness. We examined raccoon and non-target species differences in investigating/removing fish-meal polymer and coated sachet baits applied to simulate two aerial bait distribution densities. Bait densities of 150 baits/km2 and 75 baits/km2 were evaluated, respectively, in zones expected to have high and low

Racc oon densities. Three primary non-target species visited baits: coyotes, white-tailed deer, and feral swine. The proportion of bait stations visited by raccoons during 1 week observation periods ...


In Situ Evaluation Of An Automated Aerial Bait Delivery System For Landscape-Scale Control Of Invasive Brown Treesnakes On Guam, Shane Siers, Will Pitt, John Eisemann, Larry Clark, Aaron B. Shiels, C. S. Clark, R. J. Gosnell, M. C. Messaros Jan 2019

In Situ Evaluation Of An Automated Aerial Bait Delivery System For Landscape-Scale Control Of Invasive Brown Treesnakes On Guam, Shane Siers, Will Pitt, John Eisemann, Larry Clark, Aaron B. Shiels, C. S. Clark, R. J. Gosnell, M. C. Messaros

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

After decades of biodiversity loss and economic burden caused by the brown treesnake invasion on the Pacific island of Guam, relief hovers on the horizon. Previous work by USDA Wildlife Services (WS) and its National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) demonstrated that brown treesnake numbers in forested habitats can be dramatically suppressed by aerial delivery of dead newborn mouse (DNM) baits treated with 80 mg of acetaminophen. However, manual bait preparation and application is impractical for landscape-scale treatment. WS, NWRC, and the US Department of the Interior have collaborated with Applied Design Corporation to engineer an automated bait manufacturing and delivery ...


Macroeconomic Impact Of Foot‐And‐Mouth Disease Vaccination Strategies For An Outbreak In The Midwestern United States: A Computable General Equilibrium, Maryfrances Miller, Lirong Liu, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff Jan 2019

Macroeconomic Impact Of Foot‐And‐Mouth Disease Vaccination Strategies For An Outbreak In The Midwestern United States: A Computable General Equilibrium, Maryfrances Miller, Lirong Liu, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The impacts of alternative responses to a hypothetical foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) outbreak occurring in the Midwestern United States are estimated using the Regional Economic Modelling Incorporated Policy Insight + (REMI) computable general equilibrium model, with particular attention paid to the employment impact estimates. The impact on employment and GDP is estimated using forecasts of a 10‐ year period with disease outbreak duration up to 2 years. Fifteen different vaccination protocols are compared to a disease control protocol that relies on animal depopulation with no vaccination. Results show that over the 10‐year study period, the strictly depopulation strategy that ...


The Intrepid Urban Coyote: A Comparison Of Bold And Exploratory Behavior In Coyotes From Urban And Rural Environments, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Peter Mahoney, Julie K. Young Jan 2019

The Intrepid Urban Coyote: A Comparison Of Bold And Exploratory Behavior In Coyotes From Urban And Rural Environments, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Peter Mahoney, Julie K. Young

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are highly adaptable, medium-sized carnivores that now inhabit nearly every large city in the United States and Canada. To help understand how coyotes have adapted to living in urban environments, we compared two ecologically and evolutionarily important behavioral traits (i.e., bold-shy and exploration-avoidance behavior) in two contrasting environments (i.e., rural and urban).

Boldness is an individual’s reaction to a risky situation and exploration is an individual’s willingness to explore novel situations. Our results from both tests indicate that urban coyotes are bolder and more exploratory than rural coyotes and that within both populations ...


Machine Learning To Classify Animal Species In Camera Trap Images: Applications In Ecology, Michael A. Tabak, Mohammad S. Norouzzadeh, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Paul A. Di Salvo, Jesse S. Lewis, Michael D. White, Ben Teton, James C. Beasley, Peter E. Schlichting, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, Eric S. Newkirk, Jacob S. Ivan, Eric A. Odell, Ryan K. Brook, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Jeff Clune, Ryan S. Miller Jan 2019

Machine Learning To Classify Animal Species In Camera Trap Images: Applications In Ecology, Michael A. Tabak, Mohammad S. Norouzzadeh, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Paul A. Di Salvo, Jesse S. Lewis, Michael D. White, Ben Teton, James C. Beasley, Peter E. Schlichting, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, Eric S. Newkirk, Jacob S. Ivan, Eric A. Odell, Ryan K. Brook, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Jeff Clune, Ryan S. Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

1. Motion-activated cameras (“camera traps”) are increasingly used in ecological and management studies for remotely observing wildlife and are amongst the most powerful tools for wildlife research. However, studies involving camera traps result in millions of images that need to be analysed, typically by visually observing each image, in order to extract data that can be used in ecological analyses.

2. We trained machine learning models using convolutional neural networks with the ResNet-18 architecture and 3,367,383 images to automatically classify wildlife species from camera trap images obtained from five states across the United States. We tested our model ...


Isolation Of Rabies Virus From The Salivary Glands Of Wild And Domestic Carnivores During A Skunk Rabies Epizootic, Cornell University Jimenez, Terry R. Spraker, Jessica Anderson, Richard Bowen, Amy Gilbert Jan 2019

Isolation Of Rabies Virus From The Salivary Glands Of Wild And Domestic Carnivores During A Skunk Rabies Epizootic, Cornell University Jimenez, Terry R. Spraker, Jessica Anderson, Richard Bowen, Amy Gilbert

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease of global importance. Rabies virus is shed in the saliva of infected hosts and is primarily transmitted through bite contact. Canine rabies has been eliminated from the US, but wildlife constitutes more than 90% of the reported cases of animal rabies in the US each year. In the US, several wild carnivore species are reservoirs of distinct variants of rabies virus (RV). After decades of apparent absence, the south-central skunk (SCSK) RV variant was detected in Colorado in 2007 and resulted in a large-scale epizootic in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) populations in northern Colorado ...


The Conundrum Of Agenda-Driven Science In Conservation, M. Zachariah Peery, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutierrez, Steve M. Redpath, Alan B. Franklin, Daniel Simberloff, Monica G. Turner, Volker C. Radeloff, Gary C. White Jan 2019

The Conundrum Of Agenda-Driven Science In Conservation, M. Zachariah Peery, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutierrez, Steve M. Redpath, Alan B. Franklin, Daniel Simberloff, Monica G. Turner, Volker C. Radeloff, Gary C. White

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Conservation biology is a value-laden discipline predicated on conserving biodiversity (Soulé 1985), a mission that does not always sit easily with objective science (Lackey 2007; Pielke 2007; Scott et al. 2007). While some encourage scientists to be responsible advocates for conservation (Garrard et al. 2016), others worry that objectivity in conservation research may suffer (Lackey 2007). At this time, we believe advocacy by scientists is essential for environmental conservation and, indeed, humanity. It is difficult to envision the state of our environment had scientists failed to encourage policy makers and the public to address emerging conservation problems. Nevertheless, conservation scientists ...


Group Effects Of A Non-Native Plant Invasion On Rodent Abundance, Bryan M. Kluever, Trinity N. Smith, Eric M. Gese Jan 2019

Group Effects Of A Non-Native Plant Invasion On Rodent Abundance, Bryan M. Kluever, Trinity N. Smith, Eric M. Gese

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is the most prolific invading plant in western North America. Investigations determining the impact of this invasion on population state variables and community dynamics of rodents have largely occurred at the community or species level, creating a knowledge gap as to whether rodents affiliated by a shared taxonomy or other grouping are differentially affected by cheatgrass invasion. We examined rodent abundance along a gradient of cheatgrass cover using various groupings of two nocturnal rodent taxa comprising the majority of the rodent community in the Great Basin Desert. In the summers of 2010–2013, rodents were sampled and ...


Discovery And Characterization Of Bukakata Orbivirus (Reoviridae:Orbivirus), A Novel Virus From A Ugandan Bat, Anna C. Fagre, Justin S. Lee, Robert M. Kityo, Nicholas A. Bergren, Eric C. Mossel, Teddy Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Amy Gilbert, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Mary B. Crabtree, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Amy J. Schuh, Stuart T. Nichol, Julius J. Lutwama, Barry R. Miller, Rebekah C. Kading Jan 2019

Discovery And Characterization Of Bukakata Orbivirus (Reoviridae:Orbivirus), A Novel Virus From A Ugandan Bat, Anna C. Fagre, Justin S. Lee, Robert M. Kityo, Nicholas A. Bergren, Eric C. Mossel, Teddy Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Amy Gilbert, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Mary B. Crabtree, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Amy J. Schuh, Stuart T. Nichol, Julius J. Lutwama, Barry R. Miller, Rebekah C. Kading

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

While serological and virological evidence documents the exposure of bats to medically important arboviruses, their role as reservoirs or amplifying hosts is less well-characterized. We describe a novel orbivirus (Reoviridae:Orbivirus) isolated from an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus leachii) trapped in 2013 in Uganda and named Bukakata orbivirus. This is the fifth orbivirus isolated from a bat, however genetic information had previously only been available for one bat-associated orbivirus. We performed whole-genome sequencing on Bukakata orbivirus and three other bat-associated orbiviruses (Fomede, Ife, and Japanaut) to assess their phylogenetic relationship within the genus Orbivirus and develop hypotheses regarding potential ...


Non-Native Insects Dominate Daytime Pollination In A High-Elevation Hawaiian Dryland Ecosystem, Clare E. Aslan, Aaron B. Shiels, William Haines, Christina T. Liang Jan 2019

Non-Native Insects Dominate Daytime Pollination In A High-Elevation Hawaiian Dryland Ecosystem, Clare E. Aslan, Aaron B. Shiels, William Haines, Christina T. Liang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Over one-third of the native flowering plant species in the Hawaiian Islands are listed as federally threatened or endangered. Lack of sufficient pollination could contribute to reductions in populations, reproduction, and genetic diversity among these species but has been little studied.

METHODS: We used systematic observations and manual flower treatments to quantify flower visitation and outcrossing dependency of eight native (including four endangered) plant species in a dryland ecosystem in Hawaii: Argemone glauca, Bidens menziesii, Dubautia linearis, Haplostachys haplostachya, Sida fallax, Silene lanceolata, Stenogyne angustifolia, and Tetramolopium arenarium.

KEY RESULTS: During 576.36 h of flower ...


A Potential New Tool For The Toolbox: Assessing Gene Drives For Eradicating Invasive Rodent Populations, K. J. Campbell, J.R. Saah, P.R. Brown, J. Godwin, G.R. Howald, A. Piaggio, P. Thomas, D.M. Tompkins, D. Threadgill, J. Delborne, D.M. Kanavy, T. Kuiken, H. Packard, M. Serr, A. Shiels Jan 2019

A Potential New Tool For The Toolbox: Assessing Gene Drives For Eradicating Invasive Rodent Populations, K. J. Campbell, J.R. Saah, P.R. Brown, J. Godwin, G.R. Howald, A. Piaggio, P. Thomas, D.M. Tompkins, D. Threadgill, J. Delborne, D.M. Kanavy, T. Kuiken, H. Packard, M. Serr, A. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rodents have significant negative impacts on island biodiversity. All but the smallest of rodent eradications currently rely on island-wide rodenticide applications. Although significant advances have been made in mitigating unintended impacts, rodent eradication on inhabited islands remains extremely challenging. Current tools restrict eradication eff orts to fewer than 15% of islands with critically endangered or endangered species threatened by invasive rodents. The Genetic Biocontrol of Invasive Rodents partnership is an interdisciplinary collaboration to develop and evaluate gene drive technology for eradicating invasive rodent populations on islands. Technological approaches currently being investigated include the production of multiple strains of Mus ...


Parasitism, Host Behavior, And Invasive Species, Sarah N. Bevins Jan 2019

Parasitism, Host Behavior, And Invasive Species, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Animal behavior and parasitism are inextricable linked. In many cases, host behavior can affect what parasites are encountered. In other cases, parasites can manipulate the behavior of the host in an attempt to maximize their own transmission. These long-standing interactions are now further complicated by species movement around the globe. The list of introduced species that have become invasive includes parasites that have adapted to new hosts in areas of introduction, as well as invasive hosts that alter the association between existing parasite–host assemblages. Researchers have documented differences in rates of parasitism and in the consequences of parasite infection ...


The Effect Of High Density Oral Rabies Vaccine Baiting On Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response In Raccoons (Procyon Lotor), Kerri Pedersen, Amy Gilbert, Eric S. Wilhelm, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Jordona D. Kirby, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Shylo Johnson, Richard B. Chipman Jan 2019

The Effect Of High Density Oral Rabies Vaccine Baiting On Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response In Raccoons (Procyon Lotor), Kerri Pedersen, Amy Gilbert, Eric S. Wilhelm, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Jordona D. Kirby, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Shylo Johnson, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

From 2014 to 2016, we examined the effect of distributing oral rabies vaccine baits at high density (150 baits/km2) in an area of Virginia, US that was na¨ıve to oral rabies vaccination prior to the study. We also compared the effect of baiting at high density in a na¨ıve area to baiting at standard density (75 baits/km2) in an area that had been baited annually for 12 yr. Our results suggested that rabies virus seroconversion in raccoons (Procyon lotor) gradually increased each year under the high density bait treatment. However, we did not detect a difference ...


Accounting For Heterogeneous Invasion Rates Reveals Management Impacts On The Spatial Expansion Of An Invasive Species, Kim M. Pepin, David W. Wolfson, Ryan S. Miller, Michael A. Tabak, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Amy J. Davis Jan 2019

Accounting For Heterogeneous Invasion Rates Reveals Management Impacts On The Spatial Expansion Of An Invasive Species, Kim M. Pepin, David W. Wolfson, Ryan S. Miller, Michael A. Tabak, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Amy J. Davis

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Success of large-scale control programs for established invasive species is challenging to evaluate because of spatial variability in expansion rates, management techniques, and the strength of management intensity. For a well-established invasive species in the spreading phase of invasion, a useful metric of impact is the magnitude by which control slows the rate of spatial spread. The prevention of spatial spreading likely results in substantial benefits in terms of ecosystem or economic damage that is prevented by an expanding invasive species. To understand how local management actions could impact the spatial spread of an established invasive species, we analyzed distribution ...


American White Pelican (Pelecanus Erythrorhynchos) Growth, Nutrition And Immunology, Treena L. Ferguson, Brian J. Rude, D. Tommy King Jan 2019

American White Pelican (Pelecanus Erythrorhynchos) Growth, Nutrition And Immunology, Treena L. Ferguson, Brian J. Rude, D. Tommy King

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Limited information about nutrition exists on American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) from hatching to fledging. To detail immunity, metabolism and nutrition of juvenile American White Pelicans, during 22-23 July 2011, 103 samples of regurgitate matter were collected at five Chase Lake, North Dakota, USA, and three Bitter Lake, South Dakota, USA, sub-colonies. Regurgitate sample nutrient content was significantly different for organic matter (P = 0.012), crude protein (P = 0.001), neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.014), acid detergent fiber (P = 0.005) and energy (P = 0.034) between North (n = 5) and South (n = 3) Dakota American White Pelican colonies ...


Forage Or Biofuel: Assessing Native Warm-Season Grass Production Among Seed Mixes And Harvest Frequencies Within A Wildlife Conservation Framework, Raymond B. Iglay, Tara J. Conkling, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin Jan 2019

Forage Or Biofuel: Assessing Native Warm-Season Grass Production Among Seed Mixes And Harvest Frequencies Within A Wildlife Conservation Framework, Raymond B. Iglay, Tara J. Conkling, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Native warm-season grasses (NWSG) are gaining merit as biofuel feedstocks for ethanol production with potential for concomitant production of cattle forage and wildlife habitat provision. However, uncertainty continues regarding optimal production approaches for biofuel yield and forage quality within landscapes of competing wildlife conservation objectives. We used a randomized complete block design of 4 treatments to compare vegetation structure, forage and biomass nutrients, and biomass yield between Panicum virgatum (Switchgrass) monocultures and NWSG polycultures harvested once or multiple times near West Point, MS, 2011–2013. Despite taller vegetation and greater biomass in Switchgrass monocultures, NWSG polycultures had greater vegetation structure ...


Determination Of Residue Levels Of The Avicide 3-Chloro-4-Methylaniline Hydrochloride In Red-Winged Blackbirds (Agelaius Phoeniceus) By Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, David A. Goldade, Kirsten R. Kim, James C. Carlson, Steven F. Volker Jan 2019

Determination Of Residue Levels Of The Avicide 3-Chloro-4-Methylaniline Hydrochloride In Red-Winged Blackbirds (Agelaius Phoeniceus) By Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, David A. Goldade, Kirsten R. Kim, James C. Carlson, Steven F. Volker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The avicide 3‑chloro‑4‑methylanaline hydrochloride (chloro‑p‑toluidine hydrochloride, CPTH, DRC-1339) is used to control pest bird species that damage agricultural crops. A specific and sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of CPTH in avian breast muscle, GI tract, kidney, and liver. Tissue samples were extracted with a solution of acidified water and acetonitrile. The sample was made basic and cleaned up with a combination of liquid-liquid partitioning and solid phase extraction. Separation was achieved using a HP-5 ultra-inert GC column (15 M, 0.25 μm film) with detection on a ...


Locating And Eliminating Feral Swine From A Large Area Of Fragmented Mixed Forest And Agriculture Habitats In North-Central Usa, Richard M. Engeman, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Justin W. Fischer, Doug Dufford, James Bryan Cobban Jan 2019

Locating And Eliminating Feral Swine From A Large Area Of Fragmented Mixed Forest And Agriculture Habitats In North-Central Usa, Richard M. Engeman, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Justin W. Fischer, Doug Dufford, James Bryan Cobban

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Illinois is one of the US states where elimination of feral swine (Sus scrofa) was determined practical, as only a few isolated populations were established. A particularly important step towards feral swine elimination from Illinois was to eliminate the population in Fulton County. We describe the approaches applied to systematically detect, locate, and eliminate feral swine in a successful county-wide elimination. Detecting and locating feral swine was facilitated by extensive outreach activities, aerial surveys to locate crop damage, and use of camera traps placed over bait in areas where reports, sign, or crop damage occurred. The population was eliminated after ...


Effects Of Repeated Sublethal External Exposure To Deep Water Horizon Oil On The Avian Metabolome, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Fariba M. Assadi-Porter, Ebru Selin Selen, Katherine A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak Jan 2019

Effects Of Repeated Sublethal External Exposure To Deep Water Horizon Oil On The Avian Metabolome, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Fariba M. Assadi-Porter, Ebru Selin Selen, Katherine A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We assessed adverse effects of external sublethal exposure of Deepwater Horizon, Mississippi Canyon 252 oil on plasma and liver metabolome profiles of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), a large (1.5 to 3.0 kg) diving waterbird common in the Gulf of Mexico. Metabolomics analysis of avian plasma showed significant negative effects on avian metabolic profiles, in some cases after only two external exposures (26 g cumulative) to oil. We observed significant (p < 0.05) changes in intermediate metabolites of energy metabolism and fatty acid and amino acid metabolic pathways in cormorants after repeated exposure to oil. Exposure to oil increased several metabolites (glycine, betaine, serine and methionine) that are essential to the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Lipid metabolism was affected, causing an increase in production of ketone bodies, suggesting lipids were used as an alternative energy source for energy production in oil exposed birds. In addition, metabolites associated with hepatic bile acid metabolism were affected by oil exposure which was correlated with changes observed in bile acids in exposed birds. These changes at the most basic level of phenotypic expression caused by sublethal exposure to oil can have effects that would be detrimental to reproduction, migration, and survival in avian species.


Wildlife Management Practices Associated With Pathogen Exposure In Non-Nativewild Pigs In Florida, U.S., Amanda N. Carr, Michael P. Milleson, Felipe A. Hernandez, Hunter R. Merrill, Michael L. Avery, Samantha M. Wisely Jan 2019

Wildlife Management Practices Associated With Pathogen Exposure In Non-Nativewild Pigs In Florida, U.S., Amanda N. Carr, Michael P. Milleson, Felipe A. Hernandez, Hunter R. Merrill, Michael L. Avery, Samantha M. Wisely

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Land use influences disease emergence by changing the ecological dynamics of humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and pathogens. This is a central tenet of One Health, and one that is gaining momentum in wildlife management decision-making in the United States. Using almost 2000 serological samples collected from non-native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) throughout Florida (U.S.), we compared the prevalence and exposure risk of two directly transmitted pathogens, pseudorabies virus (PrV) and Brucella spp., to test the hypothesis that disease emergence would be positively correlated with one of the most basic wildlife management operations: Hunting. The seroprevalence of PrV-Brucella spp ...


Road Hogs: Implications From Gps Collared Feral Swine In Pastureland Habitat On The General Utility Of Road-Based Observation Techniques For Assessing Abundance, Raoul K. Boughton, Benjamin L. Allen, Eric A. Tillman, Samantha M. Wisely, Richard M. Engeman Jan 2019

Road Hogs: Implications From Gps Collared Feral Swine In Pastureland Habitat On The General Utility Of Road-Based Observation Techniques For Assessing Abundance, Raoul K. Boughton, Benjamin L. Allen, Eric A. Tillman, Samantha M. Wisely, Richard M. Engeman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world’s most destructive invasive species, and monitoring their populations is essential for research and management purposes. Observation stations located along primitive roads have been an efficient and effective means to intercept the daily activities of many animal species for collecting data from which abundance indices can be validly calculated. Feral swine are among the many species documented to use primitive (dirt), low-use roads as routes to easily traverse surrounding habitats and thus be well-monitored in various habitats globally by using road-based observation stations such as camera traps or tracking plots. However, there are relatively ...


Necrobiome Framework For Bridging Decomposition Ecology Of Autotrophically And Heterotrophically Derived Organic Matter, Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan, Jennifer L. Pechal Jan 2019

Necrobiome Framework For Bridging Decomposition Ecology Of Autotrophically And Heterotrophically Derived Organic Matter, Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan, Jennifer L. Pechal

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Life arises from death through species that decompose dead biomass or necromass. This paper provides a synthesis of the species responsible for dead plant and animal decomposition and describes a conceptual perspective—the “necrobiome”— that defines the diverse and complex communities that interact to recycle necromass. The concept brings unification to the previously disparate fields of plant and animal decomposition by discussing the universal processes occurring across all forms of necromass. It highlights the factors that make each form of dead biomass different in a way that defines how unique necrobiomes drive decomposition and ultimately shape ecosystem structure and function.


Necrobiome Framework For Bridging Decomposition Ecology Of Autotrophically And Heterotrophically Derived Organic Matter, M. Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan, Jennifer L. Pechal Jan 2019

Necrobiome Framework For Bridging Decomposition Ecology Of Autotrophically And Heterotrophically Derived Organic Matter, M. Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. Devault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan, Jennifer L. Pechal

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Decomposition contributes to global ecosystem function by contributing to nutrient recycling, energy flow, and limiting biomass accumulation. The decomposer organisms influencing this process form diverse, complex, and highly dynamic communities that often specialize on different plant or animal resources. Despite performing the same net role, there is a need to conceptually synthesize information on the structure and function of decomposer communities across the spectrum of dead plant and animal resources. A lack of synthesis has limited cross-disciplinary learning and research in important areas of ecosystem and community ecology. Here we expound on the “necrobiome” concept and develop a framework describing ...


Estimating Economic Impact Of Black Bear Damage To Western Conifers At A Landscape Scale, Jimmy D. Taylor, Kristina N. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo Jan 2019

Estimating Economic Impact Of Black Bear Damage To Western Conifers At A Landscape Scale, Jimmy D. Taylor, Kristina N. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Black bear (Ursus americanus) damage to trees in the Pacific Northwest is common, although volume and economic losses are unknown. Common measures to quantify bear damage to conifers at large scales rely solely on aerial estimates of red tree crowns (caused by complete girdling) and broad assumptions about stand characteristics. We surveyed 122 vulnerable stands in the Coast Range and western Cascades of Oregon using both aerial surveys and ground surveys. Then, we modeled 4 damage scenarios (Salvage; Total Loss; Root Disease; and Combined Damage) with the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) growth and yield model and the Fuel Reduction Cost ...


Cause‐Specific Mortality Of The World’S Terrestrial Vertebrates, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant Jan 2019

Cause‐Specific Mortality Of The World’S Terrestrial Vertebrates, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Aim: Vertebrates are declining worldwide, yet a comprehensive examination of the sources of mortality is lacking. We conducted a global synthesis of terrestrial vertebrate cause‐specific mortality to compare the sources of mortality across taxa and determine predictors of susceptibility to these sources of mortality.

Location: Worldwide.

Time period: 1970–2018.

Major taxa studied: Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians.

Methods: We searched for studies that used telemetry to determine the cause of death of terrestrial vertebrates. We determined whether each mortality was caused by anthropogenic or natural sources and further classified mortalities within these two categories (e.g. harvest, vehicle ...