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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Alternative Carbohydrate Sources And Soybean-Derived Isoflavones On The Microbiome And Immune System Of Nursery Piglets And Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Line J-2, Sydney Kinstler Aug 2019

Effects Of Alternative Carbohydrate Sources And Soybean-Derived Isoflavones On The Microbiome And Immune System Of Nursery Piglets And Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Line J-2, Sydney Kinstler

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Four experiments were conducted to characterize the microbiome of the piglet and observe effects of diet on growth performance and immunity. In Exp. 1, 96 nursery piglets were fed varying carbohydrate sources and in Exp. 2, 64 piglets were fed a soy protein concentrate or soybean meal as-is or supplemented with an isoflavone concentrate. Body and feeder weights were measured for growth performance estimation. Luminal contents and scrapings were isolated for microbial composition analysis. Fecal and blood samples were extracted in Exp. 2 for microbiome and immunity analysis. Diets did not affect growth performance (P > 0.10); however, Exp. 1 ...


Evaluation Of Alpha Amylase Containing Corn On Beef Cattle Performance And Digestibility And Double-Cropped Annual Forages Following Corn Harvest, Mckenna Brinton Aug 2019

Evaluation Of Alpha Amylase Containing Corn On Beef Cattle Performance And Digestibility And Double-Cropped Annual Forages Following Corn Harvest, Mckenna Brinton

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

One digestion and three feedlot trials evaluated the effect of a new corn hybrid containing an α-amylase enzyme trait, Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn (SYT-EFC) on site and extent of digestion, ruminal fermentation parameters, and feedlot performance. Experiments utilized corn containing the enzymatic gene (SYT-EFC) compared to commercially available corn (CON), processed as corn silage (CS) kernel processed or not (KP), dry-rolled corn (DRC), high-moisture corn (HMC), or a blend of DRC and HMC. Growing calves fed high inclusions of CS, displayed increased G:F when CS was KP, resulting in a 6.5% improvement in G:F. Hybrid and kernel ...


Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy Jul 2019

Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Improving animal growth and efficiency are critical points of research as the world’s population and demand for agriculture products increase. Therefore, adaptions or changes in the gut are of interest to maximize growth efficiency and wellbeing of livestock. The gastrointestinal tract of the rumen plays many critical roles with the assistance of the associated microbial community. One way to improve animal performance is supplementation of β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) which are commonly fed to cattle during the last 20-40 days of the finishing period, improving muscle growth by decreasing adipose deposition and increasing muscle accretion. Two β-AA, Ractopamine HCl (β1-AA ...


Undergraduate Success In Animal Science Courses Based On Demographics, Motivation, And Online Courses, Haylee Anne Lavoie Jul 2019

Undergraduate Success In Animal Science Courses Based On Demographics, Motivation, And Online Courses, Haylee Anne Lavoie

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

A deeper understanding of student demographics, motivation, and outlook of online vs. face to face courses in Animal Science is needed to allow educators to facilitate greater student success. The purpose of this study was to investigate student factors which effected their final grades. The following courses were surveyed at the University of Nebraska- Lincoln Animal Science Department: Animal Products (ASCI 210), Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals (ASCI 240), Introduction to Companion Animals (ASCI 251), Companion Animal Behavior (ASCI 271), Companion Animal Nutrition (ASCI 321), Equine. Nutrition (ASCI 322), Equine Reproduction (ASCI 342), Animal Welfare (ASCI 370), Processed Meats ...


Beef Production Systems In The Nebraska Sandhills, Mckay Erickson Jun 2019

Beef Production Systems In The Nebraska Sandhills, Mckay Erickson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Four studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of improving production systems of beef cattle in the Sandhills region of Nebraska. These studies were to determine impacts of modified estrus synchronization protocols, genomic testing heifer calves for longevity, and evaluation of 2 differing calving systems (March or May) for improving biological outcome and improved production. Experiment 1 utilized 180 yearling heifers to determine the effectiveness of a second dose of prostaglandin F(PGF) with those females not expressing estrus after an initial 14 d MGA-PG estrus synchronization protocol. The treatment of PGF did increase estrus expression, but did not ...


Evaluation Of Protein Utilization In Low And High Protein Forage Sources And The Economic Value Of Supplementing Field Peas (Pisum Sativum) To Growing Cattle Grazing Crested Wheatgrass Pastures, Braden C. Troyer May 2019

Evaluation Of Protein Utilization In Low And High Protein Forage Sources And The Economic Value Of Supplementing Field Peas (Pisum Sativum) To Growing Cattle Grazing Crested Wheatgrass Pastures, Braden C. Troyer

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Field peas are widely grown in the panhandle of Nebraska; however, markets quickly become saturated. A two year experiment was conducted comparing field peas to dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a protein supplement. The objective was to establish a price producers could pay for field peas relative to DDGS. There was a significant difference in ADG due to type of supplement (P = 0.02). Field pea supplemented heifers had 10% lower ADG compared to DDGS supplemented heifers. Economically, this means if DDGS is priced at or $124.58/ 909 kg DM a producer could pay $2.89/ 27 ...


The Utilization Of Brown Midrib Corn Silage Hybrids And Kernel Processing To Improve Corn Silage Value And The Use Of High Protein Distillers Grains To Evaluate Starch Digestion, Lauren A. Ovinge May 2019

The Utilization Of Brown Midrib Corn Silage Hybrids And Kernel Processing To Improve Corn Silage Value And The Use Of High Protein Distillers Grains To Evaluate Starch Digestion, Lauren A. Ovinge

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three studies evaluated the effects of corn silage hybrid, inclusion level and kernel processing in growing and finishing diets. Two more studies were conducted on high protein dried distillers grains and its effect in finishing diets. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated three corn silage hybrids; standard (CON; hybrid-TMF2H708), brown midrib (bm3; hybrid-F15579S2) and Unified™ brown midrib with SilaSoft™ kernel technology with a floury endosperm (bm3-soft; hybrid-F15578XT) harvested with or without kernel processing on growth and metabolism. Experiment 3 evaluated a brown midrib hybrid (bm3; hybrid-F27F627; Mycogen® Seeds) or a control (CON; hybrid-TMF2H708) in the diet at 15%, 45% or ...


Selective Harvest Methods And Chemical Treatment Of Baled Corn Residue For Utilization In Growing Calf And Dry Cow Diets, Ashley C. Conway May 2019

Selective Harvest Methods And Chemical Treatment Of Baled Corn Residue For Utilization In Growing Calf And Dry Cow Diets, Ashley C. Conway

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three studies were conducted to evaluate baled corn residue using selective harvest method and anhydrous ammonia treatments to assess utility in growing calf and dry cow diets. Baled corn residue was harvested using conventional rake-and-bale (CONV) method, or harvested using the New Holland Cornrower in which either eight rows (8ROW), or two rows (2ROW) of corn stalks were chopped into the windrow with tailings. Bales were either not treated or ammoniated at 5.5% DM. When fed to wether lambs in a mixed ration (65% residue, 30% wet corn gluten feed) to determine digestibility, the 2ROW residue had greater apparent ...


Evaluation Of Microbial Community Dynamics Impacting The Shelf-Life Of Processed Meats, Chad G. Bower May 2019

Evaluation Of Microbial Community Dynamics Impacting The Shelf-Life Of Processed Meats, Chad G. Bower

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objective of this study in its entirety was to utilize high next-generation genetic sequencing to evaluate the microbial communities involved with processed meat spoilage. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq© platform was used alongside traditional plating methods to characterize the growth and composition of bacterial communities in processed meats. Previous results from this lab indicated a relatively high prevalence of Pseudomonas in cooked, sliced, and vacuum packaged deli meats, which was contrary to conventional wisdom. Therefore, four studies were designed to further evaluate the factors that may influence microbial communities in processed meats. Study 1 ...


The Effects Of Butyric Acid On Performance Parameters, Egg Quality And Nutrient Utilization In Young White Leghorn Hens, Dani-El Hanna Apr 2019

The Effects Of Butyric Acid On Performance Parameters, Egg Quality And Nutrient Utilization In Young White Leghorn Hens, Dani-El Hanna

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Adviser: Sheila E. Purdum

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Prophorce butyric acid on the performance of White Leghorn laying hens. Hens (180) were placed in 60 conventional cages (3 hens/cage) using a completely randomized design with 30 replicate cages per treatment allowing 722.58cm2/hen. Hens were given the control or butyric acid. The trial spanned 40 weeks (35 weeks old at the start). Water was given ad libitum and hens were fed 110g/day. Egg production and mortality were recorded daily. Egg shell strength, weight, and mass were recorded biweekly; hen ...


The Role Of Inflammatory Pathways In Development, Growth, And Metabolism Of Skeletal Muscle In Iugr Offspring; Blood Gene Expression Of Inflammatory Factors As Novel Biomarkers For Assessing Stress And Wellbeing In Exotic Species., Robert J. Posont Apr 2019

The Role Of Inflammatory Pathways In Development, Growth, And Metabolism Of Skeletal Muscle In Iugr Offspring; Blood Gene Expression Of Inflammatory Factors As Novel Biomarkers For Assessing Stress And Wellbeing In Exotic Species., Robert J. Posont

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Our first study identified the effects of maternal inflammation-induced intrauterine growth restriction (MI-IUGR) on growth and muscle glucose metabolism in offspring supplemented with curcumin. MI-IUGR lambs exhibited asymmetric growth restriction at birth and 30d of age, but normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Hindlimb glucose oxidation was reduced by MI-IUGR and not improved by curcumin supplementation. Ex vivo muscle glucose oxidation was reduced by MI-IUGR but improved somewhat by curcumin. These finding indicate that fetal programming responses to MI contribute to neonatal growth and metabolic deficits. Neonatal curcumin supplementation had minimal effect on growth deficits but may improve glucose metabolism.

Our second ...


Attainment And Maintenance Of Pubertal Cyclicity May Predict High A4 Cows With Reduced Fertility, Sarah Nafziger Jan 2019

Attainment And Maintenance Of Pubertal Cyclicity May Predict High A4 Cows With Reduced Fertility, Sarah Nafziger

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Puberty attainment was investigated in heifers. Blood samples were collected from weaning until breeding during 6 years from heifers born in 2012-2017. Plasma progesterone concentrations ≥ 1 ng/ml were used to indicate cyclicity, and heifers were categorized into one of four puberty groups using SAS: 1) Early heifers reached puberty before March 12 and cycled continuously during the sampling period, 2) Typical heifers reached puberty on or after March 12 and cycled continuously, 3) Start-Stop heifers had at least one occurrence of progesterone ≥ 1 ng/ml but discontinued cycling during the sampling period, and 4) Non-Cycling heifers had no occurrence ...