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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Bioinformatics Identification Of Anti-Crispr Loci By Using Homology, Guilt-By-Association, And Crispr Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches, Yanbin Yin, Bowen Yang, Sarah Entwistle Sep 2019

Bioinformatics Identification Of Anti-Crispr Loci By Using Homology, Guilt-By-Association, And Crispr Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches, Yanbin Yin, Bowen Yang, Sarah Entwistle

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Anti-CRISPR (Acr) loci/operons encode Acr proteins and Acr-associated (Aca) proteins. Forty-five Acr families have been experimentally characterized inhibiting seven subtypes of CRISPR-Cas systems. We have developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify genomic loci containing Acr homologs and/or Aca homologs by combining three computational approaches: homology, guilt-by-association, and self-targeting spacers. Homology search found thousands of Acr homologs in bacterial and viral genomes, but most are homologous to AcrIIA7 and AcrIIA9. Investigating the gene neighborhood of these Acr homologs revealed that only a small percentage (23.0% in bacteria and 8.2% in viruses) of them have neighboring Aca homologs ...


Experimental Evidence For Adaptation To Species-Specific Gut Microbiota In House Mice, Andrew H. Moeller, João C. Gomes-Neto, Sara Mantz, Hatem Kittana, Rafael R. Segura Munoz, Robert J. Schmaltz, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael W. Nachman Jul 2019

Experimental Evidence For Adaptation To Species-Specific Gut Microbiota In House Mice, Andrew H. Moeller, João C. Gomes-Neto, Sara Mantz, Hatem Kittana, Rafael R. Segura Munoz, Robert J. Schmaltz, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael W. Nachman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The gut microbial communities of mammals have codiversified with host species, and changes in the gut microbiota can have profound effects on host fitness. Therefore, the gut microbiota may drive adaptation in mammalian species, but this possibility is underexplored. Here, we show that the gut microbiota has codiversified with mice in the genus Mus over the past 6 million years, and we present experimental evidence that the gut microbiota has driven adaptive evolution of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus. Phylogenetic analyses of metagenomeassembled bacterial genomic sequences revealed that gut bacterial lineages have been retained within and diversified alongside Mus ...


Candida Albicans Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Modulates Staphyloxanthin Production And Activates The Thiol-Based Oxidative-Stress Response In Staphylococcus Aureus, Taissa Vila, Eric F. Kong, Ahmed Ibrahim, Kurt Piepenbrink, Amol C. Shetty, Carrie Mccracken, Vincent Bruno, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk Jun 2019

Candida Albicans Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Modulates Staphyloxanthin Production And Activates The Thiol-Based Oxidative-Stress Response In Staphylococcus Aureus, Taissa Vila, Eric F. Kong, Ahmed Ibrahim, Kurt Piepenbrink, Amol C. Shetty, Carrie Mccracken, Vincent Bruno, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Microbial species utilize secreted-signaling molecules to coordinate their behavior. Our previous investigations demonstrated a key role for the Candida albicans-secreted quorum-sensing molecule farnesol in modulating Staphylococcus aureus response to antimicrobials in mixed biofilms. In this study, we aimed to provide mechanistic insights into the impact of farnesol on S. aureus within the context of inter-species interactions. To mimic biofilm dynamics, farnesol-sensitized S. aureus cells were generated via sequential farnesol exposure. The sensitized phenotype exhibited dramatic loss of the typical pigment, which we identified as staphyloxanthin, an important virulence factor synthesized by the Crt operon in S. aureus. Additionally, farnesol exposure ...


Cell Wall Enzymes In Zygnema Circumcarinatum Utex 1559 Respond To Osmotic Stress In A Plant-Like Fashion, Elisabeth Fitzek, Lauren Orton, Sarah Entwistle, W. Scott Grayburn, Catherine Ausland, Melvin R. Duvall, Yanbin Yin Jun 2019

Cell Wall Enzymes In Zygnema Circumcarinatum Utex 1559 Respond To Osmotic Stress In A Plant-Like Fashion, Elisabeth Fitzek, Lauren Orton, Sarah Entwistle, W. Scott Grayburn, Catherine Ausland, Melvin R. Duvall, Yanbin Yin

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Previous analysis of charophyte green algal (CGA) genomes and transcriptomes for specific protein families revealed that numerous land plant characteristics had already evolved in CGA. In this study, we have sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of Zygnema circumcarinatum UTEX 1559, and combined its predicted protein sequences with those of 13 additional species [five embryophytes (Emb), eight charophytes (Cha), and two chlorophytes (Chl) as the outgroup] for a comprehensive comparative genomics analysis. In total 25,485 orthologous gene clusters (OGCs, equivalent to protein families) of the 14 species were classified into nine OGC groups. For example, the ChaCEmb group contains 4 ...


Nitrogen, Cobalt Co-Doped Fluorescent Magnetic Carbon Dots As Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes For Cholesterol And Uric Acid In Human Blood Serum, Shan Huang, Erli Yang, Jiandong Yao, Xu Chu, Yi Liu, Yue Zhang, Qi Xiao May 2019

Nitrogen, Cobalt Co-Doped Fluorescent Magnetic Carbon Dots As Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes For Cholesterol And Uric Acid In Human Blood Serum, Shan Huang, Erli Yang, Jiandong Yao, Xu Chu, Yi Liu, Yue Zhang, Qi Xiao

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Detection of cholesterol and uric acid biomarkers is of great importance for clinical diagnosis of several serious diseases correlated with their variations in human blood serum. In this study, a new kind of well selective and highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent probe for cholesterol and uric acid determination in human blood serum was innovatively developed on the basis of the inner filter effect (IFE) process of nitrogen, cobalt co-doped carbon dots (N,Co-CDs) with 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP). DAP was the oxidative product during the oxidation reaction between ophenylenediamine and H2O2. Fluorescent magnetic N,Co-CDs possessing blue emission and magnetic property were ...


Corrigendum: Use Of Uv Treated Milk Powder To Increase Vaccine Efficacy In The Elderly, Sara Schaefer, Kasper Arthur Hettinga, James Cullor, J. Bruce German, Bethany M. Henrick Mar 2019

Corrigendum: Use Of Uv Treated Milk Powder To Increase Vaccine Efficacy In The Elderly, Sara Schaefer, Kasper Arthur Hettinga, James Cullor, J. Bruce German, Bethany M. Henrick

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

“Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrollment (week 0) and serum was stored at −80◦C until subsequent analysis. Participants were then randomized into two groups and provided with equal concentration and quantity of either dairy or soy supplement provided in powdered form in coded, single-serving bags. Both participants and researchers were blinded to the type of protein received. Participants were asked to consume two servings of protein powder (6 grams/packet) with 4 ounces of water or applesauce twice per day, with meals, for a total of 8 weeks. At week 4, participants were vaccinated with ...


Tlr10 Senses Hiv-1 Proteins And Significantly Enhances Hiv-1 Infection, Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Alash’Le Abimiku, Sophia Osawe, Kenneth L. Rosenthal Mar 2019

Tlr10 Senses Hiv-1 Proteins And Significantly Enhances Hiv-1 Infection, Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Alash’Le Abimiku, Sophia Osawe, Kenneth L. Rosenthal

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity and provide a first line of host defense against invading pathogens. Of the identified human TLRs, TLR10 remains an orphan receptor whose ligands and functions are poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the level of TLR10 expression in breastmilk (BM) and explore its potential function in the context of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated HIV-1-infected (Nigerian: n = 40) and uninfected (Nigerian: n = 27; Canadian: n = 15) BM samples for TLR expression (i.e., TLR10, TLR2, and TLR1) and report here that HIV-1-infected BM from Nigerian women showed ...


Hydrodistillation Extraction Kinetics Regression Models For Essential Oil Yield And Composition In Juniperus Virginiana, J. Excelsa, And J. Sabina, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Santosh Shiwakoti, Charles L. Cantrell, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Vicki L. Schlegel, Tzenka Radoukova Mar 2019

Hydrodistillation Extraction Kinetics Regression Models For Essential Oil Yield And Composition In Juniperus Virginiana, J. Excelsa, And J. Sabina, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Santosh Shiwakoti, Charles L. Cantrell, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Vicki L. Schlegel, Tzenka Radoukova

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of Juniperus virginiana, J. excelsa, and J. sabina essential oil (EO) fractions as a function of time was the subject of this study. The hypothesis was that, capturing EO in sequential timeframes during hydrodistillation would generate fractions containing unique compositions and antioxidant capacity. In J. virginiana, the highest limonene (43%) was found in the 0–5 min oil fraction, with safrole (37%) being highest in the 10–20 and 20–40 min fractions, and elemol (34%) being highest in the 160–240 min fraction. In J. excelsa, α-pinene (34-36%) was the highest in the ...


Orphan Genes Shared By Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated With Bacterial Pathogenicity, Sarah Entwistle, Yanbin Yin Feb 2019

Orphan Genes Shared By Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated With Bacterial Pathogenicity, Sarah Entwistle, Yanbin Yin

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Orphan genes (also known as ORFans [i.e., orphan open reading frames]) are new genes that enable an organism to adapt to its specific living environment. Our focus in this study is to compare ORFans between pathogens (P) and nonpathogens (NP) of the same genus. Using the pangenome idea, we have identified 130,169 ORFans in nine bacterial genera (505 genomes) and classified these ORFans into four groups: (i) SS-ORFans (P), which are only found in a single pathogenic genome; (ii) SS-ORFans (NP), which are only found in a single nonpathogenic genome; (iii) PS-ORFans (P), which are found in multiple ...


Gut Microbiota Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity Restricts Melanoma Growth In Rnf5−/− Mice, Yan Li, Roberto Tinoco, Lisa Elmén, Igor Segota, Yibo Xian, Yu Fujita, Avinash Sahu, Raphy Zarecki, Kerrie Marie, Yongmei Feng, Ali Khateb, Dennie T. Frederick, Shiri K. Ashkenazi, Hyungsoo Kim, Eva Guijarro Perez, Chi-Ping Day, Rafael S. Segura Muñoz, Robert Schmaltz, Shibu Yooseph, Miguel A. Tam, Tongwu Zhang, Emily Avitan-Hersh, Lihi Tzur, Shoshana Roizman, Ilanit Boyango, Gil Bar-Sela, Amir Orian, Randal J. Kaufman, Marcus Bosenberg, Colin R. Goding, Bas Baaten, Mitchell P. Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Kevin Brown, Glenn Merlino, Eytan Ruppin, Keith Flaherty, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Tao Long, Scott N. Peterson, Linda M. Bradley, Ze’Ev A. Ronai Jan 2019

Gut Microbiota Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity Restricts Melanoma Growth In Rnf5−/− Mice, Yan Li, Roberto Tinoco, Lisa Elmén, Igor Segota, Yibo Xian, Yu Fujita, Avinash Sahu, Raphy Zarecki, Kerrie Marie, Yongmei Feng, Ali Khateb, Dennie T. Frederick, Shiri K. Ashkenazi, Hyungsoo Kim, Eva Guijarro Perez, Chi-Ping Day, Rafael S. Segura Muñoz, Robert Schmaltz, Shibu Yooseph, Miguel A. Tam, Tongwu Zhang, Emily Avitan-Hersh, Lihi Tzur, Shoshana Roizman, Ilanit Boyango, Gil Bar-Sela, Amir Orian, Randal J. Kaufman, Marcus Bosenberg, Colin R. Goding, Bas Baaten, Mitchell P. Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Kevin Brown, Glenn Merlino, Eytan Ruppin, Keith Flaherty, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Tao Long, Scott N. Peterson, Linda M. Bradley, Ze’Ev A. Ronai

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Accumulating evidence points to an important role for the gut microbiome in anti-tumor immunity. Here, we show that altered intestinal microbiota contributes to anti-tumor immunity, limiting tumor expansion. Mice lacking the ubiquitin ligase RNF5 exhibit attenuated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) components, which coincides with increased expression of inflammasome components, recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and reduced expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Reduced UPR expression is also seen in murine and human melanoma tumor specimens that responded to immune checkpoint therapy. Co-housing of Rnf5−/− and WT mice abolishes the anti-tumor immunity and tumor inhibition ...


Formation Of Low-Density And Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles From Butter And Fractionated Palm Oil Mixture, Joshua Gudeman, Junsi Yang, Ozan Ciftci Jan 2019

Formation Of Low-Density And Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles From Butter And Fractionated Palm Oil Mixture, Joshua Gudeman, Junsi Yang, Ozan Ciftci

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The use of solid fats is challenging due to difficulty in incorporating into foods, handling during industrial food production, and relatively high-calorie contributions. The objective of this study was to form free-flowing and low-density hollow microparticles from nonhydrogenated fats, namely, butter and fractionated palm oil, using a novel method based on atomization of a carbon dioxide (CO2)- expanded lipid mixture. The melting point of the fractionated palm oil decreased from 66.2 to 47.3°C above 120 bar in the presence of pressurized CO2. The density of the particles decreased five-folds compared to that of the original ...


Mycoprotein: The Future Of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, A Symposium Review, Tim Ja Finnigan, Benjamin T. Wall, Peter J. Wilde, Francis B. Stephens, Steve Taylor, Marjorie R. Freedman Jan 2019

Mycoprotein: The Future Of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, A Symposium Review, Tim Ja Finnigan, Benjamin T. Wall, Peter J. Wilde, Francis B. Stephens, Steve Taylor, Marjorie R. Freedman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Mycoprotein is an alternative, nutritious protein source with a meat-like texture made from Fusarium venenatum, a naturally occurring fungus. Its unique method of production yields a significantly reduced carbon and water footprint relative to beef and chicken. Mycoprotein, sold as Quorn, is consumed in 17 countries, including the United States. In line with current dietary guidelines, mycoprotein is high in protein and fiber, and low in fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar. Mycoprotein may help maintain healthy blood cholesterol levels, promote muscle synthesis, control glucose and insulin levels, and increase satiety. It is possible that some susceptible consumers will become sensitized ...


In Vitro Bioaccessibility Of Low-Crystallinity Phytosterol Nanoparticles Generated Using Nanoporous Starch Bioaerogels, Ali Ubeyitogullari, Regis Moreau, Devin J. Rose, Ozan Ciftci Jan 2019

In Vitro Bioaccessibility Of Low-Crystallinity Phytosterol Nanoparticles Generated Using Nanoporous Starch Bioaerogels, Ali Ubeyitogullari, Regis Moreau, Devin J. Rose, Ozan Ciftci

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Phytosterols are natural health-promoting bioactive compounds; however, phytosterols have very limited bioavailability due to their crystalline lipophilic structure. With the aim of improving bioaccessibility, low-crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles were generated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) impregnation of phytosterols into nanoporous starch aerogels (NSAs). The in vitro bioaccessibility of the phytosterol nanoparticles (35%) was significantly higher than that of the crude phytosterols (3%) after sequential oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion. The percentages of starch hydrolysis were not different among the various NSA preparations and reached to 64% after sequential digestion. The zeta potential of the phytosterol nanoparticles was higher compared to that ...