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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma Aug 2019

The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma

Papers in Herpetology

A Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca baudinii, a nonindigenous species, was interdicted for the first time from an imported shipment of peppers. The value of agriculture inspection stations used to make these interdictions is discussed. This is a single cargo interception (Stage 1: Colautti and MacIsaac 2004) and the first record for S. baudinii intercepted in Florida. Currently no evidence suggests that S. baudinii has been successfully introduced into and established in Florida, although this species could survive climatic conditions in the southern part of the state and at the scheduled destination of this shipment.

Cargo transport of alien species is a ...


Implementing The North American Bat Monitoring Program In Nebraska: An Assessment Of Nebraska Bats With An Emphasis On Citizen Science, Baxter Seguin May 2019

Implementing The North American Bat Monitoring Program In Nebraska: An Assessment Of Nebraska Bats With An Emphasis On Citizen Science, Baxter Seguin

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Over the past decade bat species in North America have been under immense stress due to anthropogenic activities throughout the continent along with severe declines from foreign invaders. Though many specific anthropogenic related activities such as deforestation, land-use alteration, and hibernacula disturbance/modification were the primary culprits of negative impacts on bat species in the past, they pale in comparison to the threats bats face today. White nose syndrome a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and wind energy development have caused declines and disruptions to the bat populations of North America at an unprecedented rate.

Due to the ...


American White Pelicans, Tommy King May 2019

American White Pelicans, Tommy King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Figure 1) threaten aquaculture producers by direct predation and the spread of disease. They are also considered competition and a nuisance by some sports fishermen. Pelicans can also damage pond levees and crops, such as rice, by trampling the vegetation and depositing guano. A combination of wildlife damage management techniques is often necessary to reduce pelican damage to these resources. Aquaculture Prior to the winter of 1992, American white pelican depredations at catfish facilities in the Delta regions of Arkansas and Mississippi were limited, and birds were easily dispersed from the area. Since 1992, however ...


Population Characteristics Of Co-Managed White Bass And Hybrid Striped Bass In Lake Mcconaughy, Nebraska, Benjamin J. Schall, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Keith D. Koupal Mar 2019

Population Characteristics Of Co-Managed White Bass And Hybrid Striped Bass In Lake Mcconaughy, Nebraska, Benjamin J. Schall, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Keith D. Koupal

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White Bass (Morone chrysops) and Hybrid Striped Bass (M. saxatillis × M. chrysops) populations often coexist in the same waterbody and are known to achieve different lengths, have differing reproductive success, and provide different opportunities for anglers. However, comparative population dynamics from systems where Moronids are managed with the same regulation is often lacking. This study aimed to assess the recruitment, mortality, and growth of these species from seasonal samples collected at Lake McConaughy in 2015 and fall 2016. White Bass demonstrated highly variable recruitment in Lake McConaughy despite stocking efforts (mean recruitment variability index = 0.157). Hybrid Striped Bass year ...


Emerging Themes From The Esa Symposium Entitled “Pollinator Nutrition: Lessons From Bees At Individual To Landscape Levels”, Vanessa Corby-Harris, Julia H. Bowsher, Morgan Carr-Markell, Mark J. Carroll, Mary Centrella, Steven C. Cook, Margaret Couvillon, Gloria Degrandi-Hoffman, Adam Dolezal, Julia C. Jones, Christina L. Mogren, Clint R. V. Otto, Pierre Lau, Juliana Rangel, Roger Schürch, Ashley St. Clair Mar 2019

Emerging Themes From The Esa Symposium Entitled “Pollinator Nutrition: Lessons From Bees At Individual To Landscape Levels”, Vanessa Corby-Harris, Julia H. Bowsher, Morgan Carr-Markell, Mark J. Carroll, Mary Centrella, Steven C. Cook, Margaret Couvillon, Gloria Degrandi-Hoffman, Adam Dolezal, Julia C. Jones, Christina L. Mogren, Clint R. V. Otto, Pierre Lau, Juliana Rangel, Roger Schürch, Ashley St. Clair

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Pollinator populations are declining (Biesmeijer et al., 2006; Brodschneider et al., 2018; Cameron et al., 2011; Goulson, Lye, & Darvill, 2008; Kulhanek et al., 2017; National Research Council, 2007; Oldroyd, 2007), and both anecdotal and experimental evidence suggest that limited access to high quality forage might play a role (Carvell, Meek, Pywell, Goulson, & Nowakowski, 2007; Deepa et al., 2017; Goulson, Nicholls, Botias, & Rotheray, 2015; Potts et al., 2003, 2010; Vanbergen & The Insect Pollinators Initiative, 2013; Vaudo, Tooker, Grozinger, & Patch, 2015; Woodard, 2017). Multiple researchers are earnestly addressing this topic in a diverse array of insect-pollinator systems. As research continues to be published, increased communication among scientists studying the topic of nutrition is essential for ...


Effects Of Land Use On Greenhouse Gas Flux In Playa Wetlands And Associated Watersheds In The High Plains, Usa, Dale W. Daniel, Loren M. Smith, Scott T. Mcmurry, Brian A. Tangen, Charles F. Dahl, Ned H. Euliss Jr., Ted Lagrange Feb 2019

Effects Of Land Use On Greenhouse Gas Flux In Playa Wetlands And Associated Watersheds In The High Plains, Usa, Dale W. Daniel, Loren M. Smith, Scott T. Mcmurry, Brian A. Tangen, Charles F. Dahl, Ned H. Euliss Jr., Ted Lagrange

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

In the High Plains, U.S., native prairie conversion to cropland agriculture has resulted in a loss of service delivery capabilities from most depressional wet-lands as a result of sedimentation. Restoring historic hydrological conditions to affected wetlands may rejuvenate some services, however, there may be tradeoffs due to emissions of CH4 and N2O. We evaluated the influence of two predominant conservation programs (Wetlands Reserve Program, WRP and Conservation Reserve Program, CRP) on gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from 42 playas and uplands in the High Plains of Nebraska. Because playa restoration through the WRP is most prevalent in the Rainwater ...


Whooping Crane Use Of Riverine Stopover Sites, David M. Baasch, Patrick D. Farrell, Shay Howlin, Aaron T. Pearse, Jason M. Farnsworth, Chadwin B. Smith Jan 2019

Whooping Crane Use Of Riverine Stopover Sites, David M. Baasch, Patrick D. Farrell, Shay Howlin, Aaron T. Pearse, Jason M. Farnsworth, Chadwin B. Smith

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Migratory birds like endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) require suitable nocturnal roost sites during twice annual migrations. Whooping cranes primarily roost in shallow surface water wetlands, ponds, and rivers. All these features have been greatly impacted by human activities, which present threats to the continued recovery of the species. A portion of one such river, the central Platte River, has been identified as critical habitat for the survival of the endangered whooping crane. Management intervention is now underway to rehabilitate habitat form and function on the central Platte River to increase use and thereby contribute to the survival of whooping ...


Modeling Effects Of Crop Production, Energy Development And Conservation-Grassland Loss On Avian Habitat, Jiill A. Shaffer, Cali L. Roth, David M. Mushet Jan 2019

Modeling Effects Of Crop Production, Energy Development And Conservation-Grassland Loss On Avian Habitat, Jiill A. Shaffer, Cali L. Roth, David M. Mushet

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Birds are essential components of most ecosystems and provide many services valued by society. However, many populations have undergone striking declines as their habitats have been lost or degraded by human activities. Terrestrial grasslands are vital habitat for birds in the North American Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), but grassland conversion and fragmentation from agriculture and energy-production activities have destroyed or degraded millions of hectares. Conservation grasslands can provide alternate habitat. In the United States, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest program maintaining conservation grasslands on agricultural lands, but conservation grasslands in the PPR have declined by over 1 ...


Mortality In Aransas-Wood Buffalo Whooping Cranes: Timing, Location, And Causes, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Barry K. Hartup, Mark T. Bidwell Jan 2019

Mortality In Aransas-Wood Buffalo Whooping Cranes: Timing, Location, And Causes, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Barry K. Hartup, Mark T. Bidwell

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The Aransas-Wood Buffalo Population (AWBP) of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) has experienced a population growth rate of approximately 4% for multiple decades (Butler et al., 2014a; Miller et al., 1974). Population growth for long-lived species of birds is generally highly sensitive to variation in adult mortality rates (Sæther and Bakke, 2000). A population model for endangered Red-crowned Cranes (Grus japonensis) in Japan conforms to this pattern, where growth rate is most sensitive to adult mortality (Masatomi et al., 2007). Earlier analyses observed that the AWBP growth rate increased in the mid-1950s and that this increase was likely caused by reduced ...


Distribution Extension Of Aspiculuris Americana Parasite Of Peromyscus Difficilis In Hidalgo, Mexico, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Jorge Falcón-Ordaz Jan 2019

Distribution Extension Of Aspiculuris Americana Parasite Of Peromyscus Difficilis In Hidalgo, Mexico, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

English: As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the helminth parasites of rodents in Mexico, 30 individuals of Aspiculuris americana were collected inhabiting the intestine from three specimens of the rock mouse Peromyscus difficilis, collected from Cerro Xihuingo, Municipality of Tepeapulco, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This species of nematode parasite different species of the genus Peromyscus (P. gossypinus, P. leucopus, P. maniculatus, and P. floridanus) distributed from Yukon Territory in Canada to Florida in the United States of America. This is the first report of Aspiculuris americana in a Mexican endemic rodent, widening the known distribution of the species ...


Diurnal Habitat Selection Of Migrating Whooping Crane In The Great Plains, David M. Baasch, Patrick D. Farrell, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Andrew J. Caven, Mary J. Harner, Greg D. Wright, Kristine L. Metzger Jan 2019

Diurnal Habitat Selection Of Migrating Whooping Crane In The Great Plains, David M. Baasch, Patrick D. Farrell, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Andrew J. Caven, Mary J. Harner, Greg D. Wright, Kristine L. Metzger

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Available stopover habitats with quality foraging opportunities are essential for migrating waterbirds, including Whooping Crane (Grus americana). Several studies have evaluated habitats used by Whooping Crane for roosting throughout its migration corridor; however, habitats associated with foraging and other diurnal activities have received less attention. We used data collected from 42 Whooping Crane individuals that included 2169 diurnal use locations within 395 stopover sites evaluated during spring 2013 to fall 2015 to assess diurnal habitat selection throughout the U.S. portion of the migration corridor. We found that Whooping Crane selected wetland land-cover types (i.e., open water, riverine, and ...


Revisiting The Historic Distribution And Habitats Of The Whooping Crane, Jane E. Austin, Matthew A. Hayes, Jeb A. Barzen Jan 2019

Revisiting The Historic Distribution And Habitats Of The Whooping Crane, Jane E. Austin, Matthew A. Hayes, Jeb A. Barzen

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Understanding the historic range and habitats of an endangered species can assist in conservation and reintroduction efforts for that species. Individuals reintroduced into a species’ historic core range have a higher survival rate compared to individuals introduced near the periphery or outside the historic range (Falk and Olwell, 1992; Griffith et al., 1989). Individuals on the periphery of a species’ range tend to occupy less favorable habitats and have lower and more variable densities than those near the core of their range (Brown, 1984; Brown et al., 1995, 1996). Such conclusions, however, presume that historic habitats have not changed since ...


U.S. Geological Survey- Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 2017 Research Activity Report, Mark H. Sherfy Jan 2019

U.S. Geological Survey- Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 2017 Research Activity Report, Mark H. Sherfy

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Contents

Acknowledgments...............................................................................iii

Center Mission and Science Strategy...............................................................1

Lines of Work..................................................................................2

Study Narratives.................................................................................16


Taking The Bait: Species Taking Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Intended For Raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, Richard M. Engeman Jan 2019

Taking The Bait: Species Taking Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Intended For Raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, Richard M. Engeman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies in eastern USA is managed by strategically distributing oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits. The attractiveness, palativity, density, and non-target species bait take affect ORV effectiveness. We examined raccoon and non-target species differences in investigating/removing fish-meal polymer and coated sachet baits applied to simulate two aerial bait distribution densities. Bait densities of 150 baits/km2 and 75 baits/km2 were evaluated, respectively, in zones expected to have high and low

Racc oon densities. Three primary non-target species visited baits: coyotes, white-tailed deer, and feral swine. The proportion of bait stations visited by raccoons during 1 week observation periods ...


In Situ Evaluation Of An Automated Aerial Bait Delivery System For Landscape-Scale Control Of Invasive Brown Treesnakes On Guam, Shane Siers, Will Pitt, John Eisemann, Larry Clark, Aaron B. Shiels, C. S. Clark, R. J. Gosnell, M. C. Messaros Jan 2019

In Situ Evaluation Of An Automated Aerial Bait Delivery System For Landscape-Scale Control Of Invasive Brown Treesnakes On Guam, Shane Siers, Will Pitt, John Eisemann, Larry Clark, Aaron B. Shiels, C. S. Clark, R. J. Gosnell, M. C. Messaros

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

After decades of biodiversity loss and economic burden caused by the brown treesnake invasion on the Pacific island of Guam, relief hovers on the horizon. Previous work by USDA Wildlife Services (WS) and its National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) demonstrated that brown treesnake numbers in forested habitats can be dramatically suppressed by aerial delivery of dead newborn mouse (DNM) baits treated with 80 mg of acetaminophen. However, manual bait preparation and application is impractical for landscape-scale treatment. WS, NWRC, and the US Department of the Interior have collaborated with Applied Design Corporation to engineer an automated bait manufacturing and delivery ...


Cause‐Specific Mortality Of The World’S Terrestrial Vertebrates, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant Jan 2019

Cause‐Specific Mortality Of The World’S Terrestrial Vertebrates, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Aim: Vertebrates are declining worldwide, yet a comprehensive examination of the sources of mortality is lacking. We conducted a global synthesis of terrestrial vertebrate cause‐specific mortality to compare the sources of mortality across taxa and determine predictors of susceptibility to these sources of mortality.

Location: Worldwide.

Time period: 1970–2018.

Major taxa studied: Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians.

Methods: We searched for studies that used telemetry to determine the cause of death of terrestrial vertebrates. We determined whether each mortality was caused by anthropogenic or natural sources and further classified mortalities within these two categories (e.g. harvest, vehicle ...


Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff Jan 2019

Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) damage to livestock producers in 13 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service in the summer of 2017 to a sample of livestock producers in the 13-state region. Findings indicate that predation and disease-related damage can be substantial in certain states and for certain types of livestock. In particular, damage to cattle operations in Texas and Arkansas was substantially higher than damage in other states and types ...


Using Dna To Identify The Source Of Invasive Mongooses, Herpestes Auropunctatus (Carnivora: Herpestidae) Captured On Kaua‘I, Hawaiian Islands, Darren J. Wostenberg, Matthew W. Hopken, Aaron B. Shiels, Antoinette J. Piaggio Jan 2019

Using Dna To Identify The Source Of Invasive Mongooses, Herpestes Auropunctatus (Carnivora: Herpestidae) Captured On Kaua‘I, Hawaiian Islands, Darren J. Wostenberg, Matthew W. Hopken, Aaron B. Shiels, Antoinette J. Piaggio

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Two small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) were live-captured in 2012 at separate locations on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua'i, which was previously considered to be free of this invasive species. Genotypes from these two individuals were compared to genotypes of H. auropunctatus from the islands of Hawai'i (n =39), O'ahu (n =91), Maui (n = 39), and Moloka'i (n = 19) to determine the island of origin of the Kaua'i individuals. Genotypes were generated from each individual using five microsatellite loci. Genetic clustering was estimated by Bayesian inference of spatial clustering of individuals and clustering of groups ...


What Are The Transmission Mechanisms Of Influenza A Viruses In Wild Mammals?, J. Jeffrey Root Jan 2019

What Are The Transmission Mechanisms Of Influenza A Viruses In Wild Mammals?, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Some influenza A viruses (IAVs) represent serious potential threats to public and agricultural health, with 3 notable examples from the past decade. During 2009, a novel H1N1 IAV (A[H1N1]pdm09), which was first detected in the United States, spread rapidly throughout many regions of the world. In the United States alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that >60 million human cases were associated with this emergent and pandemic virus. During 2013, a novel H7N9 avian-origin IAV (Asian lineage avian influenza A[H7N9] virus) was first detected in China. This virus not only cost the poultry industry ...


Taking The Bait: Species Taking Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Intended For Raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, Richard M. Engeman Jan 2019

Taking The Bait: Species Taking Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Intended For Raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, Richard M. Engeman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies in eastern USA is managed by strategically distributing oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits. The attractiveness, palativity, density, and non-target species bait take affect ORV effectiveness. We examined raccoon and non-target species differences in investigating/removing fish-meal polymer and coated sachet baits applied to simulate two aerial bait distribution densities. Bait densities of 150 baits/km2 and 75 baits/km2 were evaluated, respectively, in zones expected to have high and low raccoon densities. Three primary non-target species visited baits: coyotes, white-tailed deer, and feral swine. The proportion of bait stations visited by raccoons during 1 week observation ...


Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Response To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Baits (Onrab) In St. Lawrence County, New York, Usa, Kerri Pedersen, Amy T. Gilbert, Kathleen M. Nelson, Daniel P. Morgan, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Dennis Slate, Richard B. Chipman Jan 2019

Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Response To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Baits (Onrab) In St. Lawrence County, New York, Usa, Kerri Pedersen, Amy T. Gilbert, Kathleen M. Nelson, Daniel P. Morgan, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Dennis Slate, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns have been conducted annually in the US over the past two decades to prevent raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, which is enzootic along the eastern region of the country from southeastern Canada to Alabama. Because raccoon rabies has been eliminated from neighboring Canadian provinces, continued detection of the variant in the US is of concern due to the potential for infected raccoons to cross the border via the St. Lawrence River. Ontario Rabies Vaccine Baits (ONRAB) containing a live, recombinant human adenovirus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein have been under experimental use in the US since ...


Experimental Infections Of Norway Rats With Avian‑Derived Low‑Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses, Kaci K. Vandalen, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin, Susan A. Shriner Jan 2019

Experimental Infections Of Norway Rats With Avian‑Derived Low‑Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses, Kaci K. Vandalen, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are a public-health, veterinary, and agricultural concern. Although wild birds are considered the primary reservoir hosts for most IAVs, wild-bird IAV strains are known to spill over into poultry, domestic or wild mammals, and humans. Occasionally, spillover events may result in adaptation or reassortment with other strains. Moreover, some IAV strains found in wild waterfowl mutate into highly pathogenic forms in poultry, causing tremendous economic losses. When domestic animals, wildlife, and humans dwell in close proximity to each other, such as may be the case with agricultural operations, wildlife may represent a potential risk for interspecies ...


Potential Role Of Wildlife In The Usa In The Event Of A Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Incursion, Vienna R. Brown, Sarah N. Bevins Jan 2019

Potential Role Of Wildlife In The Usa In The Event Of A Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Incursion, Vienna R. Brown, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) which affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed species. The FMD-free status of the USA and the tremendous economic impact of a virus incursion motivated the development of this evaluation of the potential role of wildlife in the event of a virus introduction. Additionally, this manuscript contains a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral incursion and persistence which focuses specifically on the possible role of wildlife. The legal movement of susceptible live animals, animal products, by-products and animal feed containing animal products pose a risk of virus introduction and spread. Additionally, the ...


Movement Responses Inform Effectiveness And Consequences Of Baiting Wild Pigs For Population Control, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jan 2019

Movement Responses Inform Effectiveness And Consequences Of Baiting Wild Pigs For Population Control, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) damage agricultural and natural resources throughout their nearly global distribution. Subsequently, population control activities (e.g., trapping, shooting, or toxic baiting) frequently involve the deployment of bait to attract wild pigs. A better understanding of how wild pigs respond to bait sites can help maximize efficiency of baiting programs and identify any potential pitfalls. We examined the movement behaviors of 68 wild pigs during three stages of intensive baiting programs (i.e., 15 days each: prior, during, and post baiting) spread across two distinct study areas in southern and northern Texas, USA. We found that bait ...


A Bioeconomic Model For The Optimization Of Local Canine Rabies Control, Aaron Anderson, Johann Kotze, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Brody Hatch, Chris Slootmaker, Anne Conan, Darryn Knobel, Louis H. Nel Jan 2019

A Bioeconomic Model For The Optimization Of Local Canine Rabies Control, Aaron Anderson, Johann Kotze, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Brody Hatch, Chris Slootmaker, Anne Conan, Darryn Knobel, Louis H. Nel

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We present a new modeling tool that can be used to maximize the impact of canine rabies management resources that are available at the local level. The model is accessible through a web-based interface that allows for flexibility in the management strategies that can be investigated. Rabies vaccination, sterilization, chemo-contraception, and euthanasia can be specified and limited to specific demographic groups. Additionally, we allowed for considerable complexity in the specification of management costs. In many areas, the costs of contacting additional dogs increases as management effort increases, and this can have important strategic implications. We illustrated the application of the ...


Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers Jan 2019

Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world's most destructive invasive species wherever they are found, with translocations figuring prominently in their range expansions. In contrast, sea turtles are beloved species that are listed as threatened or endangered throughout the world and are the focus of intense conservation efforts. Nest predation by feral swine severely harms sea turtle reproduction in many locations around the world. Here we quantify and economically assess feral swine nest predation at North Island, South Carolina, an important loggerhead sea turtle nesting beach. Feral swine depredation of North Island sea turtle nests was first detected in 2005 ...


Analysis Of Iophenoxic Acid Analogues In Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) Sera For Use As An Oral Rabies Vaccination Biological Marker, Are R. Berentsen, Robert T. Sugihara, Cynthia G. Payne, Israel Leinbach, Steven F. Volker, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, Amy T. Gilbert Jan 2019

Analysis Of Iophenoxic Acid Analogues In Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) Sera For Use As An Oral Rabies Vaccination Biological Marker, Are R. Berentsen, Robert T. Sugihara, Cynthia G. Payne, Israel Leinbach, Steven F. Volker, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, Amy T. Gilbert

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) is a reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in Puerto Rico and comprises over 70% of animal rabies cases reported annually. The control of RABV circulation in wildlife reservoirs is typically accomplished by a strategy of oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Currently no wildlife ORV program exists in Puerto Rico. Research into oral rabies vaccines and various bait types for mongooses has been conducted with promising results. Monitoring the success of ORV relies on estimating bait uptake by target species, which typically involves evaluating a change in RABV neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) post vaccination. This strategy may ...


Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer Jan 2019

Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Social learning has important ecological and evolutionary consequences but the role of certain factors, such as social rank, neophobia (i.e., avoidance of novel stimuli), persistence, and task-reward association, remain less understood. We examined the role of these factors in social learning by captive coyotes (Canis latrans) via three studies. Study 1 involved individual animals and eliminated object neophobia by familiarizing the subjects to the testing apparatus prior to testing. Studies 2 and 3 used mated pairs to assess social rank, and included object neophobia, but differed in that study 3 decoupled the food reward from the testing apparatus (i ...


Mind The Gap: Experimental Tests To Improve Efficacy Of Fladry For Nonlethal Management Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, John Draper, Stewart Breck Jan 2019

Mind The Gap: Experimental Tests To Improve Efficacy Of Fladry For Nonlethal Management Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, John Draper, Stewart Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are the top predator of livestock in the contiguous United States. Developing more effective nonlethal tools to prevent coyote depredation will facilitate coexistence between livestock producers and coyotes. Fladry is a nonlethal deterrent designed to defend livestock by creating a visual barrier to wolves (C. lupus). Fladry may also be effective with coyotes, but large gap spacing between flags may reduce its efficacy. To address this issue, we performed 2 experiments on captive coyotes using fladry modified to reduce gap spacing at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Predator Research Facility in Millville, Utah, USA, during 2015 ...