Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 64

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2019

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley Sep 2019

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley

Papers in Plant Pathology

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides worldwide and are typically deployed as seed treatments (hereafter NST) in many grain and oilseed crops, including soybeans. However, there is a surprising dearth of information regarding NST effectiveness in increasing soybean seed yield, and most published data suggest weak, or inconsistent yield benefit. The US is the key soybean-producing nation worldwide and this work includes soybean yield data from 194 randomized and replicated field studies conducted specifically to evaluate the effect of NSTs on soybean seed yield at sites within 14 states from 2006 through 2017. Here we show that across the ...


Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman Aug 2019

Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Design of environmentally friendly lubricants derived from renewable resources is highly desirable for many practical applications. Here, Orychophragmus violaceus (Ov) seed oil is found to have superior lubrication properties, and this is based on the unusual structural features of the major lipid species— triacylglycerol (TAG) estolides. Ov TAG estolides contain two non-hydroxylated, glycerol-bound fatty acids (FAs) and one dihydroxylated FA with an estolide branch. Estolide branch chains vary in composition and length, leading to their thermal stability and functional properties. Using this concept, nature-guided estolides of castor oil were synthesized. As predicted, they showed improved lubrication properties similar to Ov ...


Expression Of Multi-Domain Lytic Peptide Genes In Transgenic Plants For Disease Resistance, George Biliarski Aug 2019

Expression Of Multi-Domain Lytic Peptide Genes In Transgenic Plants For Disease Resistance, George Biliarski

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Four non-plant multi-domain lytic peptide genes coding for antimicrobial peptides were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and tested against three fungal pathogens: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium sp. Detached-leaf bioassay was performed for the transgenic plants carrying multi-domain lytic peptide constructs and compared with transgenic and wild type control plants. Symptom area of each leaf was measured with high precision using the Compu-Eye software and processed by SAS statistical package. The transgenic lines ORF13 and RSL1 showed substantial resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection producing significantly smaller lesion areas compared to control plants. However, these lines were not ...


Rust And Viral Mosaic Diseases In Biofuel Switchgrass, Anthony A. Muhle Aug 2019

Rust And Viral Mosaic Diseases In Biofuel Switchgrass, Anthony A. Muhle

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season monocot that is indigenous to locations in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and is considered a model grass for biofuel feedstock production. As switchgrass production increases, diseases pose a potential threat to biomass production and ethanol extraction. The two predominant switchgrass diseases in Nebraska are rust caused by Puccinia spp. and a viral mosaic disease caused by Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) and its associated Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV). In this thesis, one study determined how SPMV affects PMV infection and systemic spread in two populations of switchgrass at different ...


Investigating Parental Effects On End-Use Quality In Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Hybrids, Anthony Delaney Aug 2019

Investigating Parental Effects On End-Use Quality In Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Hybrids, Anthony Delaney

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

To optimize the performance and marketing of hybrid wheat, breeders need to understand the impact parents have on end-use quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the inheritance of end-use quality traits of hard winter wheat reciprocal hybrids produced by Easterly (2017). The 2016 analysis included 71 reciprocal hybrid combinations from 13 parents and the 2017 analysis included 79 reciprocal hybrid combinations from 14 parents. The reciprocals were composed of crosses between the top performing and bottom performing parents with respect to end-use quality as quantified by a Mixograph, a SDS sedimentation assay, and a SDS-SRC hybrid assay ...


An Integrated Genomics And Phenomics Approach To Study The Evolution Of C4 Photosynthesis, Daniel Santana De Carvalho Aug 2019

An Integrated Genomics And Phenomics Approach To Study The Evolution Of C4 Photosynthesis, Daniel Santana De Carvalho

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The C4 photosynthetic pathway was first described over 50 years ago. Today, it is known that C4 evolved independently > 60 in plant lineages, which involves understanding not only the genetic, but also the metabolic features and differences involved in this process. Also, several adaptations are involved in the evolution of this type of photosynthesis, for example: changes in leaf anatomy and the evolution of kranz anatomy, physiology and metabolic pathways. In order to further investigate this pathway, different technologies and methods have been developed to unravel genes involved in C4 photosynthesis. With the advances in molecular biology and bioinformatics tools ...


Hormonal Signaling Induced In Soybean By Lysobacter Enzymogenes Strain C3, Jessica C. Walnut Aug 2019

Hormonal Signaling Induced In Soybean By Lysobacter Enzymogenes Strain C3, Jessica C. Walnut

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The biological control bacterium Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 has been shown to suppress fungal diseases by producing a suite of lytic enzymes and antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Previous studies have found that C3, when applied to grass and cereal plants, also is capable of inducing local and systemic resistance against fungal pathogens. It is unknown, however, whether the bacterium has the ability to induce resistance in dicots and what signaling pathways are involved. This study assessed the ability of C3 to trigger local and systemic induced resistance responses in soybean (Glycine max ‘Williams82’) by analyzing relative expression of salicylic acid (SA ...


New Approaches To Use Genomics, Field Traits, And High-Throughput Phenotyping For Gene Discovery In Maize (Zea Mays), Zhikai Liang Aug 2019

New Approaches To Use Genomics, Field Traits, And High-Throughput Phenotyping For Gene Discovery In Maize (Zea Mays), Zhikai Liang

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Maize is one of major crop species over the world. With lots of genetic resources and genomic tools, maize also serves as a model species to understand genetic diversity, facilitate the development of trait extraction algorithms and map candidate functional genes. Since the first version of widely used B73 reference genome was released, independent research groups in the maize community propagated seeds themselves for further research purposes. However, unexpected or occasional contamination may happen during this process. The first study in this thesis used public RNA-seq data of B73 from 27 research groups across three countries for calling single nucleotide ...


The Database Of Identified Root-Specific Genes And Their Promoters In Maize, Sorghum, And Soybean, Gleb Moisseyev, Divith Rajagopal, Alix Cui, Kiyoul Park, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chi Zhang Aug 2019

The Database Of Identified Root-Specific Genes And Their Promoters In Maize, Sorghum, And Soybean, Gleb Moisseyev, Divith Rajagopal, Alix Cui, Kiyoul Park, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Root genes are essential to plants as they dictate factors such as the strength of the plant, reproductivity success, etc. However, in status quo studies on roots genes are simply inefficient. To be more specific, currently there are very few online databases of roots genes and promoters, which essentially deters root gene studies from being successful. To fix this problem, our lab constructed and coded an online database that contains information about the roots of maize, soybean, and sorghum. We collected 1200 root genes and assessed the strength and success of a given gene. This online database of these crops ...


Assessing Anthocyanin Biosynthesis In Solanaceae As A Model Pathway For Secondary Metabolism, Zou Li, Trisha Vickrey, Moira G. Mcnally, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Jeffrey P. Mower Jul 2019

Assessing Anthocyanin Biosynthesis In Solanaceae As A Model Pathway For Secondary Metabolism, Zou Li, Trisha Vickrey, Moira G. Mcnally, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Jeffrey P. Mower

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Solanaceae have played an important role in elucidating how flower color is specified by the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (FBP), which produces anthocyanins and other secondary metabolites. With well-established reverse genetics tools and rich genomic resources, Solanaceae provide a robust framework to examine the diversification of this well-studied pathway over short evolutionary timescales and to evaluate the predictability of genetic perturbation on pathway flux. Genomes of eight Solanaceae species, nine related asterids, and four rosids were mined to evaluate variation in copy number of the suite of FBP enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Comparison of annotation sources indicated that the NCBI ...


Network‐Based Feature Selection Reveals Substructures Of Gene Modules Responding To Salt Stress In Rice, Qian Du, Malachy Campbell, Huihui Yu, Kan Liu, Harkamal Walia, Qi Zhang, Chi Zhang Jul 2019

Network‐Based Feature Selection Reveals Substructures Of Gene Modules Responding To Salt Stress In Rice, Qian Du, Malachy Campbell, Huihui Yu, Kan Liu, Harkamal Walia, Qi Zhang, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Rice, an important food resource, is highly sensitive to salt stress, which is directly related to food security. Although many studies have identified physiological mechanisms that confer tolerance to the osmotic effects of salinity, the link between rice genotype and salt tolerance is not very clear yet. Association of gene co‐expression network and rice phenotypic data under stress has penitential to identify stress‐responsive genes, but there is no standard method to associate stress phenotype with gene co‐expression network. A novel method for integration of gene co‐expression network and stress phenotype data was developed to conduct a ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Papers in Plant Pathology

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.


Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman May 2019

Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Sorghum is a tall grass used for many commercial products such as fodder and syrup. The 10 to 15 feet stalk of the plant has lower lignin than wood and provides a fiber length of 2.31 mm in the outer covering and 1.38 mm for the leaf. Sorghum fiber makes a high quality, strong paper suitable for printing, packaging and paperboard.


Effect Of Soil-Applied Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitor Herbicides On Soybean Seedling Disease, Nicholas J. Arneson May 2019

Effect Of Soil-Applied Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitor Herbicides On Soybean Seedling Disease, Nicholas J. Arneson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Seedling disease is one the most economically important diseases of soybean in the United States. It is commonly caused by Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., and Phytophthora sojae, alone, or together as a disease complex. Fungicide seed treatments continue to provide the most consistent management of seedling diseases. Soil-applied protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor herbicides are used preemergence in soybean production to manage several broadleaf weeds. Applications of PPO-inhibitors can result in phytotoxic injury to soybean when environmental conditions are not favorable for soybean growth. These environmental conditions can favor seedling disease development as well. In this thesis, two studies ...


Use Of Annual Forage Mixtures In Crop/Livestock Production Systems In Nebraska, Nathan Paul Pflueger May 2019

Use Of Annual Forage Mixtures In Crop/Livestock Production Systems In Nebraska, Nathan Paul Pflueger

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Success of integrating annual forages into crop and livestock systems throughout Nebraska may be variable depending on field location, field/forage crop management, and precipitation. There are many different warm- and cool-season annual forage species available for integrating crop and livestock systems at different times of the year. Mixtures of cereal species, such as oats (Avena sativa)) and spring peas (Pisum sativum)), are often used to optimize forage quantity and forage quality. Our two-year, three location study across Nebraska’s precipitation gradient suggested that forage quantity and quality may vary by location due to different precipitation amounts received during the ...


Establishment Of Perennial Legumes With An Annual Warm-Season Grass As A Companion Crop, Martina N. La Vallie May 2019

Establishment Of Perennial Legumes With An Annual Warm-Season Grass As A Companion Crop, Martina N. La Vallie

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The yields of perennial forage legumes are often hindered during the establishment year due to slow germination rates and weed competition. This study was conducted to determine if sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanese) is a compatible annual companion crop for increased forage production, weed suppression, and legume establishment. In 2016, sorghum-sudangrass was paired with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ‘Ranger’), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), Illinois bundleflower [Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald], purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and roundhead lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata Michx.). We studied effects of a sorghum-sudangrass companion crop with a varying number of harvests (three vs. four harvests) collected per plot throughout the summer and compared yields to the yield of a weeded legume treatment, and a non-weeded legume treatment. In 2017, we studied effects of the application of four seeding rates for sorghum-sudangrass at 5 pure live seed per m2 (PLS/m2), 10 PLS/m2, 20 PLS/m2, and 40 PLS/m2 paired with only the alfalfa perennial legume and compared yields to the yield of an oat-alfalfa control treatment, a weeded alfalfa treatment, and a non-weeded alfalfa treatment. Total dry matter yields along with the yield of each legume, weeds, sorghum-sudangrass, and oats (second year only) were collected for each treatment. In both years, we found the addition of sorghum-sudangrass increased overall dry matter yield and significantly decreased weed abundance. The increase in total dry matter yield came at a cost to the legume yield; as treatments planted with sorghum-sudangrass or oats had lower legume/alfalfa yields than weeded legume/alfalfa treatments. These results suggest that sorghum-sudangrass is ...


Dna Barcoding Of Pratylenchus From Agroecosystems In The Northern Great Plains Of North America, Mehmet Ozbayrak May 2019

Dna Barcoding Of Pratylenchus From Agroecosystems In The Northern Great Plains Of North America, Mehmet Ozbayrak

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Pratylenchus species are among the most common plant parasitic nematodes in the Great Plains Region. The objectives of this study were to barcode Pratylenchus specimens for species identification in the Great Plains region using mitochondrial CO1 DNA barcode. In order to (1) determine species boundaries, (2) assess the host associations of barcoded Pratylenchus, (3) to determine the distribution patterns across the Great Plains Region and, (4) to evaluate the species status of P. scribneri and P. hexincisus by a multivariate morphological analysis of haplotype groups identified by DNA barcoding. Soil samples, primarily associated with eight major crops, were collected from ...


Genome-Wide Association Studies In Maize And Sorghum, Preston Hurst Apr 2019

Genome-Wide Association Studies In Maize And Sorghum, Preston Hurst

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Genome-wide association studies are used to identify genetic variants associated with a particular phenotype. GWAS has been used in a variety of taxa, from humans, to fish to plants . The present analysis is focused on two species important to the human species: maize and sorghum. A GWAS in maize was carried out on the modification of the Ga1-s allele. The Ga1 locus has long been studied as being involved in a unilateral crossing barrier . However, it has long been suspected that the locus is modified by background genetic factors . GWAS was used to observe candidates for this modification. A series ...


Development Of A Nitrogen Recommendation Tool For Corn Considering Static And Dynamic Variables, Laila A. Puntel, Agustin Pagani, Sotirios V. Archontoulis Mar 2019

Development Of A Nitrogen Recommendation Tool For Corn Considering Static And Dynamic Variables, Laila A. Puntel, Agustin Pagani, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Many soil and weather variables can affect the economical optimum nitrogen (N) rate (EONR) for maize. We classified 54 potential factors as dynamic (change rapidly over time, e.g. soil water) and static (change slowly over time, e.g. soil organic matter) and explored their relative importance on EONR and yield prediction by analyzing a dataset with 51 N trials from Central-West region of Argentina. Across trials, the average EONR was 113 ± 83 kg N ha−1 and the average optimum yield was 12.3 ± 2.2 Mg ha−1, which is roughly 50% higher than the current N rates ...


Mitotic Recombination And Rapid Genome Evolution In The Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora Ramorum, Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Richard C. Hamelin Mar 2019

Mitotic Recombination And Rapid Genome Evolution In The Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora Ramorum, Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Richard C. Hamelin

Papers in Plant Pathology

Invasive alien species often have reduced genetic diversity and must adapt to new environments. Given the success of many invasions, this is sometimes called the genetic paradox of invasion. Phytophthora ramorum is invasive, limited to asexual reproduction within four lineages, and presumed clonal. It is responsible for sudden oak death in the United States, sudden larch death in Europe, and ramorum blight in North America and Europe. We sequenced the genomes of 107 isolates to determine how this pathogen can overcome the invasion paradox. Mitotic recombination (MR) associated with transposons and low gene density has generated runs of homozygosity (ROH ...


When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Jan 2019

When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Just as human beings can catch a cold, plants can also get viral infections. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the interactions between plants and viruses is the first step towards developing better management strategies and using biotechnology methods to immunise plants and engineer genetic resistance to viruses in plants. This is the focus of research by Dr Hernan Garcia-Ruiz and his team based at the University of Nebraska, USA.

Viral diseases in plants can cause important economic losses as a result of poor-quality products and lower yield. This impact can particularly seriously affect developing countries which are more likely to be ...


Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2019

Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant virus genome replication and movement is dependent on host resources and factors. However, plants respond to virus infection through several mechanisms, such as autophagy, ubiquitination, mRNA decay and gene silencing, that target viral components. Viral factors work in synchrony with pro-viral host factors during the infection cycle and are targeted by antiviral responses. Accordingly, establishment of virus infection is genetically determined by the availability of the pro-viral factors necessary for genome replication and movement, and by the balance between plant defence and viral suppression of defence responses. Sequential requirement of pro-viral factors and the antagonistic activity of antiviral factors ...


Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm Jan 2019

Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

Papers in Plant Pathology

Best practices in laboratory culture management often include cryopreservation of microbiota, but this can be challenging with some virus particles. By preserving viral isolates researchers can mitigate genetic drift and laboratory-induced selection, thereby maintaining genetically consistent strains between experiments. To this end, we developed a method to cryopreserve the model, green-alga infecting virus, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). We explored cryotolerance of the infectivity of this virus particle, whereby freezing without cryoprotectants was found to maintain the highest infectivity (~2.5%). We then assessed the cryopreservation potential of PBCV-1 during an active infection cycle in its Chlorella variabilis NC64A ...


A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2019

A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

Papers in Plant Pathology

Some algal viruses have coding sequences for proteins with structural and functional characteristics of pore modules of complex K+ channels. Here we exploit the structural diversity among these channel orthologs to discover new basic principles of structure/function correlates in K+ channels. The analysis of three similar K+ channels with ≤ 86 amino acids (AA) shows that one channel (Kmpv1) generates an ohmic conductance in HEK293 cells while the other two (KmpvSP1, KmpvPL1) exhibit typical features of canonical Kir channels. Like Kir channels, the rectification of the viral channels is a function of the K+ driving force. Reconstitution ...


Winter Wheat Grain Yield Response To Fungicide Application Is Influenced By Cultivar And Rainfall, Emmanuel Byamukama, Shaukat Ali, Jonathan Kleinjan, Dalitso N. Yabwalo, Christopher Graham, Melanie Caffe-Treml, Nathan D. Mueller, John Rickertsen, William A. Berzonsky Jan 2019

Winter Wheat Grain Yield Response To Fungicide Application Is Influenced By Cultivar And Rainfall, Emmanuel Byamukama, Shaukat Ali, Jonathan Kleinjan, Dalitso N. Yabwalo, Christopher Graham, Melanie Caffe-Treml, Nathan D. Mueller, John Rickertsen, William A. Berzonsky

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Winter wheat is susceptible to several fungal pathogens throughout the growing season and foliar fungicide application is one of the strategies used in the management of fungal diseases in winter wheat. However, for fungicides to be profitable, weather conditions conducive to fungal disease development should be present. To determine if winter wheat yield response to fungicide application at the flowering growth stage (Feekes 10.5.1) was related to the growing season precipitation, grain yield from fungicide treated plots was compared to non-treated plots for 19 to 30 hard red winter wheat cultivars planted at 8 site years from 2011 ...


Closing Yield Gaps For Rice Self-Sufficiency In China, Nanyan Deng, Patricio Grassini, Haishun Yang, Jianliang Huang, Kenneth G. Cassman, Shaobing Peng Jan 2019

Closing Yield Gaps For Rice Self-Sufficiency In China, Nanyan Deng, Patricio Grassini, Haishun Yang, Jianliang Huang, Kenneth G. Cassman, Shaobing Peng

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

China produces 28% of global rice supply and is currently self-sufficient despite a massive rural-to-urban demographic transition that drives intense competition for land and water resources. At issue is whether it will remain self-sufficient, which depends on the potential to raise yields on existing rice land. Here we report a detailed spatial analysis of rice production potential in China and evaluate scenarios to 2030. We find that China is likely to remain self-sufficient in rice assuming current yield and consumption trajectories and no reduction in production area. A focus on increasing yields of double-rice systems on general, and in three ...


Optimum Droplet Size Using A Pulse-Width Modulation Sprayer For Applications Of 2,4-D Choline Plus Glyphosate, Thomas R. Butts, Chase A. Samples, Lucas X. Franca, Darrin M. Dodds, Daniel B. Reynolds, Jason W. Adams, Richard K. Zollinger, Kirk A. Howatt, Bradley K. Fritz, W. Clint Hoffmann, Joe D. Luck, Greg Kruger Jan 2019

Optimum Droplet Size Using A Pulse-Width Modulation Sprayer For Applications Of 2,4-D Choline Plus Glyphosate, Thomas R. Butts, Chase A. Samples, Lucas X. Franca, Darrin M. Dodds, Daniel B. Reynolds, Jason W. Adams, Richard K. Zollinger, Kirk A. Howatt, Bradley K. Fritz, W. Clint Hoffmann, Joe D. Luck, Greg Kruger

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The delivery of an optimum herbicide droplet size using pulse-width modulation (PWM) sprayers can reduce potential environmental contamination, maintain efficacy, and provide more flexible options for pesticide applicators. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 across three locations (Mississippi, Nebraska, and North Dakota) for a total of 6 site-years. The objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of a range of droplet sizes (150 μm [Fine] to 900 μm [Ultra Coarse]) using a 2,4-D choline plus glyphosate pre-mixture and to create novel weed management recommendations using PWM sprayer technology. A pooled site-year generalized additive model explained less than ...


Restoring Fire-Grazer Interactions To Pursue Heterogeneity In Sandhills Prairie, Jack R. Arterburn, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Carissa L. Wonkka, Walter H. Schacht, David A. Wedin Jan 2019

Restoring Fire-Grazer Interactions To Pursue Heterogeneity In Sandhills Prairie, Jack R. Arterburn, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Carissa L. Wonkka, Walter H. Schacht, David A. Wedin

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Heterogeneity has emerged as a fundamental principle for grassland management and the importance of environmental heterogeneity for biological diversity has raised questions about the appropriateness of grassland practices that seek to promote uniform grassland structure and composition. Principles of uniformity in grassland management reflect a utilitarian target of “managing for the middle” by minimizing both overgrazing and underutilization while avoiding or preventing fire and other disturbances that consume aboveground biomass. We evaluated pioneering efforts to restore fire-grazer interactions via patch burning in an effort to increase spatial heterogeneity at the patch scale in the Nebraska Sandhills, a sandy soil, mixed-grass ...


Expression Of The Arabidopsis Wrinkled 1 Transcription Factor Leads To Higher Accumulation Of Palmitate In Soybean Seed, Pamela A. Vogel, Shen Bayon De Noyer, Hyunwoo Park, Hanh Nguyen, Lili Hou, Taity Changa, Hoang Le Khang, Ozan N. Ciftci, Tong Wang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Thomas Elmo Clemente Jan 2019

Expression Of The Arabidopsis Wrinkled 1 Transcription Factor Leads To Higher Accumulation Of Palmitate In Soybean Seed, Pamela A. Vogel, Shen Bayon De Noyer, Hyunwoo Park, Hanh Nguyen, Lili Hou, Taity Changa, Hoang Le Khang, Ozan N. Ciftci, Tong Wang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Thomas Elmo Clemente

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is a commodity crop highly valued for its protein and oil content. The high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil results in low oxidative stability, which is a key parameter for usage in baking, high temperature frying applications, and affects shelf life of packaged products containing soybean oil. Introduction of a seed-specific expression cassette carrying the Arabidopsis transcription factor WRINKLED1 (AtWRI1) into soybean, led to seed oil with levels of palmitate up to approximately 20%. Stacking of the AtWRI1 transgenic allele with a transgenic locus harbouring the mangosteen steroyl-ACP thioesterase (GmFatA) resulted in ...