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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy Jul 2019

Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Improving animal growth and efficiency are critical points of research as the world’s population and demand for agriculture products increase. Therefore, adaptions or changes in the gut are of interest to maximize growth efficiency and wellbeing of livestock. The gastrointestinal tract of the rumen plays many critical roles with the assistance of the associated microbial community. One way to improve animal performance is supplementation of β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) which are commonly fed to cattle during the last 20-40 days of the finishing period, improving muscle growth by decreasing adipose deposition and increasing muscle accretion. Two β-AA, Ractopamine HCl (β1-AA ...


Characterization And Evaluation Of The Probiotic Properties Of The Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacillus Coagulans Unique Is-2, Amy Garrison May 2019

Characterization And Evaluation Of The Probiotic Properties Of The Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacillus Coagulans Unique Is-2, Amy Garrison

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Probiotics are live organisms, that when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. To achieve probiotic status, each potential strain’s functional properties and their safety to the consumer must be comprehensively evaluated. Probiotic effects have been observed to be strain specific, therefore each new strain of interest must be characterized according to their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. There is a list of characteristics that potential probiotic strains should have to be considered as a probiotic. Potential probiotic strains should be evaluated for their acid and bile salt resistance, antimicrobial activity and adherence and colonization to ...


The Role Of Inflammatory Pathways In Development, Growth, And Metabolism Of Skeletal Muscle In Iugr Offspring; Blood Gene Expression Of Inflammatory Factors As Novel Biomarkers For Assessing Stress And Wellbeing In Exotic Species., Robert J. Posont Apr 2019

The Role Of Inflammatory Pathways In Development, Growth, And Metabolism Of Skeletal Muscle In Iugr Offspring; Blood Gene Expression Of Inflammatory Factors As Novel Biomarkers For Assessing Stress And Wellbeing In Exotic Species., Robert J. Posont

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Our first study identified the effects of maternal inflammation-induced intrauterine growth restriction (MI-IUGR) on growth and muscle glucose metabolism in offspring supplemented with curcumin. MI-IUGR lambs exhibited asymmetric growth restriction at birth and 30d of age, but normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Hindlimb glucose oxidation was reduced by MI-IUGR and not improved by curcumin supplementation. Ex vivo muscle glucose oxidation was reduced by MI-IUGR but improved somewhat by curcumin. These finding indicate that fetal programming responses to MI contribute to neonatal growth and metabolic deficits. Neonatal curcumin supplementation had minimal effect on growth deficits but may improve glucose metabolism.

Our second ...


A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang Mar 2019

A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang

Virology Papers

HPV infections are common in healthy women and only rarely cause cervical cancer, suggesting that individual genetic susceptibility may play a critical role in the establishment of persistent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. Here, we provide convincing in vitro and in vivo evidence showing that differential expression and activation of YAP1 oncogene determine individual susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis. We found that hyperactivation of YAP1 in mouse cervical epithelium was sufficient to induce invasive cervical cancer. Cervical epithelial cell-specific HPV16 E6/E7 and YAP1 double-knockin mouse model demonstrated that high-risk HPV synergized with hyperactivated YAP1 ...


Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov Mar 2019

Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

During normal cell metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are utilized in the cell as a signaling molecule and can be maintained at healthy levels by cellular antioxidants. However, when the cell experiences oxidative stress due to environmental or genetic conditions, levels of ROS can exceed healthy levels and inhibit necessary life functions by damaging biomolecules and cellular structures. This loss of function can lead to physiological decline and neurodegeneration, such as in diseases like Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and, potentially, Huntington’s disease. The following experiments use the model ...


Escaping Death: Naloxone's Chemical Nature And Potential To Combat The Opioid Epidemic, Abigale Miller Mar 2019

Escaping Death: Naloxone's Chemical Nature And Potential To Combat The Opioid Epidemic, Abigale Miller

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Naloxone is a life-saving drug with the ability to reverse an opioid overdose. As the opioid epidemic’s death toll rises, we can turn to Naloxone as a tool to combat the crisis. The epidemic, born of corruption, has a wide reach among the people of the United States, with especially firm grasps on middle-aged people, sufferers of chronic pain, white Americans and those living in the eastern portion of the country. Naloxone’s elegant design saves lives by effectively competing for a position on an opioid biding receptor in the brain to almost instantly end an overdose and restore ...


How Do Teachers Use Comics To Promote Engagement, Equity, And Diversity In Science Classrooms?, Camilla Matuk, Talia Hurwich, Amy Spiegel, Judy Diamond Jan 2019

How Do Teachers Use Comics To Promote Engagement, Equity, And Diversity In Science Classrooms?, Camilla Matuk, Talia Hurwich, Amy Spiegel, Judy Diamond

World of Viruses

Equitable learning opportunities are critical to the goals of science education. However, major curriculum standards are vague on how to achieve equity goals, and educators must often develop their own resources and strategies to achieve equity goals. This study examines how educators used a comic book series designed to interest youth in virology as a way to make science more broadly appealing to their diverse students. We begin with the notion of Pedagogical Design Capacity, which describes a dynamic relationship between teachers and their tools and the ability for teachers to perceive and leverage affordances of artifacts as tools in ...


Evaluation Of The Energy Value And Nutrient Digestibility Of Distillers Grains That Have Undergone A Fiber Separation Process In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, James C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass Jan 2019

Evaluation Of The Energy Value And Nutrient Digestibility Of Distillers Grains That Have Undergone A Fiber Separation Process In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, James C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A digestion study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a new, high protein distillers grains and corn bran plus solubles on nutrient digestibility. Treatments included a corn-based control, high protein distillers at both 20% and 40%, corn bran plus solubles, traditional wet distillers grains and traditional dry distillers grains all at 40% of diet DM. Feeding high protein distillers grains or corn bran plus solubles resulted in decreased digestibility compared to corn or traditional wet and dry distillers grains, but increased energy intake. Traditional wet and dry distillers grains also resulted in decreased digestibilities while energy intake was ...


Evaluation Of Fractionated Distillers Grains (High Protein And Bran Plus Solubles) On Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Fractionated Distillers Grains (High Protein And Bran Plus Solubles) On Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A finishing study evaluated the effect of feeding a new, high protein distillers grains along with corn bran plus condensed distillers solubles compared to traditional wet distillers grains, traditional dry distillers grains and a corn-based control. Each byproduct replaced corn at 40% of the diet dry-matter. Intake was not affected by treatment; however gain and carcass weight were greater and feed conversion improved for high protein distillers and corn bran plus solubles than either type of traditional distillers grains or corn. Based on feed efficiency, the feeding values of high protein distillers grains and corn bran plus solubles are 121 ...


Nitrate Concentrations Of Annual Forages Grown For Grazing In Nebraska, Mary E. Lenz, Rebecca J. Kern, Carrie E. Orvis Orvis, Mary E. Drewnoski Jan 2019

Nitrate Concentrations Of Annual Forages Grown For Grazing In Nebraska, Mary E. Lenz, Rebecca J. Kern, Carrie E. Orvis Orvis, Mary E. Drewnoski

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Annual forage samples sent by producers to Ward Laboratories Inc. for nitrate analysis were evaluated to determine which cover crop species in Nebraska are most likely to accumulate nitrates, and how often the accumulated nitrates are considered toxic by traditional recommendations. Additionally, nitrate levels of cover crop mixes grown in research trials were analyzed to ensure species differences were repeated when grown together in the same fields. Brassicas accumulate more nitrate than small grains, millet, sorghum/sudan grasses, or cover crop mixes. Brassicas accumulated levels of nitrate considered moderately to highly toxic in 48% of the samples. The other cover ...


Prediction Of Energy Value (Tdn) In Grazed And Hayed Forages, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Mary E. Drewnoski, Karla H. Jenkins Jenkins Jan 2019

Prediction Of Energy Value (Tdn) In Grazed And Hayed Forages, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Mary E. Drewnoski, Karla H. Jenkins Jenkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The goal of producers and nutritionists is to meet the nutritional needs of their cattle. Requirements are well established, but the diets of grazing cattle are difficult to predict. Selection by the animal, sample handling, lab analysis, and relating the lab analysis to the animal are issues that have been researched the last 20 years. Based on that research, data have been compiled to predict the energy and protein values of grazed Sandhills range, meadows, smooth brome, and corn residue. Additionally, equations used by commercial labs to predict the TDN of grass hays based on ADF were compared to TDN ...


Effect Of Rapeseed Inclusion In Late-Summer Planted Oats Pasture On Growing Performance Of Beef Steers, Hannah E. Riley, Kristin E. Hales, Steven D. Shackelford Shackelford, Harvey C. Freetly, Mary E. Drewnoski Jan 2019

Effect Of Rapeseed Inclusion In Late-Summer Planted Oats Pasture On Growing Performance Of Beef Steers, Hannah E. Riley, Kristin E. Hales, Steven D. Shackelford Shackelford, Harvey C. Freetly, Mary E. Drewnoski

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Fall cover crops have been shown to be an effective way to background calves into the winter. An oat monoculture was planted in late summer at 100 lb/ac and compared to oats planted at 50 lb/ac with rapeseed included at 3 lb/ac. Initial forage yield was not affected by the inclusion of rapeseed with fall oat. Calf gain tended to be greater and cost of gain was decreased when rapeseed was included. Including rapeseed in late summer planted oats may be beneficial for producers who want to graze growing calves in the fall.


Effects Of Isolated Nutrients In Distillers Grains On Total Tract Digestibility And Digestible Energy In Forage Diets, Tasha M. King, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald Jan 2019

Effects Of Isolated Nutrients In Distillers Grains On Total Tract Digestibility And Digestible Energy In Forage Diets, Tasha M. King, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A digestion study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of individual nutrient components of distillers grains on nutrient digestibility and digestible energy. All diets contained 56% brome hay with a control diet containing either 40% corn; or 40% modified distillers grains. Four additional diets compared the contribution of fat, protein, fiber, and solubles components of distillers grains. No differences were observed for digestibility of DM, OM, and NDF among treatments. Feeding the isolated protein resulted in similar digestible energy to modified distillers grains, suggesting the bypass protein component contributes heavily to energy in distillers.


Impact Of Cow Size On Cow-Calf And Subsequent Steer Feedlot Performance, Molly Benell, Jacki A. Musgrave, Rick N. Funston Funston, J. Travis Mulliniks Jan 2019

Impact Of Cow Size On Cow-Calf And Subsequent Steer Feedlot Performance, Molly Benell, Jacki A. Musgrave, Rick N. Funston Funston, J. Travis Mulliniks

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

This study retrospectively evaluated the effect of cow size on cow-calf performance and post-weaning steer feedlot performance of cows at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman. Cows were categorized at small, medium, or moderate within cow age from 13 years of data. Small cows had decreased reproductive performance, weaned smaller calves, and produced steer progeny with smaller carcass weights. In this dataset and under the environmental and management conditions at Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, overall productivity of the cowherd decreased as cow size decreased with 1,150 to 1,200 lb cow being the most productive cow size.


Effects Of Maternal Late Gestation Nutrition On May-Born Heifer Progeny, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, Rick N. Funston Funston Jan 2019

Effects Of Maternal Late Gestation Nutrition On May-Born Heifer Progeny, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, Rick N. Funston Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

May-calving dams in late gestation grazed either sub-irrigated meadow with or without supplement or upland range with or without supplement. Supplementation was 1 lb/d of a 33% CP (DM) supplement. Heifer progeny from these dams were followed through their first and second breeding seasons. Both dam grazing and supplement treatment affected heifer progeny BW and BCS. Heifers born to dams who grazed meadow in late gestation attained a greater percentage of mature BW at the start of their first breeding season and increased pregnancy rates as primiparous cows. Grazing of meadow by May-calving dams in late gestation may increase ...


The Effect Of Cow Udder Score On Subsequent Calf Performance In The Nebraska Sandhills, Joslyn K. Beard, Jacki A. Musgrave, Rick N. Funston Funston, J. Travis Mulliniks Jan 2019

The Effect Of Cow Udder Score On Subsequent Calf Performance In The Nebraska Sandhills, Joslyn K. Beard, Jacki A. Musgrave, Rick N. Funston Funston, J. Travis Mulliniks

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Cow records were evaluated over a 5-yr period to investigate how cow udder score affected calf growth and carcass performance. Cows from 2 calving herds, March and May, were classified as bad or good based on udder scores recorded at calving. Calves suckling dams with bad udders performed similarly during the pre-weaning period to good udder counterparts, with no differences in overall steer feedlot performance between udder groups. However, steers suckling good udder cows had heavier carcass weights and greater back fat thickness.


Impact Of Shade In Beef Feedyards On Performance, Body Temperature, And Heat Stress Measures, Brett A. Melton, Bradley M. Boyd, Casey Macken Macken, Andrea K. Watson, James C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson Jan 2019

Impact Of Shade In Beef Feedyards On Performance, Body Temperature, And Heat Stress Measures, Brett A. Melton, Bradley M. Boyd, Casey Macken Macken, Andrea K. Watson, James C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A study using crossbred steers was conducted at a commercial feedyard to determine the effects of pen shades on cattle performance, body temperature, and cattle activity. Two heat events (Event 1 and Event 2) and one cool event were defined for the feeding period. No significant differences were observed for average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed to gain, or carcass characteristics at the end of the trial. During Event 1, cattle in pens with shade had lower panting scores than cattle in open pens. During Event 2, cattle in shade pens had greater dry matter intake, lower panting scores ...


Effects Of Varying Levels Of Silage Inclusion And Brown Midrib Corn Silage On Finishing Performance Of Steers, Lauren A. Ovinge, F. Henry Hilscher, Brad M. Boyd Boyd, John N. Anderson, Galen E. Erickson Jan 2019

Effects Of Varying Levels Of Silage Inclusion And Brown Midrib Corn Silage On Finishing Performance Of Steers, Lauren A. Ovinge, F. Henry Hilscher, Brad M. Boyd Boyd, John N. Anderson, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A 2 × 3 factorial finishing study evaluated traditional or brown midrib corn silage fed at three inclusions in finishing diets. Silage inclusion was 15%, 45%, or 75% inclusion (DM basis) for 70 days followed by 15% inclusion for the remainder of the finishing phase. Cattle were ultrasounded twice to calculate backfat deposition rate for a target backfat of 0.55 inches, as cattle were fed longer if silage inclusion was 45 or 75/15%. Cattle fed 45% or 75/15% silage inclusion had greater final body weight (BW) and days on feed, but higher feed:gain (F:G) than cattle ...


Impact Of Corn Silage Inclusion On Nutrient Digestion And Rumen Fermentation In Finishing Cattle, Hannah C. Hamilton, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Andrea K. Watson Watson, Jim C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson Jan 2019

Impact Of Corn Silage Inclusion On Nutrient Digestion And Rumen Fermentation In Finishing Cattle, Hannah C. Hamilton, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Andrea K. Watson Watson, Jim C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A digestion study was conducted comparing different inclusions of corn silage used as a roughage source on digestibility, feeding behavior and rumen environment. Treatments consisted of 3 inclusions of corn silage at 0, 7.5 and 15% of the diet DM, and a control treatment with 7.5% alfalfa. As expected, increasing available energy and decreasing roughage (either silage or alfalfa) showed an increase in diet digestibility and ruminal propionate concentrations. However, average ruminal pH was least, with more time spent in subacute acidosis (pH < 5.3) when cattle were fed no roughage. These data suggest that feeding cattle increasing silage inclusions as a roughage source prevented ruminal conditions from entering and remaining in subacute acidosis. Feeding corn silage at 15% gave similar digestibility responses compared to 7.5% alfalfa. Including silage as a roughage source at 15% could help prevent acidosis and digestive upset in feedlot cattle.


Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling Jan 2019

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti Jan 2019

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


Continuous Low-Intensity Ultrasound Attenuates Il-6 And Tnfα-Induced Catabolic Effects And Repairs Chondral Fissures In Bovine Osteochondral Explants, Neety Sahu, Hendrik J. Viljoen, Anuradha Subramanian Jan 2019

Continuous Low-Intensity Ultrasound Attenuates Il-6 And Tnfα-Induced Catabolic Effects And Repairs Chondral Fissures In Bovine Osteochondral Explants, Neety Sahu, Hendrik J. Viljoen, Anuradha Subramanian

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Background: Cartilage repair outcomes are compromised in a pro-inflammatory environment; therefore, the mitigation of pro-inflammatory responses is beneficial. Treatment with continuous low-intensity ultrasound (cLIUS) at the resonant frequency of 5 MHz is proposed for the repair of chondral fissures under pro-inflammatory conditions.

Methods: Bovine osteochondral explants, concentrically incised to create chondral fissures, were maintained under cLIUS (14 kPa (5 MHz, 2.5 Vpp), 20 min, 4 times/day) for a period of 28 days in the presence or absence of cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α. Outcome assessments included histological and immunohistochemical staining of the explants; and ...


Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann Jan 2019

Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann

Virology Papers

Although the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are one of the largest group of viruses that infect many eukaryotic hosts, the near-atomic resolution structures of these viruses have remained unknown. Here we describe a 3.5 Å resolution icosahedrally averaged capsid structure of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). This structure consists of 5040 copies of the major capsid protein, 60 copies of the penton protein and 1800 minor capsid proteins of which there are 13 different types. The minor capsid proteins form a hexagonal network below the outer capsid shell, stabilizing the capsid by binding neighboring capsomers together. The ...


Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin T. Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta Jan 2019

Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin T. Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We ...


Effects Of Maternal Late Gestation Nutrition On May-Born Steer Progeny, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, T. L. Meyer, Rick N. Funston Jan 2019

Effects Of Maternal Late Gestation Nutrition On May-Born Steer Progeny, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, T. L. Meyer, Rick N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

May-calving dams were assigned to graze either sub-irrigated meadow or upland range with or without supplementation (1 lb/d 33% CP). Treatment began at approximately 160 d of gestation. Supplementation continued for 85 ± 2 d, while grazing system treatment continued for 116 ± 2 d. Steer progeny were backgrounded after weaning and then assigned to either a short or long yearling feedlot system. Dam supplementation tended to decrease marbling score within both feedlot systems. Short yearling steers had an increased percentage of carcasses grade USDA low Choice or greater if their dams grazed meadow in late gestation. Long yearling steers had ...


Effects Of Prepartum Nutrition On May-Calving Cows And Progeny, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, T. L. Meyer Meyer, Rick N. Funston Jan 2019

Effects Of Prepartum Nutrition On May-Calving Cows And Progeny, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, T. L. Meyer Meyer, Rick N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

May-calving dams grazed either sub-irrigated meadow or upland range from Jan. 5 to May 1 each year for 6 years. Within grazing system, dams received either no supplement or 1 lb/d of a 33% CP supplement from Jan. 5 to April 1. Dams grazing meadow in the prepartum period weighed more and had a greater body condition score prior to calving. They also tended to have greater pregnancy rates in the subsequent breeding season and tended to wean heavier calves than dams grazing upland range. Allowing May-calving dams to graze meadow in late gestation may increase herd profitability through ...


Economic Analysis Of Beef Systems, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Shebly E. Loeffelholz, Karla H. Jenkins Pas, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson Jan 2019

Economic Analysis Of Beef Systems, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Shebly E. Loeffelholz, Karla H. Jenkins Pas, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Economic analysis of complete beef production systems is important. An analysis of 5 systems was conducted. Three of the systems were based on cows calving in March, June or August and grazing Sandhills range and corn residue. The other 2 systems were based on complete confinement feeding or confinement in the summer and corn residue grazing in the winter. The range-based systems gave similar results, however, complete confinement was not competitive. Partial confinement with stalk grazing was competitive with range-based systems. Stalk grazing is very economical and important for many cow-calf systems.


Impact Of Dietary Fat Source On Beef Tenderness, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Katherine I. Domenech-Perez, Nicolas J. Herrera Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Chris R. Calkins Jan 2019

Impact Of Dietary Fat Source On Beef Tenderness, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Katherine I. Domenech-Perez, Nicolas J. Herrera Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Chris R. Calkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Steers were finished on either a corn control, 40% full-fat modified distillers grains plus solubles, 40% de-oiled modified distillers grains plus solubles, or 38% de-oiled modified distillers grains plus solubles plus 2% corn oil diet to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source on the mechanism of beef tenderization . Feeding modified distillers grains plus solubles increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane and increased free Ca2+ concentration early postmortem. Steaks from cattle fed de-oiled modified distillers grains and de-oiled modified distillers grains plus corn oil were more tender at 2 d of aging when compared to ...


Comparison Of Traditional And Alternative Curing Ingredients On Curing Reactions In A Model Meat System, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan Jan 2019

Comparison Of Traditional And Alternative Curing Ingredients On Curing Reactions In A Model Meat System, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

To meet consumer trends, alternative curing ingredients are used to replace sodium nitrite and cure accelerators. Due to the complexity of meat, it is challenging to compare traditional and alternative ingredients for curing reactions. Using a model system, sources of nitrite (traditional, sodium nitrite and alternative, cultured celery juice powder), salt, and cure accelerators (traditional, sodium erythorbate, or alternative, cherry juice powder) at ingoing sodium nitrite concentrations of 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 ppm were evaluated for curing reactions. More complete curing reactions were indicated by a higher concentration of cured meat pigment, and lower sulfhydryl groups. Lower residual ...


Effect Of Adding Urea To Finishing Diets Containing Two Different Inclusions Of Distillers Grains On Steer Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Bradley M. Boyd, James C. Macdonald, Matthew K. Luebbe, Galen E. Erickson Jan 2019

Effect Of Adding Urea To Finishing Diets Containing Two Different Inclusions Of Distillers Grains On Steer Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Bradley M. Boyd, James C. Macdonald, Matthew K. Luebbe, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The effects of adding urea to a dry rolled corn based finishing diet containing low inclusions of distillers grains was evaluated. Treatments were designed as a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with factors consisting of wet distillers inclusion (either 12 or 20% of diet DM) and urea inclusion (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2% of diet DM). There were no significant interactions observed between distillers inclusion and urea inclusion in the diet. Increasing inclusion of distillers grains improved carcass adjusted average daily gain and feed conversion and reduced dry matter intake. Increasing distillers inclusion also increased 12th rib fat and ...