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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

High Pressure Thawing Of Raw Poultry Meats, Ali Alqaraghuli Jul 2019

High Pressure Thawing Of Raw Poultry Meats, Ali Alqaraghuli

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The melting temperature of water reaches its minimum when pressurized from 0 °C at atmospheric pressure down to -22 °C at 220 MPa, showing that frozen products at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) can be thawed rapidly by simply increasing the pressure to 210-250 MPa. High pressure thawing (HPT) of poultry meats (ground chicken, chicken breast, thigh, liver, gizzard, and heart) commonly used in the raw pet food industry was evaluated at 240 MPa, two processing fluid temperatures (refrigerated, 0-10 °C and room, 20-30 °C), and four holding times (1, 180, 360, and 540 s). Changes in color via * * * measurements ...


Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li Jul 2019

Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

With the increasing meat demand and awareness of sustainability, concerns have been raised regarding the sustainability of beef production and processing. However, scarce data and inadequate sustainability assessment frameworks for the U.S. beef processing industry limit the ability to develop new technologies and policies comprehensively without shifting sustainability burdens. To fill those gaps, various assessments of the U.S. beef processing industry were conducted from multiple perspectives regarding the environmental, economic, microbial effectiveness of its antimicrobial systems, and human health impacts from foodborne illness, occupational hazards, and environmental pollution.

First, process-level water and energy usage at a typical large-size ...


Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman May 2019

Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Sorghum is a tall grass used for many commercial products such as fodder and syrup. The 10 to 15 feet stalk of the plant has lower lignin than wood and provides a fiber length of 2.31 mm in the outer covering and 1.38 mm for the leaf. Sorghum fiber makes a high quality, strong paper suitable for printing, packaging and paperboard.


Characterization And Evaluation Of The Probiotic Properties Of The Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacillus Coagulans Unique Is-2, Amy Garrison May 2019

Characterization And Evaluation Of The Probiotic Properties Of The Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacillus Coagulans Unique Is-2, Amy Garrison

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Probiotics are live organisms, that when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. To achieve probiotic status, each potential strain’s functional properties and their safety to the consumer must be comprehensively evaluated. Probiotic effects have been observed to be strain specific, therefore each new strain of interest must be characterized according to their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. There is a list of characteristics that potential probiotic strains should have to be considered as a probiotic. Potential probiotic strains should be evaluated for their acid and bile salt resistance, antimicrobial activity and adherence and colonization to ...


Encapsulation Of Astaxanthin-Enriched Camelina Seed Oil Obtained By Ethanol-Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, Liyang Xie Apr 2019

Encapsulation Of Astaxanthin-Enriched Camelina Seed Oil Obtained By Ethanol-Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, Liyang Xie

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid widely used in the food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Natural sources of astaxanthin are preferable to synthetic sources. However, current sources of natural astaxanthin are limited and fall short of global demand. In addition, effective extraction and stabilization strategies are needed before the utilization of natural astaxanthin in food applications. This work investigated 1) the feasibility of ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of astaxanthin from engineered camelina seed, a potential source of natural astaxanthin, and 2) the potential of an emulsion-based system to protect astaxanthin after extraction. The physical properties of the emulsion ...


Corrigendum: Use Of Uv Treated Milk Powder To Increase Vaccine Efficacy In The Elderly, Sara Schaefer, Kasper Arthur Hettinga, James Cullor, J. Bruce German, Bethany M. Henrick Mar 2019

Corrigendum: Use Of Uv Treated Milk Powder To Increase Vaccine Efficacy In The Elderly, Sara Schaefer, Kasper Arthur Hettinga, James Cullor, J. Bruce German, Bethany M. Henrick

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

“Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrollment (week 0) and serum was stored at −80◦C until subsequent analysis. Participants were then randomized into two groups and provided with equal concentration and quantity of either dairy or soy supplement provided in powdered form in coded, single-serving bags. Both participants and researchers were blinded to the type of protein received. Participants were asked to consume two servings of protein powder (6 grams/packet) with 4 ounces of water or applesauce twice per day, with meals, for a total of 8 weeks. At week 4, participants were vaccinated with ...


Tlr10 Senses Hiv-1 Proteins And Significantly Enhances Hiv-1 Infection, Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Alash’Le Abimiku, Sophia Osawe, Kenneth L. Rosenthal Mar 2019

Tlr10 Senses Hiv-1 Proteins And Significantly Enhances Hiv-1 Infection, Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Alash’Le Abimiku, Sophia Osawe, Kenneth L. Rosenthal

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity and provide a first line of host defense against invading pathogens. Of the identified human TLRs, TLR10 remains an orphan receptor whose ligands and functions are poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the level of TLR10 expression in breastmilk (BM) and explore its potential function in the context of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated HIV-1-infected (Nigerian: n = 40) and uninfected (Nigerian: n = 27; Canadian: n = 15) BM samples for TLR expression (i.e., TLR10, TLR2, and TLR1) and report here that HIV-1-infected BM from Nigerian women showed ...


No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins Mar 2019

No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Since 1901, Monsanto's roots have held strong to its grip as a conglomerate in chemical, agriculture, and biotechnology industries. This creative project will deconstruct, investigate and strategically interpret the brand's history, logo, social responsibility and so much more of the good, bad and the ugly.


Hydrodistillation Extraction Kinetics Regression Models For Essential Oil Yield And Composition In Juniperus Virginiana, J. Excelsa, And J. Sabina, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Santosh Shiwakoti, Charles L. Cantrell, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Vicki L. Schlegel, Tzenka Radoukova Mar 2019

Hydrodistillation Extraction Kinetics Regression Models For Essential Oil Yield And Composition In Juniperus Virginiana, J. Excelsa, And J. Sabina, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Santosh Shiwakoti, Charles L. Cantrell, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Vicki L. Schlegel, Tzenka Radoukova

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of Juniperus virginiana, J. excelsa, and J. sabina essential oil (EO) fractions as a function of time was the subject of this study. The hypothesis was that, capturing EO in sequential timeframes during hydrodistillation would generate fractions containing unique compositions and antioxidant capacity. In J. virginiana, the highest limonene (43%) was found in the 0–5 min oil fraction, with safrole (37%) being highest in the 10–20 and 20–40 min fractions, and elemol (34%) being highest in the 160–240 min fraction. In J. excelsa, α-pinene (34-36%) was the highest in the ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Fermentation Capabilities Of Various Bifidobacterium Strains, Ella Oney Mar 2019

A Comparative Analysis Of The Fermentation Capabilities Of Various Bifidobacterium Strains, Ella Oney

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Bifidobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of many members of the animal kingdom. These microorganisms are adapted to obtain their carbon from the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Marmosets, a mammal whose gut microbiome is inhabited by high levels of Bifidobacteria, consume gum Arabic as a major part of their diet. The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the guts of marmosets are able to degrade and ferment this complex carbohydrate or one of its main constituents, arabinose. This was accomplished by inoculating isolates of ...


Orphan Genes Shared By Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated With Bacterial Pathogenicity, Sarah Entwistle, Yanbin Yin Feb 2019

Orphan Genes Shared By Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated With Bacterial Pathogenicity, Sarah Entwistle, Yanbin Yin

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Orphan genes (also known as ORFans [i.e., orphan open reading frames]) are new genes that enable an organism to adapt to its specific living environment. Our focus in this study is to compare ORFans between pathogens (P) and nonpathogens (NP) of the same genus. Using the pangenome idea, we have identified 130,169 ORFans in nine bacterial genera (505 genomes) and classified these ORFans into four groups: (i) SS-ORFans (P), which are only found in a single pathogenic genome; (ii) SS-ORFans (NP), which are only found in a single nonpathogenic genome; (iii) PS-ORFans (P), which are found in multiple ...


Mycoprotein: The Future Of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, A Symposium Review, Tim Ja Finnigan, Benjamin T. Wall, Peter J. Wilde, Francis B. Stephens, Steve Taylor, Marjorie R. Freedman Jan 2019

Mycoprotein: The Future Of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, A Symposium Review, Tim Ja Finnigan, Benjamin T. Wall, Peter J. Wilde, Francis B. Stephens, Steve Taylor, Marjorie R. Freedman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Mycoprotein is an alternative, nutritious protein source with a meat-like texture made from Fusarium venenatum, a naturally occurring fungus. Its unique method of production yields a significantly reduced carbon and water footprint relative to beef and chicken. Mycoprotein, sold as Quorn, is consumed in 17 countries, including the United States. In line with current dietary guidelines, mycoprotein is high in protein and fiber, and low in fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar. Mycoprotein may help maintain healthy blood cholesterol levels, promote muscle synthesis, control glucose and insulin levels, and increase satiety. It is possible that some susceptible consumers will become sensitized ...


Gut Microbiota Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity Restricts Melanoma Growth In Rnf5−/− Mice, Yan Li, Roberto Tinoco, Lisa Elmén, Igor Segota, Yibo Xian, Yu Fujita, Avinash Sahu, Raphy Zarecki, Kerrie Marie, Yongmei Feng, Ali Khateb, Dennie T. Frederick, Shiri K. Ashkenazi, Hyungsoo Kim, Eva Guijarro Perez, Chi-Ping Day, Rafael S. Segura Muñoz, Robert Schmaltz, Shibu Yooseph, Miguel A. Tam, Tongwu Zhang, Emily Avitan-Hersh, Lihi Tzur, Shoshana Roizman, Ilanit Boyango, Gil Bar-Sela, Amir Orian, Randal J. Kaufman, Marcus Bosenberg, Colin R. Goding, Bas Baaten, Mitchell P. Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Kevin Brown, Glenn Merlino, Eytan Ruppin, Keith Flaherty, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Tao Long, Scott N. Peterson, Linda M. Bradley, Ze’Ev A. Ronai Jan 2019

Gut Microbiota Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity Restricts Melanoma Growth In Rnf5−/− Mice, Yan Li, Roberto Tinoco, Lisa Elmén, Igor Segota, Yibo Xian, Yu Fujita, Avinash Sahu, Raphy Zarecki, Kerrie Marie, Yongmei Feng, Ali Khateb, Dennie T. Frederick, Shiri K. Ashkenazi, Hyungsoo Kim, Eva Guijarro Perez, Chi-Ping Day, Rafael S. Segura Muñoz, Robert Schmaltz, Shibu Yooseph, Miguel A. Tam, Tongwu Zhang, Emily Avitan-Hersh, Lihi Tzur, Shoshana Roizman, Ilanit Boyango, Gil Bar-Sela, Amir Orian, Randal J. Kaufman, Marcus Bosenberg, Colin R. Goding, Bas Baaten, Mitchell P. Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Kevin Brown, Glenn Merlino, Eytan Ruppin, Keith Flaherty, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Tao Long, Scott N. Peterson, Linda M. Bradley, Ze’Ev A. Ronai

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Accumulating evidence points to an important role for the gut microbiome in anti-tumor immunity. Here, we show that altered intestinal microbiota contributes to anti-tumor immunity, limiting tumor expansion. Mice lacking the ubiquitin ligase RNF5 exhibit attenuated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) components, which coincides with increased expression of inflammasome components, recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and reduced expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Reduced UPR expression is also seen in murine and human melanoma tumor specimens that responded to immune checkpoint therapy. Co-housing of Rnf5−/− and WT mice abolishes the anti-tumor immunity and tumor inhibition ...