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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla Sep 2019

Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause herediatry hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectase, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary component of the TGF-B receptor complex and ...


Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley Sep 2019

Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Bovine congestive heart failure (BCHF) has become increasingly prevalent in feedlot cattle in the Western Great Plains of North America. BCHF is an untreatable complex condition involving pulmonary hypertension that culminates in right ventricular failure and death. A protein variant of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2α, encoded by the endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene, EPAS1) was previously reported to be associated with pulmonary hypertension at altitudes exceeding 2,000 m. Our aim was to evaluate EPAS1 haplotypes for association with BCHF in feedlot cattle raised at moderate altitudes (1,200 m).

Methods: Paired samples of clinical cases and ...


An Attenuated Zika Virus Encoding Non-Glycosylated Envelope (E) And Non-Structural Protein 1 (Ns1) Confers Complete Protection Against Lethal Challenge In A Mouse Model, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Zack P. Guinn, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, David J. Steffen, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik Aug 2019

An Attenuated Zika Virus Encoding Non-Glycosylated Envelope (E) And Non-Structural Protein 1 (Ns1) Confers Complete Protection Against Lethal Challenge In A Mouse Model, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Zack P. Guinn, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, David J. Steffen, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases, including congenital microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although many vaccine platforms are at various stages of development, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Previously, we described a mutant MR766 ZIKV (m2MR) bearing an E protein mutation (N154A) that prevented its glycosylation, resulting in attenuation and defective neuroinvasion. To further attenuate m2MR for its potential use as a live viral vaccine, we incorporated additional mutations into m2MR by substituting the asparagine residues in the glycosylation sites (N130 and N207) of NS1 with alanine ...


Failure Of Oxysterols Such As Lanosterol To Restore Lens Clarity From Cataracts, Damian M. Daszynski, Puttur Santhoshkumar, Ashutosh S. Phadte, K. Krishna Sharma, Haizhen A. Zhong, Marjorie F. Lou, Peter F. Kador Jun 2019

Failure Of Oxysterols Such As Lanosterol To Restore Lens Clarity From Cataracts, Damian M. Daszynski, Puttur Santhoshkumar, Ashutosh S. Phadte, K. Krishna Sharma, Haizhen A. Zhong, Marjorie F. Lou, Peter F. Kador

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The paradigm that cataracts are irreversible and that vision from cataracts can only be restored through surgery has recently been challenged by reports that oxysterols such as lanosterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol can restore vision by binding to αB-crystallin chaperone protein to dissolve or disaggregate lenticular opacities. To confirm this premise, in vitro rat lens studies along with human lens protein solubilization studies were conducted. Cataracts were induced in viable rat lenses cultured for 48 hours in TC-199 bicarbonate media through physical trauma, 10 mM ouabain as Na+/K+ ATPase ion transport inhibitor, or 1 mM of an experimental compound that induces ...


Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta May 2019

Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An ective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We compared the ...


The One Health Approach To Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Control, And Prevention Strategies, A. Alonso Aguirre, Travis Longcore, Michelle Barbieri, Haydee Dabritz, Dolores Hill, Patrice N. Klein, Christopher Lepczyk, Emily L. Lilly, Rima Mcleod, Judith Milcarsky, Caroline E. Murphy, Chunlei Su, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Robert Yolken, Grant C. Sizemore Apr 2019

The One Health Approach To Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Control, And Prevention Strategies, A. Alonso Aguirre, Travis Longcore, Michelle Barbieri, Haydee Dabritz, Dolores Hill, Patrice N. Klein, Christopher Lepczyk, Emily L. Lilly, Rima Mcleod, Judith Milcarsky, Caroline E. Murphy, Chunlei Su, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Robert Yolken, Grant C. Sizemore

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

One Health is a collaborative, interdisciplinary effort that seeks optimal health for people, animals, plants, and the environment. Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an intracellular protozoan infection distributed worldwide, with a heteroxenous life cycle that practically affects all homeotherms and in which felines act as definitive reservoirs. Herein, we review the natural history of T. gondii, its transmission and impacts in humans, domestic animals, wildlife both terrestrial and aquatic, and ecosystems. The epidemiology, prevention, and control strategies are reviewed, with the objective of facilitating awareness of this disease and promoting transdisciplinary collaborations, integrative research, and capacity building among universities ...


Transposon Mutagenesis In Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis, John P. Bannantine, Denise K. Zinniel, Raul G. Barletta Apr 2019

Transposon Mutagenesis In Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis, John P. Bannantine, Denise K. Zinniel, Raul G. Barletta

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

While transposon mutagenesis has been developed for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), relatively few laboratories have adopted this important genetic tool to examine gene function and essentiality. Here we describe the construction of a Map transposon library using the Himar1 mariner transposon, but concepts can also be applied to the Tn5367 transposon, which has also been used by our group. Delivery of the transposon is by a temperature-sensitive phagemid, ϕMycoMarT7, and plating transductants requires patience and specialized media due to length of incubation required to observe colonies. Several transposon mutants obtained from these libraries have been tested in vaccine and ...


A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang Mar 2019

A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang

Virology Papers

HPV infections are common in healthy women and only rarely cause cervical cancer, suggesting that individual genetic susceptibility may play a critical role in the establishment of persistent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. Here, we provide convincing in vitro and in vivo evidence showing that differential expression and activation of YAP1 oncogene determine individual susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis. We found that hyperactivation of YAP1 in mouse cervical epithelium was sufficient to induce invasive cervical cancer. Cervical epithelial cell-specific HPV16 E6/E7 and YAP1 double-knockin mouse model demonstrated that high-risk HPV synergized with hyperactivated YAP1 ...


Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov Mar 2019

Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

During normal cell metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are utilized in the cell as a signaling molecule and can be maintained at healthy levels by cellular antioxidants. However, when the cell experiences oxidative stress due to environmental or genetic conditions, levels of ROS can exceed healthy levels and inhibit necessary life functions by damaging biomolecules and cellular structures. This loss of function can lead to physiological decline and neurodegeneration, such as in diseases like Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and, potentially, Huntington’s disease. The following experiments use the model ...


A Single-Cycle Adenovirus Type 7 Vaccine For Prevention Of Acute Respiratory Disease, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Eric A. Weaver Jan 2019

A Single-Cycle Adenovirus Type 7 Vaccine For Prevention Of Acute Respiratory Disease, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) infection is associated with acute respiratory disease (ARD), especially in military recruits living in close quarters. Recently, several outbreaks of Ad7 infections have occurred in civilian populations, with some cases leading to death. However, the current Ad7 vaccine is licensed for use only in military recruits because it utilizes an orally delivered wild type virus which is shed in the stool for 28 days after immunization. This poses a safety risk due to the possibility of virus spread to vulnerable populations. To address the need for a safer Ad7 vaccine for use in civilian populations, we ...


Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann Jan 2019

Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann

Virology Papers

Although the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are one of the largest group of viruses that infect many eukaryotic hosts, the near-atomic resolution structures of these viruses have remained unknown. Here we describe a 3.5 Å resolution icosahedrally averaged capsid structure of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). This structure consists of 5040 copies of the major capsid protein, 60 copies of the penton protein and 1800 minor capsid proteins of which there are 13 different types. The minor capsid proteins form a hexagonal network below the outer capsid shell, stabilizing the capsid by binding neighboring capsomers together. The ...


Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage Jan 2019

Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enteroviral infections are frequent, often asymptomatic in humans and during gravidity. The present study is an extension of our previous investigations where we had shown pancreatitis in challenged pups of CVB4-E2-infected dams. Present investigation describes the effect of gestational infection with this virus on the pancreas of both dams and their challenged pups. Gravid CD1 outbred mice were orally infected with CVB4-E2 virus at different gestation times. Pups were challenged orally with the same virus after 25 days of birth. Organs were collected at selected intervals postinfection (p.i.), and replicating virus and viral-RNA copies were analyzed. Additional readouts included ...


Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin T. Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta Jan 2019

Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin T. Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We ...


A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe Jan 2019

A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe

Virology Papers

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. After several passages of the ΔB1 virus we observed a robust increase in viral titer of the adapted virus. Interestingly, our characterization of the adapted viruses reveals that ...


Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling Jan 2019

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti Jan 2019

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


The Role Of Isothiocyanates As Cancer Chemo‐Preventive, Chemo‐Therapeutic And Anti‐Melanoma Agents, Melina Mitsiogianni, Georgios Koutsidis, Nikos Mavroudis, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Vasilis Zoumpourlis, Tom Amery, Alex Galanis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis Jan 2019

The Role Of Isothiocyanates As Cancer Chemo‐Preventive, Chemo‐Therapeutic And Anti‐Melanoma Agents, Melina Mitsiogianni, Georgios Koutsidis, Nikos Mavroudis, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Vasilis Zoumpourlis, Tom Amery, Alex Galanis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Many studies have shown evidence in support of the beneficial effects of phytochemicals in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer. Among such phytochemicals, sulphur‐containing compounds (e.g., isothiocyanates (ITCs)) have raised scientific interest by exerting unique chemopreventive properties against cancer pathogenesis. ITCs are the major biologically active compounds capable of mediating the anticancer effect of cruciferous vegetables. Recently, many studies have shown that a higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of developing various forms of cancers primarily due to a plurality of effects, including (i) metabolic activation and detoxification, (ii) inflammation, (iii) angiogenesis, (iv) metastasis and ...