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2019

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

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Articles 1 - 30 of 94

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparison Of Morphological Traits In Cowpea Pod Length, Seed Number Per Pod, Seed Weight, Seed Color And Seed Density In Usda Germplasm Accessions And Arkansas Breeding Lines, Sora Imamura Dec 2019

Comparison Of Morphological Traits In Cowpea Pod Length, Seed Number Per Pod, Seed Weight, Seed Color And Seed Density In Usda Germplasm Accessions And Arkansas Breeding Lines, Sora Imamura

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of the study was to compare and correlate the Arkansas cowpea breeding lines to the USDA cowpea germplasm accessions on the following morphological traits: seed color, pod length, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, and seed density. The seed density is defined as the weight of seed in gram per centimeter of pod length. Three hundred seventeen cowpea genotypes were used in this experiment. Out of the 317, 285 germplasm accessions were from the USDA GRIN and 32 lines were from the Arkansas breeding program.

T-test between Arkansas breeding lines and USDA germplasm accessions were done ...


Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Arkansas Wheat Cultivar Performance Tests 2018-2019, R. E. Mason, R. G. Miller, D. E. Moon, J. P. Kelley Sep 2019

Arkansas Wheat Cultivar Performance Tests 2018-2019, R. E. Mason, R. G. Miller, D. E. Moon, J. P. Kelley

Research Series

Wheat cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Ark- ansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences. The tests provide information to companies developing cultivars and marketing seed within the state and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating cultivar recommendations for small-grain producers. The tests are conducted at the Northeast Research and Extension Center at Keiser, the Vegetable Substation near Kibler, the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, the Newport Extension Center near Newport, the Rohwer Research Station near Rohwer, the Pine ...


Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2018, Fred Bourland Sep 2019

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2018, Fred Bourland

Research Series

Arkansas ended the 2018 season ranked 5th nationally in harvested acres (480,000 acres), 4th in lint yield (1150 lb/acre), and 4th in total production (1,150,000 bales). The string of consecutive years with good yields is helping to drive the increase in cotton acres. Harvest and ginning capacity is a major limiting factor for acre expansion. Cotton planting intentions for 2019 released in late March are at 580,000 acres, up 20% from the 485,000 acres planted in 2018. This continues to push the ginning capacity of 28 gins in 2018 and on-farm picker capacity to ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies, R. J. Norman, K. A.K. Moldenhauer Aug 2019

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies, R. J. Norman, K. A.K. Moldenhauer

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman Aug 2019

Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blackberries are grown worldwide for commercial fresh markets, but there is limited information on consumer perceptions of this fruit. In this study, physiochemical and consumer sensory attributes of three Arkansas-grown fresh-market blackberry genotypes were evaluated and consumer perceptions of fresh-market blackberries were also investigated though an online survey. Two cultivars (Natchez and Ouachita) and one advanced selection (A-2418) were evaluated for compositional and nutraceutical analysis and consumer sensory analysis. Natchez had the highest berry weight, length, drupelets and pyrenes/berry, and pyrene weight/berry. Ouachita had the highest soluble solids content (11.9%), pH (3.18) and soluble solids/titratable ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari Aug 2019

The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari

Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed burning is defined as the process of the planned application of fire to a predetermined area under specific environmental conditions in order to achieve a desired outcome such as land management. This project used both morphological and molecular methods to identify and characterize the wood-decay fungi associated with the forests of northwest Arkansas—Pea Ridge National Military Park, Devil’s Den State Park, and the Buffalo National River—through frequent visits made between February 2018 and February 2019. In addition, in order to assess the effects of prescribed burning, incubation chambers were used to compare the growth of fungi ...


Selectivity Of Infrared Heat Treatment On Inactivation Of Mycotoxigenic Fungi On Stored Grain, Shantae A. Wilson Aug 2019

Selectivity Of Infrared Heat Treatment On Inactivation Of Mycotoxigenic Fungi On Stored Grain, Shantae A. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Selective Infrared (IR) heating holds great potential to decontaminate spores of unsafe fungi in corn. The objectives for this study were to investigate the impact of exposing corn to infrared energy at selected peak wavelengths (λ), infrared intensities and treatment durations, followed by tempering for further inactivation of microbes on the grain and explore a method for decontaminating Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) spores on corn. Freshly harvested corn with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 16%, 20%, and 24% wet basis (w.b.) were used. The corn samples were treated at different infrared wavelengths (3.2, 4.5, and 5.8 ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal Aug 2019

Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to study the implications of Excitation/Inhibition balance and imbalance on the dynamics of ongoing (spontaneous) neural activity in the cerebral cortex region of the brain.

The first research work addresses the question that why among the continuum of Excitation-Inhibition balance configurations, particular configuration should be favored? We calculate the entropy of neural network dynamics by studying an analytically tractable network of binary neurons. Our main result from this work is that the entropy maximizes at regime which is neither excitation-dominant nor inhibition-dominant but at the boundary of both. Along this boundary we see ...


Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce Aug 2019

Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce

Theses and Dissertations

Rice flour generated from broken rice (brokens) has inconsistencies in functional properties. This may be due to differences in size and composition of brokens used for the flour. It is postulated that size classification of brokens can improve flour functionality. This study sought to investigate the effect of size fractionation of brokens on the functional or pasting properties of resulting rice flour. Broken rice was generated from six cultivars of freshly harvested rough rice that were dried at 25◦C in the laboratory. The brokens were classified into large, medium and small, using US sieve size 10, 12 and 20 ...


The Impact Of Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences International Programs On Student Motivation For Continuing College And Student Engagement In The Classroom, Olivia Caroline Caillouet Aug 2019

The Impact Of Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences International Programs On Student Motivation For Continuing College And Student Engagement In The Classroom, Olivia Caroline Caillouet

Theses and Dissertations

Colleges aim to increase student achievement, which has been linked to motivation and engagement, as well as increase global partnerships. There is also an increasing demand from students for international programs (IPs) that prepare them to be global citizens. This study aimed to compare student motivation for continuing college and student engagement in the classroom before and after an IP. Students who participated in a Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food, and Life Sciences IP between January 2018 and August 2018 were surveyed prior to, and two weeks and three months post-program participation (n = 24). The instrument had 51 Likert-scale questions ...


Studies On Pathogenesis Of The Diseases Caused By Macrophomina Phaseolina And Phomopsis Longicolla On Soybean, Marcio Leizer Zaccaron Aug 2019

Studies On Pathogenesis Of The Diseases Caused By Macrophomina Phaseolina And Phomopsis Longicolla On Soybean, Marcio Leizer Zaccaron

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean (Glycine max), a legume, is an economically important crop in many parts of the world, including the USA, Brazil, Argentina, China, and India, currently the top five producing countries. Soybean is primarily used as feed, with incising markets for food and biodiesel. Similar to most crops, soybean yield and quality are affected by a diverse group of plant pathogens. In particular, several species of filamentous fungi have been the cause of severe yield losses in most growing regions world-wide. The soil born fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agent of charcoal rot, has been found to be endemic to several soybean ...


Impact Of Sanitizers On Salmonella Enterica Contamination And Microbial Populations Of Poultry Processing Reuse Water, Andrew Micciche Aug 2019

Impact Of Sanitizers On Salmonella Enterica Contamination And Microbial Populations Of Poultry Processing Reuse Water, Andrew Micciche

Theses and Dissertations

As human populations increase in numbers, access to clean, fresh water is becoming increasingly difficult to balance between agricultural and municipal demands. Water scarcity is a limiting factor of food production in many countries, whether they are emerging or established economies. In conventional poultry processing systems, access to water is particularly critical for the maintenance and disinfection of processing areas, as well as in processing operations such as scalding, chilling, and carcass washing. The need for sustainable alternatives to single-use water supplies is becoming increasingly more urgent, and as a result, the implementation of water reuse in poultry processing plants ...


Rescue And Reestablishment Of Chicken Models For Spontaneously Occurring Hashimoto’S Thyroiditis And Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma, Joseph Zolton Hiltz Aug 2019

Rescue And Reestablishment Of Chicken Models For Spontaneously Occurring Hashimoto’S Thyroiditis And Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma, Joseph Zolton Hiltz

Theses and Dissertations

The loss of biodiversity is a topic gaining popularity both in the political and scientific forums. Nearly 30 years ago researchers and politicians congregated in Rio de Janeiro (1992) to attend the first Earth Summit. It was the first meeting of its kind discussing the tangible pressing consequences of biodiversity loss as well as the potential long term ramifications. Many of the countries represented at this summit implemented short and long term plans in order to accurately measure losses of biodiversity as well as establishing organizations to help diagnose and remedy the current problems at hand. These new organizations and ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller Jul 2019

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Do Enallagma Exsulans From Streams And Lakes Show Patterns Of Divergence?, Savannah Rae Graham May 2019

Do Enallagma Exsulans From Streams And Lakes Show Patterns Of Divergence?, Savannah Rae Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Divergent selection across heterogenous environments could lead to adaptive divergence in populations resulting in potential local adaption. These populations have phenotypic differences that are fitness related and make native individuals more fit than non-native individuals. My research focuses on a species of damselfly, Enallagma exsulans, to explore local adaptation and morphological differences as a result of divergent selection or plasticity. My first study explored potential local adaptation of wild caught stream and lake E. exsulans using a reciprocal transplant design, a classic approach for this objective. The stream and lake sites chosen were on a small spatial scale allowing for ...


Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu May 2019

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon May 2019

Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Today’s grocery stores are filled aisle to aisle with an overwhelming variety of options for the consumer. In a consumer-driven market structure, the food industry has grown to encompass many niche markets which meet the ever changing demands of consumers. From organically produced food to more modern agriculture practices and even to finding non-meat protein alternatives, the options are endless. However, in the United States (a country with a higher level of disposable income compared to others), the question arises are customers educated about what the products truly are that they are spending a price premium on?

This study ...


The Diversity Of Terrestrial Mammals Surrounding Waterfall At Billy Barquedier National Park, Kelsey Johnson May 2019

The Diversity Of Terrestrial Mammals Surrounding Waterfall At Billy Barquedier National Park, Kelsey Johnson

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Billy Barquedier is a National Park located in the Stann Creek district of Belize that contains Neotropical vegetation and wildlife. This study was performed in order to provide a baseline inventory and appearance frequency patterns of the terrestrial mammals located within Zone 1 of the park near a waterfall. The goal of the data and information collected during this study is to gain a greater understanding of the biodiversity and activity patterns of terrestrial mammals within the park and across Belize as a whole. The use of camera traps, small Sherman live traps, large live traps, and tracking methods were ...


Effects Of An Educational Intervention On Nutrition And Healthy Eating Habits In Minority Group Parents And Children Living In Arkansas, Peri Clay May 2019

Effects Of An Educational Intervention On Nutrition And Healthy Eating Habits In Minority Group Parents And Children Living In Arkansas, Peri Clay

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: The Hispanic population is the largest growing minority ethnic group in the United States today. Minority groups have an added struggle with obesity and have higher rates of obesity in this country than the caucasian counterparts. While minority group parents want more for their children they face many cultural and language barriers related to proper nutrition and hydration. This prevents these families from gaining adequate nutrition.

Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the impact of nutrition education on obesity rates through implementation of a year long educational intervention for minority group mothers and their children through and already established ...


Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones May 2019

Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Childhood obesity, especially in ethnic minority populations, is a growing problem with no signs of improvement over the past decade. The Latino population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Unfortunately, they have experienced substantial health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantages that contribute to the high rates of obesity in their youth. Decreasing obesity rates would not only have many health advantages, but also financial benefits as well. It would reduce the risk of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and depression. Healthy children are more likely to grow into healthy adults, ultimately lowering the cost ...


Feasibility Of Custom Aquaponics For Home Use, Jesse Blanchard May 2019

Feasibility Of Custom Aquaponics For Home Use, Jesse Blanchard

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

The primary goal of this research is to access the feasibility of implementing and operating small scale aquaponic systems in a home setting to serve as a means of producing high quality fresh produce and fish protein to supplement similar store-bought products. Factors such as system cost, skill level and management requirements will be addressed alongside customizable, educational and sustainable aspects of aquaponic systems to determine whether home aquaponic systems are a feasible option for the home grower. To elaborate, feasibility in this research will refer to both economic costs relative to costs of the system. Outlined in this short ...


Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry May 2019

Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

As global population continues to grow improving agricultural production become even more important. Smallholder farmers make up a large portion of agricultural production in developing countries (Gueye, 2000; Upton, 2000). East Africa is one sector which has seen growth in poultry production over the pas five years. (Vernooij, Masaki, & Meiher-Willems, 2018). One major constraint to smallholder production is lack of access to educational materials and production guidelines (Mack et al., 2005).

The purpose of the study was to describe methods of production utilized by smallholder farmers in Rwanda and determine what information should be included in a production guide. The ...


Anthocyanin Stability In Food Products Made With Freeze-Dried Blueberry Powder, Samantha Findley May 2019

Anthocyanin Stability In Food Products Made With Freeze-Dried Blueberry Powder, Samantha Findley

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study evaluated the stability of anthocyanins in six blueberry products (gummy, graham bar, oatmeal bar, rice krispy bar, ice pop and juice) prepared with freeze-dried wild blueberry powder during processing and over eight weeks storage. Total anthocyanins were determined by HPLC before processing and at day 0 and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of storage. Thermal processing of gummy and graham bar products resulted in significant losses of anthocyanins (50% and 31%, respectively). An eight-week storage time also resulted in a significant decrease in anthocyanins (7% to 51%) in products stored at ambient temperature. The ice pop, which ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank May 2019

Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank

Entomology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular, arthropod-borne bacteria with a potential to cause multiple diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Fleas, mites, and ticks serve as vectors for Rickettsia, but ticks are the primary vector of interest. RMSF and other rickettsial diseases have continued to gain importance in both human and veterinary medicine as RMSF is the most common tick-borne disease within the United States according to the Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Research Center. A statewide citizen science project was utilized to determine the prevalence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia in Arkansas. This project yielded results in 64 of ...


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould May 2019

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter May 2019

Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study explores the husbandry methodologies on a backyard poultry farm in Dangriga, Belize, with the purpose of producing a set of guidelines for backyard poultry growers that have limited resources in similar regions. The majority of data collection occurred through survey questions approved by the IRB, necropsies approved by IACUC, and general observations. There has been a steady increase in poultry production in developing regions due to its positive effects on income and relative nutrition. However, due to a lack of accessible communication and education regarding effective and safe poultry production, these operators typically see poor productivity and/or ...


Determining The Relationship Among Cattle Genotype, Hair Coat Score, And Productivity Through The Investigation Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within Prolactin, Dopamine Receptor D2, And Melatonin Receptor 1a, Erin Davis May 2019

Determining The Relationship Among Cattle Genotype, Hair Coat Score, And Productivity Through The Investigation Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within Prolactin, Dopamine Receptor D2, And Melatonin Receptor 1a, Erin Davis

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Prolactin (PRL), melatonin (MTN), and dopamine (DA) are all hormones that are believed to play a role in the regulation and growth of hair in beef cattle. There are also single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with each of these hormones or their receptors, indicating that the investigation of these polymorphisms could allow them to serve as genetic markers for the future productivity of an animal. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships among cattle genotype, hair coat score, and productivity through the investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within prolactin, dopamine receptor D2, and melatonin receptor 1A. Body weights ...


The Effect Of Labeling Information Framing On Genetically Modified Food Choices: A Query Theory Account, Taylor Pruitt May 2019

The Effect Of Labeling Information Framing On Genetically Modified Food Choices: A Query Theory Account, Taylor Pruitt

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

The progression of policy that regulates genetically modified (GM) food in the US is a prime example of how the role of the government reformulates in relation to societal changes. Support for various labeling programs is formed around key themes which center on the benefits and costs associated with GM labels. The goal of this experiment was to explore the effect of information framing on GM food choices. This was accomplished by presenting information for or against GM labeling in terms of the benefits (positive framing) or costs (negative framing) to consumers. 1,410 consumers participated in an economic experiment ...