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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Uncoupling Protein 1 In Bornean Treeshrews, Emily Gagne Apr 2019

Uncoupling Protein 1 In Bornean Treeshrews, Emily Gagne

Honors College

Many thermoregulatory functions of mammals are related to the fact that they are endotherms. There are several morphological and physiological adaptations that mammals have developed over time to allow them to maintain internal heat, even in cold climates. Many mammals use UCP1, a protein that facilities non-shivering thermogenesis, to generate heat. Recent work has shown that despite UCP1’s importance for non-shivering thermogenesis, inactivating mutations have occurred in at least 8 of 18 placental orders (Gaudry et al. 2017). My study focused on three species of Bornean treeshrews: Tupaia tana, Tupaia montana, and Tupaia minor (Order: Scandentia), and aimed to ...


Evaluating A Doppler Radar Monitor For Assessing Honey Bee Colony Health, Ana Eliza Souza Cunha Apr 2019

Evaluating A Doppler Radar Monitor For Assessing Honey Bee Colony Health, Ana Eliza Souza Cunha

Honors College

Honey bees pollinate an estimated $15 billion worth of crops each year. It is therefore vital that beekeepers assess the productivity and health of colonies in order to reassure the reproductive future of this species. Modern techniques in which beekeepers can assess honey bee colony health are labor intensive, costly, and invasive to the bees as they must open and rearrange the hive to assess colony health. A radar-based sensor, placed outside of the hive, can be used to assess colony activity and health in a non-invasive manner. In order to validate the function of this hive monitor and quantify ...


Synthesis And Application Of Cellulose-Based Hydrogels For Anti-Biofouling In Marine Environments, David Rondeau Apr 2019

Synthesis And Application Of Cellulose-Based Hydrogels For Anti-Biofouling In Marine Environments, David Rondeau

Honors College

Biofouling is a ubiquitous natural phenomenon that incurs major costs and damages to marine-based industries and infrastructure worldwide. While antibiofouling agents do exist, these contain toxic biocides and metals which are harmful to non-target organisms and the local ecosystem. This research aimed to create a renewably sourced, non-toxic hydrogel with antibiofouling properties in a marine environment. Hydrogels were made using functionalized CMC, a cellulose derivative, crosslinked with dithiol molecules. It was shown that the mechanical properties and swelling abilities of hydrogels could be controlled by making the hydrogels at a particular thiol to norbornene ratio. Hydrogels made with one of ...


The Potential Roles Of Melanopsin Signaling In Mediating The Effects Of Environmental Light On Voluntary Ethanol Intake In Mice, Rachel Brooks Apr 2019

The Potential Roles Of Melanopsin Signaling In Mediating The Effects Of Environmental Light On Voluntary Ethanol Intake In Mice, Rachel Brooks

Honors College

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) comprise a small subset of photoreceptors found in the eye containing the newly discovered photopigment, melanopsin. ipRGCs project directly to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central “pacemaker” underlying the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythms. Photic stimuli detected by ipRGCs are transmitted to the SCN via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), mediating the entrainment of the SCN pacemaker. In addition to circadian entrainment, these pathways may also contribute to seasonal changes seen in both animals and humans, such as seasonal breeding cycles in animals and seasonal affective disorder in humans. Our lab has recently ...


The Impact Of New Nih Requirements On The Preclinical Research Sex Disparity --- A Meta-Analysis, Nicole Mcgrath Apr 2019

The Impact Of New Nih Requirements On The Preclinical Research Sex Disparity --- A Meta-Analysis, Nicole Mcgrath

Honors College

Historically, women as subjects have been underrepresented in clinical research. Due to this problem, legislation was enacted by Congress in 1993 to require inclusion of women in NIH funded clinical trials. Female animals are also underrepresented in preclinical research and need to be included to ensure safe and effective drugs. Studies exclude female mammals under the assumption that the estrus cycle contributes to variability (Beery, 2011). This notion has been contradicted by several studies (Prendergast, 2014; Becker, 2016). New requirements of NIH funded researchers to consider sex as a basic biological variable were announced in 2014 (Clayton, 2014). As of ...


Trials And Tribulations Of Modern Day Childbirth: A Literature Analysis Of Factors Contributing To The Recent Decline In Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery, Camilla Horton Apr 2019

Trials And Tribulations Of Modern Day Childbirth: A Literature Analysis Of Factors Contributing To The Recent Decline In Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery, Camilla Horton

Honors College

C-sections are an extremely common procedure in modern day America, and while there are serious indications for cesarean delivery including complications for mother and baby, there are likely far more cesareans performed each year than medically necessary. This A comprehensive literature analysis was compared to individual data collection from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Vital Statistics System. Both the analysis of the literature and the individual data collection confirmed that cesarean deliveries in the US have increased to from less than 10% in the 1970s, to over 30% in the years following 2005. Vaginal birth after ...


The Effects Of European Fire Ants On Blacklegged Ticks In Acadia National Park, Lucy Guarnieri Apr 2019

The Effects Of European Fire Ants On Blacklegged Ticks In Acadia National Park, Lucy Guarnieri

Honors College

The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) are notable invasive pests in Maine, especially across coastal and southern regions. I. scapularis is the primary vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is the causative agent of Lyme disease, and Maine currently has one of the highest Lyme disease incidence rates in the U.S. Ticks have many natural predators, including ants. This study investigates the effects of M. rubra on I. scapularis abundance and pathogen infection prevalence in Acadia National Park (ANP). I collected ticks by drag-sampling at eight ant-infested sites and eight control sites ...


Functional Analysis Of Amino Acid Changes In The Metal Binding Pocket Of The Lyt-R Domain Of The Cpsa Protein, Sydney Green Apr 2019

Functional Analysis Of Amino Acid Changes In The Metal Binding Pocket Of The Lyt-R Domain Of The Cpsa Protein, Sydney Green

Honors College

The Center for Disease Control approximates that one out of every four women carries Group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteria. GBS can be passed to the neonate from the pregnant mother during vaginal delivery or in utero by the ascending route1. Some notable diseases that are caused by GBS are sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, certain skin infections, and types of bone and joint infections2. One of the most important virulence factors for GBS is capsule, which has sialic acid residues attached to the polysaccharide chains helping to prevent the host immune system from being triggered when the pathogen is present ...