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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Innovative Resources In Small Ruminant Health, Sarah Paluso May 2019

Innovative Resources In Small Ruminant Health, Sarah Paluso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudoTB) that affects small ruminants. This disease has a worldwide prevalence and results in significant economic losses to the sheep and goat industries. Antibiotics have had limited success in treating CL, due to the difficulty of penetrating the dry, thick-walled abscesses that characterize this disease. Essential oils are complex bioactive compounds that have been increasingly explored as sources of antimicrobial activity. Due to the nature of these oils, tissue and wood penetration may be possible, enabling topical and environmental treatment (e.g.; disinfectants of farm surfaces, such ...


Examining Citizens' Preferences For Aquaculture Using Discrete Choice Experiments, Olga Bredikhina May 2019

Examining Citizens' Preferences For Aquaculture Using Discrete Choice Experiments, Olga Bredikhina

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the last few decades, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have become increasingly popular across different subfields of economics as a way to elicit citizens‟ stated preferences for product and service attributes as well as various environmental and infrastructure features. The DCE framework could be seen as a time- and cost-effective alternative to the revealed preferences framework that is based on data obtained using transactions observed in real-world markets. DCEs offer the advantage over revealed preferences data because they allow learning about consumer preferences for hypothetical products or product attributes without bearing the costs of introducing new products to the market ...


Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard May 2019

Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The construction of industrial dams across major rivers in New England began in the early 1800s with textile mills in Massachusetts. Because of its legacy of mill dams and log driving dams, New England has the highest density of dams anywhere in North America, averaging one dam for every 44 km2 of drainage area. By the early 1900s, these dams drastically limited migrations by diadromous fishes, resulting in declines in populations of migratory fishes, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and American shad Alosa sapidissima. Since that time, different fishway designs and river management plans have been tried around the ...


Niche Evolution Along A Gradient Of Ecological Specialization, Meaghan Conway Apr 2019

Niche Evolution Along A Gradient Of Ecological Specialization, Meaghan Conway

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The concept of the ecological niche is fundamental to understanding constraints on species distributions in space and time, and in explaining the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. A niche can be broadly defined to include all of the biotic and abiotic conditions that a species requires to persist. Niche breadth, or the degree of specialization, may influence how labile a species niche is, which can have broad implications for species ability to adapt to environmental change, and for explaining patterns of diversification. I investigated mechanism that facilitate or constrain niche evolution at multiple scales. First, I developed an index of ...


The Effect Of Elevation On Factors Influencing Adult Body Size Of Asynarchus Nigirculus, Mykayla Hagaman Apr 2019

The Effect Of Elevation On Factors Influencing Adult Body Size Of Asynarchus Nigirculus, Mykayla Hagaman

Honors College

Across the range of a species realized niche, individuals can face a range of environmental factors that change as you move from the central range towards the edge. These changes in environmental factors can have a significant impact on the fitness of an individual. In insects, one way to determine this impact is to study the difference in adult body size across the span of the species range. In western Colorado, caddisflies are the biomass dominant detritivores in alpine pond ecosystems. Caddisflies are fundamental in providing nutrients to the ecosystem because of the nutrients that they recycle as detritivores. Understanding ...


Building A Better Understanding Of Equine Anatomy Through Integrated Learning, Emily Gorney Apr 2019

Building A Better Understanding Of Equine Anatomy Through Integrated Learning, Emily Gorney

Honors College

Most people tend to have horses as their first contact with livestock animals. They are usually more common to see or interact with than cows, sheep, or other farm animals. This makes them a good starting animal for students learning about livestock, as well as the fact that they can be used for show, for work, or as a pet, making the equine industry a big one. While models have been used to teach students in topics such as architecture, cycles, and human muscles, little published research was found on the topic of having students build models of equine anatomy ...


An Intersectional Feminist Approach To Lyme Disease Epidemiology, Meghan Frisard Apr 2019

An Intersectional Feminist Approach To Lyme Disease Epidemiology, Meghan Frisard

Honors College

Nationally, Maine is the state with the second highest incidence of Lyme disease. While the spread of Lyme disease is generally attributable to ecological factors that affect the life cycle of Lyme-spreading ticks, socioeconomic factors may have substantial impacts on diagnosis and reporting of human cases. Socioeconomic factors could influence one’s ability to see a healthcare provider and ultimately be diagnosed with and treated for Lyme. Additionally, access to and treatment within the healthcare system is often gendered. I hypothesize that certain socioeconomic factors will have a negative correlation with Lyme disease incidence among the general population and among ...


Overwinter Survival Rate Of Moose (Alces Alces) Calves In Relation To Habitat Composition, Bridget Re Apr 2019

Overwinter Survival Rate Of Moose (Alces Alces) Calves In Relation To Habitat Composition, Bridget Re

Honors College

Naturally occurring resource scarcity and limited foraging in winter habitats of northern New England moose (Alces alces) calves result in an energetic strain—particularly for individuals experiencing winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) parasitism. Recent collaborative studies conducted between Maine’s Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MIFW) and the University of New Hampshire have attributed the decline of winter survival in moose (Alces alces) calves to be closely linked to winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) parasitism (Jones et al 2018, Ellingwood et al. 2018, Healy et al. 2018, Pekins 2018). In addition to winter tick abundance on individuals, we analyzed how winter ...


Assessing The Effectiveness Of Attractants To Increase Detection Probabilities In Northeastern Mammals, Michael Buyaskas Apr 2019

Assessing The Effectiveness Of Attractants To Increase Detection Probabilities In Northeastern Mammals, Michael Buyaskas

Honors College

A primary problem with camera trapping in wildlife occupancy studies is the failure to detect an animal when it is present at the site. My objective was to determine the optimal attractant setup for maximizing detection probabilities of northeast mammalian communities. I carried out an camera trapping project in northern Maine, USA from August to November 2018, and tested 3 distinct attractant setup. Sampling stations consisted of four camera units, and each sampling unit constituted either a treatment or a control: 1) bait + lure (treatment), 2) bait only (treatment), 3) lure only (treatment), and 4) camera only (control). Data analysis ...


Personality In Small Mammals: From Home Range To Microhabitat Selection, Kara Aiken Apr 2019

Personality In Small Mammals: From Home Range To Microhabitat Selection, Kara Aiken

Honors College

Consistent variation in behavior among individuals of the same species is referred to as animal personality. Personality has been found in a wide variety of species across all taxa, including numerous small mammal species. Animal personality has the potential to affect the life history characteristics of individuals within a population. Particularly, personality may affect the way in which an individual interacts with its environment, be this through home range or microhabitat selection. To further understand how personality affects home range and microhabitat selection in small mammals, we conducted a field study in the Penobscot Experimental Forest, Maine (USA). Three small ...


The Most Critical Resource: How Climate Change Fuels The Crisis In Syria And The Implications For The World At Large, Edward Medeiros Apr 2019

The Most Critical Resource: How Climate Change Fuels The Crisis In Syria And The Implications For The World At Large, Edward Medeiros

Honors College

The Syrian crisis, both domestic and international in scope, may well be the defining geopolitical challenge of the generation. Climate change may be the single greatest challenge to face humanity in the entirety of our species’ life history. The dramatic effects of climate change can be seen in the origins of the Syrian crisis when one looks to humanity’s single most critical resource: water. We take the word critical to have two meanings in this context: first, that water is essential to human survival and second that water is a resource in critical condition. Syria’s water crisis pre-dates ...


Construction Of A Cpsa Double Mutant To Determine The Function Of The Lyt-R Domain, Klarissa Klier Apr 2019

Construction Of A Cpsa Double Mutant To Determine The Function Of The Lyt-R Domain, Klarissa Klier

Honors College

Streptococcus agalactiae, otherwise known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a zoonotic, Gram-positive, commensal and invasive bacteria which is the leading cause of neonatal bacterial infections. These bacterial infections include sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia. In neonates, GBS is most commonly transferred to the child in utero or during birth when the child aspirates amniotic or vaginal fluids. GBS can also infect the child through the bloodstream while in utero, causing premature births or still births. Children who survive the initial infection develop severe morbidities which include mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and seizures. GBS can also affect immunocompromised adults, leading ...


Fire And Blood: Behavior And Thermoregulation In Small Nocturnal Mammals, Tal Kleinhause-Goldman Gedalyahou Apr 2019

Fire And Blood: Behavior And Thermoregulation In Small Nocturnal Mammals, Tal Kleinhause-Goldman Gedalyahou

Honors College

As global temperatures continue to increase, so does the need to better assess the sensitivity of different species to climate change. Such assessments require accurate behavioral and physiological data, including on thermoregulation and the effects of high temperatures on the behavior of endotherms. Seeking to improve current knowledge and methodology, my research evaluated the connections between activity and thermoregulation, using deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) as a species model. By using a custom made maze, I was able to simulate an active foraging environment and examine both activity patterns and subcutaneous temperatures in mice during the active-phase of their activity cycle ...


Landscape Factors Affecting Foraging Flight Altitudes Of Great Blue Heron In Maine; Relevance To Wind Energy Development, Lauren Dolinski Apr 2019

Landscape Factors Affecting Foraging Flight Altitudes Of Great Blue Heron In Maine; Relevance To Wind Energy Development, Lauren Dolinski

Honors College

In an attempt to increase alternative energy sources, there has been greater development of wind farms across the United States. This expanded development may pose a potential threat to birds that are flying overhead (EIA 2017, Leung and Yang 2011). More information is needed on the factors that affect a bird’s behavior while flying and if the current policies and dimensions of wind turbines interfere with flight altitudes. We used data from GPS-marked great blue herons (Ardea herodias) in Maine to classify their flight altitudes relative to wind turbine height and assess different landscape factors that affect flight altitude ...


Mmp13 Inhibition Does Not Rescue Gmppb-Deficient Skeletal Muscle In Zebrafish, Sean Driscoll Apr 2019

Mmp13 Inhibition Does Not Rescue Gmppb-Deficient Skeletal Muscle In Zebrafish, Sean Driscoll

Honors College

The dystroglycan protein is one of many that attach skeletal muscle fibers to the basement membrane at the myotendinous junction. In the alpha-subunit of the dystroglycan molecule, there are sugar chains that help with the adhesion of the molecule to the basement membrane. A mutation in any gene that codes for an enzyme that adds these sugar chains can result in a form of congenital muscle disease called secondary dystroglycanopathy. One of the genes that codes for an enzyme that adds sugar chains is GMPPB and a mutation in this gene results in GMPPB-associated dystroglycanopathy. Using zebrafish as a model ...


Do Different Methods Of Communication Impact Undergraduate Student's Knowledge, Attitudes, & Beliefs Towards White-Nose Syndrome In Little Brown Bats, Kiley Davan Apr 2019

Do Different Methods Of Communication Impact Undergraduate Student's Knowledge, Attitudes, & Beliefs Towards White-Nose Syndrome In Little Brown Bats, Kiley Davan

Honors College

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a deadly fungal disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats since its introduction to North America in 2006. The little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), once widespread across the US, has been the most severely impacted with some colonies experiencing a 99% decline. Scientists believe changing people’s behavior is the key to bat conservation as the fungus is spread primarily by humans transferring the fungus between bat colonies. Outreach is a common method used to affect behavioral change in people, but not all outreach methods are equally effective. The purpose of this study was to ...


Influence Of Environmental Conditions And Call Playback On Detection Of Eastern Forest Owls During Standardized Surveys, Kyle Lima Apr 2019

Influence Of Environmental Conditions And Call Playback On Detection Of Eastern Forest Owls During Standardized Surveys, Kyle Lima

Honors College

Owls provide ecosystem services and play crucial roles in the environment making them important to monitor and study. However, standardized methods for most species do not exist, and we lack understanding of the effects of many environmental variables and playbacks on detection probability of owls. We performed a multispecies occupancy analysis on owl monitoring data collected from 2004 – 2013 across the state of Maine, to examine the effects of environmental variables, conspecific and heterospecific playback on detection, and general survey protocols for three forest owls: Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus), Barred Owl (Strix varia), and Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus ...


A History Of Oysters In Maine (1600s-1970s), Randy Lackovic Mar 2019

A History Of Oysters In Maine (1600s-1970s), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is a history of oyster abundance in Maine, and the subsequent decline of oyster abundance. It is a history of oystering, oyster fisheries, and oyster commerce in Maine. It is a history of the transplanting of oysters to Maine, and experiments with oysters in Maine, and of oyster culture in Maine. This history takes place from the 1600s to the 1970s.