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2019

The University of Maine

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Articles 1 - 30 of 62

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Deep Benthic Coral Habitats Of Glacier Bay National Park And Preserve, Alaska, Elise C. Hartill Aug 2019

Deep Benthic Coral Habitats Of Glacier Bay National Park And Preserve, Alaska, Elise C. Hartill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Southeast Alaska is a system of fjords that presents an ideal natural laboratory to study terrestrial, aquatic and marine patterns of succession due to its unique and recent history of deglaciation. The patterns of deep benthic community assemblages in the fjords of Glacier Bay were investigated by quantitative assessment of underwater photo-quadrats collected using a remotely operated vehicle. The percent cover and diversity of species were lowest near the glaciated heads of the fjords and highest in the Central Channel and at the mouths of the fjords of Glacier Bay, where oceanographic conditions ...


The Dispersal Pattern Of Thekopsora Minima In Wild Blueberry Determined By A Molecular Detection Method, Nghi Nguyen Aug 2019

The Dispersal Pattern Of Thekopsora Minima In Wild Blueberry Determined By A Molecular Detection Method, Nghi Nguyen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Blueberry rust caused by Thekopsora minima is a common disease in wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and other Vaccinium genera. Understanding the spore dispersal pattern and disease cycle of fungal pathogens in wild blueberry is crucial for the development of a more efficient disease management program. Molecular assays for rapid detection and quantification of Thekopsora minima were developed to be incorporated with a spore trap sampling method and weather data collection to examine spore dispersal pattern and production in three different fields: Blueberry Hill Farm in Jonesboro, East Machias, and Spring Pond in Deblois, Maine, in three years 2014, 2015 and ...


Identification Of High-Risk Food Coping Strategies Of Maine Food Pantry Clients, Kathryn Cutting Aug 2019

Identification Of High-Risk Food Coping Strategies Of Maine Food Pantry Clients, Kathryn Cutting

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Food coping strategies are strategies adopted by individuals in order to obtain enough food for themselves and their family. Food coping strategies can range from using coupons (couponing) and buying in bulk to skipping meals and stealing food. Although not all strategies are considered to be high risk, all strategies should be accounted for so that nutrition education programming caters to strategies that individuals are employing. This topic has not been widely researched in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify common food coping strategies of food pantry clients across nine counties in Maine, explore identified ...


Mountain Livelihoods In A Time Of Change: A Case Study Of Upper Mustang In Nepal, Sandesh Shrestha Aug 2019

Mountain Livelihoods In A Time Of Change: A Case Study Of Upper Mustang In Nepal, Sandesh Shrestha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A case study was conducted in a remote Himalayan village—Yara—in the Upper Mustang region of Nepal. The goal of this study was to understand and assess the livelihood strategies of local people in the village. The study focused on understanding the socio-economic and environmental driving factors of livelihood vulnerability, prevalent livelihood activities, emergent livelihood strategies, and resulting livelihood outcomes in the village. We used multiple data generation methods, which included both qualitative social science and quantitative biophysical components. For the qualitative component, we utilized multiple data generation methods including key informant interviews, semi-structured household interviews, group discussions, and ...


Social-Ecological Heterogeneity Shapes Resilience Of Small-Scale Fisheries: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of The Mexican Chocolate Clam Fishery In Loreto, Mexico, Kara E. Pellowe Aug 2019

Social-Ecological Heterogeneity Shapes Resilience Of Small-Scale Fisheries: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of The Mexican Chocolate Clam Fishery In Loreto, Mexico, Kara E. Pellowe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

All benefits provided by natural systems are embedded within coupled social-ecological systems (SESs). Fisheries are clear examples of SESs: through fishing, humans affect ecosystem structure and functioning, and in turn, receive benefits, including sustenance, employment, and cultural value. Resilience, the ability to maintain structure and function in the face of change, is key to sustaining the social and ecological components of fisheries-related SESs and their interactions. Many factors contribute to resilience, including heterogeneity. By identifying heterogeneity in these complex systems, we are better able to understand the capacity of fishery-related SESs to adapt to change, and contribute to management that ...


Microbial Diversity Of The Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria And Yeast (Scoby) And Its Impact On The Organoleptic Properties Of Kombucha, Danielle L. St-Pierre Aug 2019

Microbial Diversity Of The Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria And Yeast (Scoby) And Its Impact On The Organoleptic Properties Of Kombucha, Danielle L. St-Pierre

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Kombucha is an effervescent fermented tea beverage that is gaining popularity for its probiotic nature and purported health benefits. The market for kombucha is expected to reach $1.8 billion by the year 2020. The composition of microbes that compose the symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) is highly variable with some species commonly found from the Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces, and Schizosaccharomyces genera.

It was hypothesized that different SCOBYs, obtained from different sources would vary in microbial diversity and produce different biochemical and flavor profiles in the resulting beverage over several generations. Kombucha is a fermented product and ...


Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault Aug 2019

Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida yeasts are common commensals that can cause mucosal disease and life-threatening systemic infections. While many of the components required for defense against Candida albicans infection are well established, questions remain about how various host cells at mucosal sites assess threats and coordinate defenses to prevent normally commensal organisms from becoming pathogenic. Using two Candida species, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, which differ in their abilities to damage epithelial tissues, we used traditional methods (pathogen CFU, host survival, and host cytokine expression) combined with high-resolution intravital imaging of transparent zebrafish larvae to illuminate host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level in ...


Comparing Independent Approaches To Estimate Age At Size Of The Jonah Crab (Cancer Borealis): Corroborating Gastric Mill Band Counts As A Direct Aging Method, Carlton Huntsberger Aug 2019

Comparing Independent Approaches To Estimate Age At Size Of The Jonah Crab (Cancer Borealis): Corroborating Gastric Mill Band Counts As A Direct Aging Method, Carlton Huntsberger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Knowing the age of an organism is essential in understanding the dynamics and management of wild populations. Age determination has been an especially long-standing challenge in the study of crustaceans, since they posed a unique challenge, shedding all calcified structures with each molt. The Jonah crab (Cancer borealis), is one of many commercially harvested crustaceans for which no absolute aging method has yet been established. It is an ecologically important species and a newly managed fishery in New England and Atlantic Canada. The recent increase of commercial fisheries for this species has highlighted the large data gap of growth and ...


Effect Of Hydroculture Methods On Tomato Root Morphology And Anatomy, Lia Maclellan Aug 2019

Effect Of Hydroculture Methods On Tomato Root Morphology And Anatomy, Lia Maclellan

Honors College

Three methods of hydroculture were compared for their effects on the root anatomy and morphology of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Defiant). A hydroponic deep water culture method, an ebb-flood system using expanded clay pellets as a solid medium and an aeroponic sub-mist system were compared, with a solid peat/perlite medium for control. The treatments were found to have significant effects on plant root and shoot length, as well as root and shoot biomass. Root morphology was visually distinct among treatments, and all methods of hydroculture were associated with a significant increase in vascular tissue in plant roots compared with ...


Assessing The Effectiveness Of The Expanded Food And Nutrition Education Program On Diet Quality As Measured By The Healthy Eating Index 2005, Sarah A. Perkins Aug 2019

Assessing The Effectiveness Of The Expanded Food And Nutrition Education Program On Diet Quality As Measured By The Healthy Eating Index 2005, Sarah A. Perkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background:The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is a federally funded program through the United States Department of Agriculture that offers nutrition education to low income families across the U.S.

Purpose:This study assessed the effectiveness of Maine EFNEP on food-related behavior change and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI). This study also explored the relationship between the results on the HEI and participation in food assistance programs such as Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), as well as the number of hours spent in the program.

Methodology ...


Efficacy Of Alternative Sanitization Methods On Wild Blueberries And Fresh Cut Cantaloupe, Selena Callahan Aug 2019

Efficacy Of Alternative Sanitization Methods On Wild Blueberries And Fresh Cut Cantaloupe, Selena Callahan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the last decade, outbreaks linked to the consumption of contaminated fresh produce have increased mitigation efforts to minimize the risks associated with these products. Due to the lack of a kill step during processing of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, good manufacturing practices (GMP’s), and sanitization are the key prevention areas most commonly used to control these risks. Many factors must be considered by processors for successful intervention such as sanitizer type, method of application, duration of application, and concentration. Additionally, product considerations such as water content, pH, and bacterial harborage sites can contribute greatly to how effective an applied ...


Understory Response To Gap-Based, Multi-Aged Silviculture, Maggie R. Mansfield Aug 2019

Understory Response To Gap-Based, Multi-Aged Silviculture, Maggie R. Mansfield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ubiquity of managed forests has created a demand for management practices that simultaneously meet traditional management goals and maintain biodiversity. Ecological forestry, which emulates the outcomes of natural disturbances, is assumed to enhance native species survival by creating conditions similar to those under which species have long survived. We assessed this assumption by exploring the herbaceous plant community response to 20 years of gap-based, multi-aged silviculture treatments. Additionally, we assessed the ability of the treatments to meet silvicultural objectives by exploring trends in tree regeneration. The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Project (AFERP) is a replicated study established in 1995 ...


Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto Aug 2019

Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic carbon released into the atmosphere is driving rapid, concurrent increases in temperature and acidity across the world’s oceans, most prominently in northern latitudes. The geographic range of the iconic American lobster (Homarus americanus) spans a steep thermal gradient and one of the most rapidly warming oceanic environments. Understanding the interactive effects of ocean warming and acidification on this species’ most vulnerable early life stages is important to predict its response to climate change on a stage-specific and population level. This study compares the responses of lobster larvae from two sub-populations spanning New England’s north-south temperature gradient (southern ...


Valuing The Economic Benefits Of Conservation Land In Downeast Maine, Lesley Lichko, Mindy Crandall, Tora Johnson, Adam Daigneault Jul 2019

Valuing The Economic Benefits Of Conservation Land In Downeast Maine, Lesley Lichko, Mindy Crandall, Tora Johnson, Adam Daigneault

Forest Resources Faculty Scholarship

This report uses an ecosystem services approach to calculate the economic value of conservation lands in Downeast Maine, an area composed of Hancock and Washington Counties. This region, roughly bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the Penobscot River, and Canada, includes extensive coastline, thousands of acres of forestland, areas of agricultural land, mountains, lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The area is known for its recreational and aesthetic resources, and productive offshore areas. Employment centers range from the tourism-dominated area of Bar Harbor in Hancock County, adjacent to Acadia National Park, to the Baileyville tissue mill and Woodland pulp mill area in Washington ...


Mp764: Field Manual For Managing Eastern White Pine Health In New England, William H. Livingston, Isabel Munck, Kyle Lombard, Jennifer Weimer, Aaron Bergdahl, Laura S. Kenefic, Barbara Schultz, Robert S. Seymour Jun 2019

Mp764: Field Manual For Managing Eastern White Pine Health In New England, William H. Livingston, Isabel Munck, Kyle Lombard, Jennifer Weimer, Aaron Bergdahl, Laura S. Kenefic, Barbara Schultz, Robert S. Seymour

Miscellaneous Publications

This manual provides basic information for identifying and evaluating important health problems of eastern white pine in New England. The health problems include:

• White pine weevil

• White pine blister rust

• Caliciopsis canker

• White pine bast scale

• White pine needle damage

• Red rot or Red-ring rot

In addition to providing descriptions of symptoms, signs, and risk factors, recommendations for white pine silviculture are described for managing stands for low densities and crop trees.


Muscle Degeneration In A Zebrafish Model Of Lysosomal Related Myopathy, Elizabeth Coffey May 2019

Muscle Degeneration In A Zebrafish Model Of Lysosomal Related Myopathy, Elizabeth Coffey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Muscle development and homeostasis are critical for normal muscle function. A key aspect of muscle physiology during development, growth and homeostasis is modulation of protein turnover. Protein turnover is the balance between synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. The rate of protein degradation is the major factor underlying overall muscle growth during development. Protein degradation mainly takes place in the lysosome. The efficiency of lysosomal protein degradation depends upon lysosomal pH, which is generated and maintained by proton pumps. Despite the importance of protein degradation in muscle growth during development, the impact of dysregulated lysosomal pH on muscle development, growth ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler May 2019

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of lake ecology, as it contributes to light attenuation and carbon cycling. In recent years, DOC declined in a suite of lakes in Greenland. I performed experiments to test potential mechanisms of DOC loss. The tested mechanisms did not reduce DOC concentration, but DOC composition was affected. I also paired water quality data with meteorological observations to evaluate effects of climate drivers on lake variables. The lake variables were temporally coherent and associated with patterns of mean annual precipitation.

In the northeastern U.S., recovery from acidification and climate change have contributed ...


Paper Structure Formation Simulation, Tyler R. Seekins May 2019

Paper Structure Formation Simulation, Tyler R. Seekins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

On the surface, paper appears simple, but closer inspection yields a rich collection of chaotic dynamics and random variables. Predictive simulation of paper product properties is desirable for screening candidate experiments and optimizing recipes but existing models are inadequate for practical use. We present a novel structure simulation and generation system designed to narrow the gap between mathematical model and practical prediction. Realistic inputs to the system are preserved as randomly distributed variables. Rapid fiber placement (~1 second/fiber) is achieved with probabilistic approximation of chaotic fluid dynamics and minimization of potential energy to determine flexible fiber conformations. Resulting digital ...


Characterization Of Ethanol-Related Phenotypic Differences Between C57bl/6j And C57bl/6nj Substrains: Role Of Cyfip2?, Matthew C. Hartmann May 2019

Characterization Of Ethanol-Related Phenotypic Differences Between C57bl/6j And C57bl/6nj Substrains: Role Of Cyfip2?, Matthew C. Hartmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The C57BL/6 (B6) mouse is the most commonly used inbred strain in biomedical research, and has served as the basis for various large-scale genetic and genomic projects. Although the parental substrain, C57BL/6J (B6J), originated at The Jackson Laboratory, isolated breeding colonies are now maintained at numerous sites. This separation has resulted in genetic drift that has led to the emergence of phenotypic differences among these colonies. For instance, B6J mice display higher levels of voluntary ethanol consumption and increased locomotor responses to psychostimulants, relative to C57BL/6N mice (B6N). Initial progress has been made in elucidating the genetic ...


Response Of Estuarine Fish Biomass To Restoration In The Penobscot River, Maine, Justin R. Stevens May 2019

Response Of Estuarine Fish Biomass To Restoration In The Penobscot River, Maine, Justin R. Stevens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diadromous fish require both freshwater and marine habitat to complete their life cycle. Dams restrict the movement between these habitats and as a result, many populations are historically low across their range. The Penobscot River is the second largest river in Maine and once had large populations of diadromous fish and it has been the focus of mainstem dam removals, dam passage improvements, and stocking with the goal of restoring those populations. Since 2012, NOAA Fisheries has conducted surveys of the Penobscot Estuary using mobile, multi-frequency echosounders (SIMRAD EK60 split-beam 38 and 120 kHz) combined with mid-water trawl surveys to ...


A Socio-Ecological Approach To Wildlife Disease Risk, James A. Elliott May 2019

A Socio-Ecological Approach To Wildlife Disease Risk, James A. Elliott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many Eastern moose (Alces alces, Linnaeus; 1758) populations along the southern edge of their North American range are declining, including those in Minnesota, Vermont, and New Hampshire. More recently, in Maine, winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus; Packard 1869) are suspected to also be influencing the population through periodic widespread mortality of calves. While metabolic stress from heavy winter tick parasitism has been implicated in these moose population declines, little is known about the relative effects of tick-borne diseases, which may compound metabolic stress. Tick-borne pathogens known to infect cervid species include Anaplasma species, a group of bacteria that cause a disease ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley May 2019

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Productivity, Costs, And Best Management Practices For Major Timber Harvesting Frameworks In Maine, Harikrishnan Soman May 2019

Productivity, Costs, And Best Management Practices For Major Timber Harvesting Frameworks In Maine, Harikrishnan Soman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Though the timber harvesting industry in Maine ranges over two centuries, the state has more forest cover than a century ago. Currently, some of the crucial challenges faced by the forest management industry in Maine and elsewhere in the northeastern US are increasing costs of forest operations, diminishing monetary returns and falling markets.

The major goal of this study was to evaluate the production economics of timber harvesting frameworks under different silvicultural prescriptions common to the region. For which, two field studies were conducted at two different locations in Maine, US. The first field study (Study I) was conducted in ...


Learning Science: Physical And Life Sciences In Curricula Across U.S. Schools Of Nursing, Valerie C. Sauda May 2019

Learning Science: Physical And Life Sciences In Curricula Across U.S. Schools Of Nursing, Valerie C. Sauda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nursing educators are being challenged to provide curriculum that meets the changing healthcare environment and demand for creative, innovative nurses to assist in transforming healthcare into the future (Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, & Day, 2010; Institute Of Medicine, 2011). The liberal education provided within a baccalaureate of science in nursing (BSN) degree program provides a diversity of courses within the curriculum, including courses in the natural, physical, mathematical, and social sciences (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2008). Although nursing programs have included science courses in curriculum since the early 1900s (Nutting & Dock, 1907), there is lack of nursing educational research as to ...


Effects Of Salt Concentration On The Physicochemical Properties And Microbial Safety Of Spontaneously Fermented Cabbage, Surbhi Khanna May 2019

Effects Of Salt Concentration On The Physicochemical Properties And Microbial Safety Of Spontaneously Fermented Cabbage, Surbhi Khanna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fermented foods, including sauerkraut, have gained consumer popularity due to an increased awareness of reported health benefits associated with probiotics. Sauerkraut is typically produced at 2−3% salt concentrations or higher, which helps to reduce the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. The FDA has recently issued guidance to the food industry to voluntarily reduce sodium in products due to health concerns associated with high sodium consumption. Therefore, interest in lower salt fermented foods may increase. However, information on quality and safety of lower sodium sauerkraut is limited. Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties and quality ...


Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard May 2019

Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The construction of industrial dams across major rivers in New England began in the early 1800s with textile mills in Massachusetts. Because of its legacy of mill dams and log driving dams, New England has the highest density of dams anywhere in North America, averaging one dam for every 44 km2 of drainage area. By the early 1900s, these dams drastically limited migrations by diadromous fishes, resulting in declines in populations of migratory fishes, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and American shad Alosa sapidissima. Since that time, different fishway designs and river management plans have been tried around the ...


Examining Citizens' Preferences For Aquaculture Using Discrete Choice Experiments, Olga Bredikhina May 2019

Examining Citizens' Preferences For Aquaculture Using Discrete Choice Experiments, Olga Bredikhina

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the last few decades, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have become increasingly popular across different subfields of economics as a way to elicit citizens‟ stated preferences for product and service attributes as well as various environmental and infrastructure features. The DCE framework could be seen as a time- and cost-effective alternative to the revealed preferences framework that is based on data obtained using transactions observed in real-world markets. DCEs offer the advantage over revealed preferences data because they allow learning about consumer preferences for hypothetical products or product attributes without bearing the costs of introducing new products to the market ...


Cascading Community Consequences Of Fish Adaptation, Zachary T. Wood May 2019

Cascading Community Consequences Of Fish Adaptation, Zachary T. Wood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trophic interactions are an enduring framework for ecological thought. Broad and growing evidence for contemporary evolution has demonstrated that ecology and evolution dynamically interact on similar time scales. In this dissertation, I seek to understand how genetic and plastic trait change in human-influenced systems shape trophic dynamics, how such trait changes are constrained by inherent tradeoffs, and the broad implications of such trait change for ecological communities. I advance the premise that competition-defense tradeoffs are the essential mechanism behind many eco-evolutionary trophic dynamics that can reshape multi-trophic communities. In support of this view, I assess the presence of ecologically relevant ...


Innovative Resources In Small Ruminant Health, Sarah Paluso May 2019

Innovative Resources In Small Ruminant Health, Sarah Paluso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudoTB) that affects small ruminants. This disease has a worldwide prevalence and results in significant economic losses to the sheep and goat industries. Antibiotics have had limited success in treating CL, due to the difficulty of penetrating the dry, thick-walled abscesses that characterize this disease. Essential oils are complex bioactive compounds that have been increasingly explored as sources of antimicrobial activity. Due to the nature of these oils, tissue and wood penetration may be possible, enabling topical and environmental treatment (e.g.; disinfectants of farm surfaces, such ...