Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2019

Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 157

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb Aug 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Scallops (Pectinidae) are one of the most diverse families of bivalves and have been a model system in evolutionary biology. However, in order to understand phenotypic evolution, the Pectinidae needs to be placed in a deeper phylogenetic framework within the superfamily Pectinoidea. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny for 60 species from four of the five extant families within the Pectinoidea using a five gene dataset (12S, 16S, 18S, 28S rRNAs and histone H3). Our analyses give consistent support for the non-monophyly of the Propeamussiidae, with a subset of species as the sister group to the Pectinidae, the Propeamussiidae type species ...


What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy Jul 2019

What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

We agree with Chapman & Huffman that human capacities are often assumed to be unique — or attempts are made to demonstrate uniqueness scientifically — in order to justify the exploitation of animals and ecosystems. To extend the argument that human exceptionalism is against our interests, we recommend adopting the One Welfare framework, according to which animal welfare, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing are inseparably linked. Let us distinguish ourselves from other animals by resisting our short- and mid-term Darwinian inclinations, consuming less, reproducing less, and striving for a much longer-term biological fitness for us all.


A Tentative List Of The Land Snails Of Georgia, U.S.A., Zachary I. Felix, Michael A. Dubuc, Hassan A. Rana Jul 2019

A Tentative List Of The Land Snails Of Georgia, U.S.A., Zachary I. Felix, Michael A. Dubuc, Hassan A. Rana

Georgia Journal of Science

Because of their high ecological and conservation value, and because we know so little about the group, we compiled a systematic if tentative list of land snails from the state of Georgia. After gleaning a list of species from a monograph on the land snails of eastern United States, written by Leslie Hubricht in 1985, we realized that many species whose ecological requirements are found in Georgia had not been documented there. Therefore, we developed a qualitative model to predict the likelihood that these candidate species occur in Georgia and would eventually be documented. We tested the model with collections ...


Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott Jul 2019

Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Vocalizations carry emotional, physiological and individual information. This suggests that they may serve as potentially useful indicators for inferring animal welfare. At the same time, automated methods for analysing and classifying sound have developed rapidly, particularly in the fields of ecology, conservation and sound scene classification. These methods are already used to automatically classify animal vocalizations, for example, in identifying animal species and estimating numbers of individuals. Despite this potential, they have not yet found widespread application in animal welfare monitoring. In this review, we first discuss current trends in sound analysis for ecology, conservation and sound classification. Following this ...


The Multifaceted Effects Induced By Floods On The Macroinvertebrate Communities Inhabiting A Sinking Cave Stream, Octavian Pacioglu, Nicoleta Ianovici, Mărioara N. Filimon, Adrian Sinitean, Gabriel Iacob, Henrietta Barabas, Alexandru Pahomi, Andrei Acs, Hanelore Muntean, Lucian Pârvulescu Jul 2019

The Multifaceted Effects Induced By Floods On The Macroinvertebrate Communities Inhabiting A Sinking Cave Stream, Octavian Pacioglu, Nicoleta Ianovici, Mărioara N. Filimon, Adrian Sinitean, Gabriel Iacob, Henrietta Barabas, Alexandru Pahomi, Andrei Acs, Hanelore Muntean, Lucian Pârvulescu

International Journal of Speleology

First-order sinking cave streams experience considerable hydrological variability, including spates and periods of base-flow during dry seasons. Early-summer flooding on a first-order stream sinking in Ciur-Ponor Cave (Romania) represented a suitable opportunity to test the response of the macroinvertebrate community and of basal food resources quantity and diversity to such a disturbance event. The invertebrate community and basal resources (i.e., woody debris, leaves, fine particulate organic matter and epilithon) were collected from three sampling sites, before and after the flood. The sampling strategy followed an up-downstream gradient of both species diversity and quantity of allochtonous organic matter decrease as ...


Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini Jul 2019

Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean environments are poorly known regarding many ecological aspects, such as community structure and its response to different disturbances. To estimate the effects of ground area lost in a limestone cave community in Southeastern Brazil, the invertebrate fauna was sampled before 76% of the cave floor was submerged by the filling of a hydroeletric power plant reservoir. Then, a 2-year monitoring was conducted. A species-area curve based on empiric data was constructed and the z-value of the species-area equation was calculated, what allowed estimating the expected cave richness after flooding comparing with data obtained during the monitoring. The results support ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney Jun 2019

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney Jun 2019

Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney

DePaul Discoveries

Ocean acidification is a growing problem that may affect many marine organisms in the future. Within 100 years the pH of the ocean is predicted to decrease to 7.8, from the current ocean pH of around 8.1. Using phenolic acid levels as a stress indicator as well as respiration and chlorophyll content as a measure of health, the effect of lowering pH was tested on the seagrass, Cymodocea nodosa, in a controlled environment. Plant samples, water, and soil were taken from the Bay of Cádiz, Spain, and placed in aquaria in a temperature-controlled room. One control group was ...


Relating Spatial Patterns Of Stream Metabolism To Distributions Of Juveniles Salmonids At The River Network Scale, Matthew J. Kaylor, Seth M. White, W. Carl Saunders, Dana R. Warren Jun 2019

Relating Spatial Patterns Of Stream Metabolism To Distributions Of Juveniles Salmonids At The River Network Scale, Matthew J. Kaylor, Seth M. White, W. Carl Saunders, Dana R. Warren

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Understanding the factors that drive spatial patterns in stream ecosystem processes and the distribution of aquatic biota is important to effective management of these systems and the conservation of biota at the network scale. In this study, we conducted field surveys throughout an extensive river network in NE Oregon that supports diminishing populations of wild salmonids. We collected data on physical habitat, nutrient concentrations, biofilm standing stocks, stream metabolism (gross primary production [GPP] and ecosystem respiration [ER]), and ESA‐listed juvenile salmonid density from approximately 50 sites across two sub‐basins. Our goals were to (1) to evaluate network patterns ...


When An Invasive Plant Fails To Invade, Stephen L. Young Jun 2019

When An Invasive Plant Fails To Invade, Stephen L. Young

Stephen L. Young

In 2012, much of the US Midwest was gripped in one of the most severe droughts on record. While conducting experimental fieldwork at a site in Nebraska during June of that year, I noticed a single musk thistle (Carduus nutans; Figure 1) that appeared to be in the bolt or early flowering stage, which is typical for the species at that time. Here, however, two things were unusual: this plant was less than 1 meter tall (with adequate moisture and light, musk thistle typically grows to heights of 1–2.5 meters before flowering), and was only 3 months old ...


Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott Jun 2019

Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott

Conservation Biology and Animal Welfare

Vocalizations carry emotional, physiological and individual information. This suggests that they may serve as potentially useful indicators for inferring animal welfare. At the same time, automated methods for analysing and classifying sound have developed rapidly, particularly in the fields of ecology, conservation and sound scene classification. These methods are already used to automatically classify animal vocalizations, for example, in identifying animal species and estimating numbers of individuals. Despite this potential, they have not yet found widespread application in animal welfare monitoring. In this review, we first discuss current trends in sound analysis for ecology, conservation and sound classification. Following this ...


Hawk On Wire: Ecopoems By Scott T. Starbuck, Vivian M. Hansen Jun 2019

Hawk On Wire: Ecopoems By Scott T. Starbuck, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Scott T. Starbuck’s Hawk on Wire: Ecopoems


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez Jun 2019

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Macroevolution Of Arboreality In Salamanders, Erica K. Baken, Dean C. Adams Jun 2019

Macroevolution Of Arboreality In Salamanders, Erica K. Baken, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

Evolutionary theory predicts that selection in distinct microhabitats generates correlations between morphological and ecological traits, and may increase both phenotypic and taxonomic diversity. However, some microhabitats exert unique selective pressures that act as a restraining force on macroevolutionary patterns of diversification. In this study, we use phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolutionary outcomes of inhabiting the arboreal microhabitat in salamanders. We find that arboreality has independently evolved at least five times in Caudata and has arisen primarily from terrestrial ancestors. However, the rate of transition from arboreality back to terrestriality is 24 times higher than the converse. This suggests ...


Culture-Based Analysis Of ‘Cave Silver’ Biofilms On Rocks In The Former Homestake Mine In South Dakota, Usa, Amanpreet K. Brar, David Bergmann Jun 2019

Culture-Based Analysis Of ‘Cave Silver’ Biofilms On Rocks In The Former Homestake Mine In South Dakota, Usa, Amanpreet K. Brar, David Bergmann

International Journal of Speleology

Tunnels in a warm, humid area of the 1478 m level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), located in a former gold mine in South Dakota, USA, host irregular, thin whitish, iridescent biofilms, which appear superficially similar to ‘cave silver’ biofilms described from limestone and lava tube caves, despite the higher rock temperature (32°C) and differing rock surface (phyllite) present at SURF. In this study, we investigated the diversity of cultivable bacteria constituting the cave silver by using several media: CN agar, CN gellan gum and 0.1X R2A agar. The highest colony count (CFU/g of sample ...


An Overview Of American Ginseng Through The Lens Of Healing, Conservation And Trade, Margaret Wulfsberg May 2019

An Overview Of American Ginseng Through The Lens Of Healing, Conservation And Trade, Margaret Wulfsberg

Lawrence University Honors Projects

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is an herbaceous plant found in the eastern United States and Canada. Due to the high demand for ginseng roots on the Chinese market, it has been harvested at unsustainable rates. If this continues, overharvest along with other environmental factors will lead it to become extinct in the wild. American ginseng became popular due to its similarities with Asian ginseng, (Panax ginseng), a related plant that has been used in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years. Since there is so little Asian ginseng left in the wild, American ginseng now helps satisfy the demand for wild ...


Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier May 2019

Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Vertical Connectivity Influences Secondary Production, Community Diversity, And Resilience In An Ozark Stream, Nathan C. Dorff May 2019

Vertical Connectivity Influences Secondary Production, Community Diversity, And Resilience In An Ozark Stream, Nathan C. Dorff

MSU Graduate Theses

The hyporheic zone, a key component of stream vertical connectivity, supports stream function (e.g., nutrient regeneration) and provides habitat for aquatic biota. The Ozark Highlands ecoregion contains gravel-bed streams that have extensive hyporheic zones and that are subject to recurrent flash floods. I sampled Leuctra tenuis(Pictet) nymphs from the hyporheic habitat (30-45 cm below the streambed) in a gravel-bed reach and an intermittent tributary of an Ozark stream from early instar to adult emergence. Concurrently, I sampled benthic insects in two reaches of the same stream that differed primarily in amount of hyporheic habitat (bedrock vs. gravel) and ...


Response To Conspecific Alarm Cues By Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma Maculatum) Larvae, Katlyn M. Gardner May 2019

Response To Conspecific Alarm Cues By Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma Maculatum) Larvae, Katlyn M. Gardner

MSU Graduate Theses

Detection of predators early in a predation sequence may allow prey to increase their probability of survival by taking evasive action. For aquatic species in ephemeral ponds visibility is often limited, so predation risk assessment via chemical cues can be useful. Most mole salamanders of the genus Ambystoma breed in vernal ponds, and larvae suffer high mortality rates due in part to high levels of predation. I tested whether larvae can assess predation risk by detecting chemicals (alarm cues) released from the skin of damaged conspecifics, and, if so, what factors influence the response to this alarm cue. Field-caught spotted ...


Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler May 2019

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of lake ecology, as it contributes to light attenuation and carbon cycling. In recent years, DOC declined in a suite of lakes in Greenland. I performed experiments to test potential mechanisms of DOC loss. The tested mechanisms did not reduce DOC concentration, but DOC composition was affected. I also paired water quality data with meteorological observations to evaluate effects of climate drivers on lake variables. The lake variables were temporally coherent and associated with patterns of mean annual precipitation.

In the northeastern U.S., recovery from acidification and climate change have contributed ...


Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon May 2019

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan May 2019

Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan

Masters Theses

Anthropogenically driven factors, such as increasing temperature and sediment in valley streams, acidification of mountain streams, and the introduction of non-native trout, are restricting habitat suitable for healthy populations of eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) throughout their native Appalachian range. Brook trout are important as predators of insects in mountain streams and as a favorite of anglers. It is crucial that remaining populations in sustainable habitats be identified and preserved. Waterfalls are geologic knickpoints preventing base-level lowering that create unique, stable landscapes above them, which may alleviate the temperature-productivity/acidity “habitat squeeze” for populations of brook trout and could serve ...


Urban Stream Restoration: An Evaluation Of Material Processing And Conveyance Channels, Madeline Berg May 2019

Urban Stream Restoration: An Evaluation Of Material Processing And Conveyance Channels, Madeline Berg

Masters Theses

Stream restoration is gaining popularity in the Mid - Atlantic region to offset impacts from urbanization. Increased levels of impervious surfaces, decreased vegetation along banks, and changes in water flow patterns make urban stream ecosystems flashy and result in high erosion rates, increasing the amount of nutrients entering the Chesapeake Bay. Different restoration practices can play a large role in the amount of nutrients and organic matter leaving a stream and the amount of habitat that is present in-stream.

Due to the recent interest in stream restoration as a tool to help the health of the Chesapeake Bay, this study was ...


Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson May 2019

Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson

Honors Scholar Theses

Ecosystems are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic stressors that could make animals and thus populations more susceptible to disease. For example, the application of deicing salts to roads is increasing in the northeastern United States. Chronic stress that larval amphibians experience when living in vernal pools with high salinity may alter their susceptibility to ranavirus, a pathogen responsible for mass mortality events worldwide. This project quantifies the effects of road salts and ranavirus exposure on larval wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) growth and survival. Using outdoor mesocsoms, we raised wood frog tadpoles in salt treatments and then exposed them to the ...


Implementing The North American Bat Monitoring Program In Nebraska: An Assessment Of Nebraska Bats With An Emphasis On Citizen Science, Baxter Seguin May 2019

Implementing The North American Bat Monitoring Program In Nebraska: An Assessment Of Nebraska Bats With An Emphasis On Citizen Science, Baxter Seguin

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Over the past decade bat species in North America have been under immense stress due to anthropogenic activities throughout the continent along with severe declines from foreign invaders. Though many specific anthropogenic related activities such as deforestation, land-use alteration, and hibernacula disturbance/modification were the primary culprits of negative impacts on bat species in the past, they pale in comparison to the threats bats face today. White nose syndrome a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and wind energy development have caused declines and disruptions to the bat populations of North America at an unprecedented rate.

Due to the ...


Phylogenomics And Geometric Morphometrics Define Species Flocks Of Snowtrout (Teleostei: Schizothorax) In The Central Himalayas, Binod Regmi May 2019

Phylogenomics And Geometric Morphometrics Define Species Flocks Of Snowtrout (Teleostei: Schizothorax) In The Central Himalayas, Binod Regmi

Theses and Dissertations

Schizothorax (Snowtrout) is a genus of medium-sized minnows (Cypriniformes) inhabiting glacier-fed streams, rivers, and lakes in the Himalayas. There are more than 30 species of Schizothorax across the region. The speciation and diversity of the Snowtrout in the vast hinterlands of the Himalayan Region has not been fully explored. Three species in Lake Rara, Western Nepal are considered a species flock, comprising endemic ecotypes that are morphologically differentiated and reproductively isolated.

My dissertation research examined the diversity of Schizothorax in the Central Himalayan region and evolutionary relationships among species distributed in the Tibet, Central and Southeast Asia. Chapter I describes ...


American White Pelicans, Tommy King May 2019

American White Pelicans, Tommy King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Figure 1) threaten aquaculture producers by direct predation and the spread of disease. They are also considered competition and a nuisance by some sports fishermen. Pelicans can also damage pond levees and crops, such as rice, by trampling the vegetation and depositing guano. A combination of wildlife damage management techniques is often necessary to reduce pelican damage to these resources. Aquaculture Prior to the winter of 1992, American white pelican depredations at catfish facilities in the Delta regions of Arkansas and Mississippi were limited, and birds were easily dispersed from the area. Since 1992, however ...


Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne May 2019

Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the most ubiquitous biological entities on earth, viruses have important impacts on aquatic microbial ecology and have been studied at length in the global ocean. However, the role of bacteriophage in lotic ecosystems, particularly in benthic biofilms, have been largely under studied. Streams and rivers play crucial roles in global carbon cycling, with over 2 x 1015 g C turned over each year, and benthic biofilms appear to be hotspots of microbial activities like organic carbon transformations. Given this importance of lotic ecosystems and the known impacts of viruses in other aquatic systems, investigating the ecology of viruses ...


Amphibian And Reptile Community Responses To Forest And Riparian Disturbance, Jacquelyn Christine Guzy May 2019

Amphibian And Reptile Community Responses To Forest And Riparian Disturbance, Jacquelyn Christine Guzy

Theses and Dissertations

Riparian zones are transitional, semi-terrestrial areas regularly influenced by freshwater. These areas serve as dispersal corridors for many animal and plant species and ultimately function as important reservoirs of biodiversity in altered landscapes. While much of the riparian habitat in the United States has been affected by anthropogenic activities, management actions may mitigate potentially negative influences of these activities. For example, Streamside Management Zones (i.e., riparian buffers; SMZs) are commonly implemented within managed forests to protect water quality, but may also provide habitat for riparian-associated wildlife. Yet, little research has rigorously addressed the value of SMZs for wildlife, particularly ...


Biogeography Of Endemic Dragonflies Of The Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands, Wade Alexander Boys May 2019

Biogeography Of Endemic Dragonflies Of The Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands, Wade Alexander Boys

Theses and Dissertations

A common pattern across many taxonomic groups is that relatively few species are widespread while the majority are restricted in their geographic ranges. Such species distributions are used to inform conservation status, which poses unique challenges for rare or cryptic species. Further, priority status is often designated within geopolitical boundaries, which may include only a portion of a species range. This, coupled with lack of distributional data, has resulted in species being designated as apparently rare throughout some portions of their range, which may not accurately reflect their overall conservation need. The Interior Highlands region of the central United States ...