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2019

Psychology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 166

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight Jul 2019

Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional ...


Elevated Sensitivity To Tactile Stimuli In Stereotypic Horses, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Déborah Bardou, Sandrine Beuret, Iris Bachmann, Klaus Zuberbühler, Elodie Briefer Jul 2019

Elevated Sensitivity To Tactile Stimuli In Stereotypic Horses, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Déborah Bardou, Sandrine Beuret, Iris Bachmann, Klaus Zuberbühler, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Although stereotypic behaviors are a common problem in captive animals, why certain individuals are more prone to develop them remains elusive. In horses, individuals show considerable differences in how they perceive and react to external events, suggesting that this may partially account for the emergence of stereotypies in this species. In this study, we focused on crib-biting, the most common stereotypy displayed by horses. We compared how established crib-biters (“CB” = 19) and normal controls (“C” = 18) differed in response to a standard “personality” assessment test battery, i.e., reactivity to humans, tactile sensitivity, social reactivity, locomotor activity, and curiosity vs ...


What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy Jul 2019

What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

We agree with Chapman & Huffman that human capacities are often assumed to be unique — or attempts are made to demonstrate uniqueness scientifically — in order to justify the exploitation of animals and ecosystems. To extend the argument that human exceptionalism is against our interests, we recommend adopting the One Welfare framework, according to which animal welfare, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing are inseparably linked. Let us distinguish ourselves from other animals by resisting our short- and mid-term Darwinian inclinations, consuming less, reproducing less, and striving for a much longer-term biological fitness for us all.


Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott Jul 2019

Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Functional asymmetries, for example, the preferential involvement of 1 brain hemisphere to process stimuli, may increase brain efficiency and the capacity to carry out tasks simultaneously. We investigated which hemisphere was primarily involved in processing acoustic stimuli in goats using a head-orienting paradigm. Three playbacks using goat vocalizations recorded in different contexts: food anticipation (positive), isolation (negative), food frustration (negative), as well as 1 playback involving dog barks (negative) were presented on the left and right sides of the test subjects simultaneously. The head-orienting response (left or right) and latency to resume feeding were recorded. The direction of the head-orienting ...


Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott Jul 2019

Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Functional asymmetries, for example, the preferential involvement of 1 brain hemisphere to process stimuli, may increase brain efficiency and the capacity to carry out tasks simultaneously. We investigated which hemisphere was primarily involved in processing acoustic stimuli in goats using a head-orienting paradigm. Three playbacks using goat vocalizations recorded in different contexts: food anticipation (positive), isolation (negative), food frustration (negative), as well as 1 playback involving dog barks (negative) were presented on the left and right sides of the test subjects simultaneously. The head-orienting response (left or right) and latency to resume feeding were recorded. The direction of the head-orienting ...


Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth Jul 2019

Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Research on the mental lives of farm animals is crucial to assess not only their physical but also their psychological wellbeing. Their current housing and handling practices are highly unlikely to meet their cognitive needs and demands, but our knowledge of their mental capacities is still limited. Although folk wisdom often refers to farm animals as dull and inflexible, recent studies show they have a rich interpretation of their environment and can solve complex problems. Yet an uncritical and anthropomorphic assessment of farm animal cognition and behaviour may lead to the attribution of an exaggerated amount of cognitive flexibility. Contrary ...


Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott Jul 2019

Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Functional asymmetries, for example, the preferential involvement of 1 brain hemisphere to process stimuli, may increase brain efficiency and the capacity to carry out tasks simultaneously. We investigated which hemisphere was primarily involved in processing acoustic stimuli in goats using a head-orienting paradigm. Three playbacks using goat vocalizations recorded in different contexts: food anticipation (positive), isolation (negative), food frustration (negative), as well as 1 playback involving dog barks (negative) were presented on the left and right sides of the test subjects simultaneously. The head-orienting response (left or right) and latency to resume feeding were recorded. The direction of the head-orienting ...


The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd Jun 2019

The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd

Western Research Forum

Background: Emotional information has privileged access to processing resources, which can cause it to have a distracting or facilitating effect on task performance for reasons that are poorly understood. The sensory modality through which it is presented may be one determining factor. Some findings suggest that auditory stimuli facilitate visual task performance while visual stimuli interfere with it, but there are conflicting findings.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that emotional content of a different sensory modality from the task improves task-related performance via a general alerting and arousing effect for all stimuli, while emotional content of the same modality disrupts performance when ...


Spontaneous Mimicry Of Emotional Facial Expressions As A Function Of Trait Sadism, Cathleen Fleury, Mary Ritchie, Derek Mitchell Jun 2019

Spontaneous Mimicry Of Emotional Facial Expressions As A Function Of Trait Sadism, Cathleen Fleury, Mary Ritchie, Derek Mitchell

Western Research Forum

Using electromyography (EMG), it has been shown that facial muscles imperceptibly mirror the facial expressions of others, a phenomenon referred to as spontaneous facial mimicry. Facial mimicry may be involved in empathy processing, and is impaired in several empathy deficit disorders. It was previously believed to follow the direct-matching principle, a theory postulating that spontaneous facial mimicry involves the observer mirroring their partner’s expression exactly. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that context and individual differences may be influencing factors of spontaneous facial mimicry. In the present study, we propose to investigate the relationship between facial mimicry and empathy ...


Effects Of Childhood Trauma On Neurological Development And Mental, Physical Health In Adulthood, Sara Mckissick Jun 2019

Effects Of Childhood Trauma On Neurological Development And Mental, Physical Health In Adulthood, Sara Mckissick

D.U.Quark

Unfortunately, childhood maltreatment and trauma are prevalent in society. As awareness grows, so does the research on the long-term effects early exposure to traumatic events has on the developing person. Socioeconomic hardships, psychopathologies, and cognitive deficiencies correlate with early childhood adverse experiences. This review will compare normal neurological activity and development to that of children who have experienced childhood trauma. It will also further explore various factors such as the level of trauma, the onset of exposure, duration or recurrence of trauma experienced. Finally, this review will examine the effects that manifest themselves in adulthood to further understand the detrimental ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg Jun 2019

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg

Dan Nettleton

The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...


Loneliness In The United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey Of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, And Behavioral Characteristics, Liana Desharnais Bruce, Joshua S. Wu, Stuart L. Lustig, Daniel W. Rusell, Douglas A. Nemecek Jun 2019

Loneliness In The United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey Of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, And Behavioral Characteristics, Liana Desharnais Bruce, Joshua S. Wu, Stuart L. Lustig, Daniel W. Rusell, Douglas A. Nemecek

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Purpose: To inform health behavior intervention design, we sought to quantify loneliness and its correlates, including social media use, among adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional research panel questionnaire. Setting: Responses were gathered from individuals in all 50 states surveyed via Internet from February 2018 to March 2018. Participants: A total of 20 096 US panel respondents aged 18þ. Measures: The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (theoretical score range ¼ 20-80) was administered along with demographic, structural, cognitive, and behavioral items. Analysis: After calibrating the sample to population norms, we conducted multivariable linear regression analysis ...


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez Jun 2019

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Sense Of Community And Space, Amanda Corona May 2019

Sense Of Community And Space, Amanda Corona

Celebration of Learning

Sense of community (SOC) is defined as a person’s experience of a group or specific area (Kenkmann et al, 1996). Physical spaces can affect SOC; small colleges have higher SOC on average than universities (Lounsbury & DeNeui, 1996). A person’s identity, especially ethnic identity, can also influence SOC (Rivas-Drake, 2012; Liu, 2005). However, there is less work on the intersection of physical space and ethnic identity (Devlin et al, 2008). This raises the questions: how does the experience of a community space affect someone’s SOC, and would it vary by ethnicity?

The relationship between communal spaces and identity can be could explored by asking different individuals how they perceive a space. In one ...


Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos May 2019

Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Differentiating Changes In Population Encoding Models With Psychophysics And Neuroimaging, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto Phd May 2019

Differentiating Changes In Population Encoding Models With Psychophysics And Neuroimaging, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto Phd

MODVIS Workshop

It is now common among visual scientists to make inferences about neural population coding of stimuli from indirect measures such as those provided by neuroimaging and psychophysics. The success of such studies depends strongly on simulation work using standard population encoding models extended with decoders (in psychophysics) and measurement models (in neuroimaging). However, not all studies are accompanied by simulation work, and those that are tend to vary widely in their assumptions about encoding, decoding, and measurement. To solve these issues, we designed a Python package (PEMGUIN) to assist computational modelling by providing simple ways to manage encoders' tuning functions ...


The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster May 2019

The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Coupled Correlates Of Attention And Consciousness, Ravi Varkki Chacko May 2019

Coupled Correlates Of Attention And Consciousness, Ravi Varkki Chacko

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Introduction: Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have been shown to restore lost motor function that occurs in stroke using electrophysiological signals. However, little evidence exists for the use of BCIs to restore non-motor stroke deficits, such as the attention deficits seen in hemineglect. Attention is a cognitive function that selects objects or ideas for further neural processing, presumably to facilitate optimal behavior. Developing BCIs for attention is different from developing motor BCIs because attention networks in the brain are more distributed and associative than motor networks. For example, hemineglect patients have reduced levels of arousal, which exacerbates their attentional deficits. More ...


Characterization Of Ethanol-Related Phenotypic Differences Between C57bl/6j And C57bl/6nj Substrains: Role Of Cyfip2?, Matthew C. Hartmann May 2019

Characterization Of Ethanol-Related Phenotypic Differences Between C57bl/6j And C57bl/6nj Substrains: Role Of Cyfip2?, Matthew C. Hartmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The C57BL/6 (B6) mouse is the most commonly used inbred strain in biomedical research, and has served as the basis for various large-scale genetic and genomic projects. Although the parental substrain, C57BL/6J (B6J), originated at The Jackson Laboratory, isolated breeding colonies are now maintained at numerous sites. This separation has resulted in genetic drift that has led to the emergence of phenotypic differences among these colonies. For instance, B6J mice display higher levels of voluntary ethanol consumption and increased locomotor responses to psychostimulants, relative to C57BL/6N mice (B6N). Initial progress has been made in elucidating the genetic ...


Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page May 2019

Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page

Graduate School of Art Theses

This text examines the complexity of attempting to empathize with bodies that are vastly othered from my own. This broad yet nuanced subject crosses epistemological boundaries and complicates the dualities between both the mind and body, and between the corporeal and the virtual. My desire to better understand the conditions of another’s experience originates from a painful traumatic loss which caused me to feel isolated and incomplete. In response to this suffering, I long to emotionally connect with other beings and create artwork that attempts to bridge the qualia of individual experience.

I am interested in the capacity (or ...


Observation Of Visitors At A Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthii) Ecotourism Site Reveals Opportunity For Multiple Modes Of Pathogen Transmission, Darcey Glasser May 2019

Observation Of Visitors At A Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthii) Ecotourism Site Reveals Opportunity For Multiple Modes Of Pathogen Transmission, Darcey Glasser

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) tracking is a popular ecotourism activity across Sub-Saharan Africa, offering visitors a personal wildlife experience. However, chimpanzee ecotourism may increase the risk of disease transmission between chimpanzees and people. This study assessed how tourist behaviors might facilitate cross-species disease transmission in Kibale National Park, Uganda.


Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long May 2019

Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long

Theses and Dissertations

In perceptual learning studies, participants engage in extensive training in the discrimination of visual stimuli in order to modulate perceptual performance. Much of the literature in perceptual learning has looked at the induction of the reorganization of low-level representations in V1. However, much remains to be understood about the mechanisms behind how the adult brain (an expert in visual object categorization) extracts high-level visual objects from the environment and categorically represents them in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, I used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in object representation formation during a hybrid visual search and prototype ...


Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark May 2019

Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark

Theses and Dissertations

As Americans are spending greater portions of their dollar on food consumed outside the home, the foodservice industry plays more of an integral part of daily existence compared to previous generations. Given the numerous annual foodborne illness outbreaks that threaten human lives while undermining confidence in the food supply, food safety is a pertinent issue for industry stakeholders, government regulators, and consumers. Food worker handwashing reduces the risk of foodborne illness transmission, yet compliance with this simple behavior is a complex problem. This dissertation addresses, predominantly, the issue of sub-optimal handwashing practices through applying psychology and technology, including wearable computers ...


Alcohol Use, Dietary, And Exercise Behaviors: A Latent Profile Analysis Of Young Adult Lifestyle Behaviors, Ryan Wesley Grant May 2019

Alcohol Use, Dietary, And Exercise Behaviors: A Latent Profile Analysis Of Young Adult Lifestyle Behaviors, Ryan Wesley Grant

Theses and Dissertations

As individuals enter adulthood, their lifestyles and lifestyle behaviors begin to change drastically. These lifestyle behavior changes in emerging adulthood provide a foundation for future health behaviors that often persist through all of adulthood. The aim of this study was to use Latent profile analyses (LPA) to discover distinct profiles of homogenous groups of young adults based on alcohol, diet, and exercise behaviors. Overall, five distinct profiles for both males and females were identified: Moderates, Unhealthy Eaters, Medium Drinkers, Healthier Eaters and Exercisers, and Heavy Drinkers. Heavy Drinkers and Unhealthy Eaters were the highest risk groups and reported the highest ...


A Phenomenological Study Of The Lived Experiences Of Counseling Students In A Co-Facilitated Experiential Group, Alexandra Meyers May 2019

A Phenomenological Study Of The Lived Experiences Of Counseling Students In A Co-Facilitated Experiential Group, Alexandra Meyers

Theses and Dissertations

Research in the fields of experiential learning, group psychotherapy, and neuroscience has supported the inclusion of the experiential group in counseling training programs due to the potential for positive impact on students’ personal and professional development (Badenoch & Cox, 2010; Denninger, 2010). Investigations exploring counseling students’ experiences of the experiential group have been primarily limited to quantitative studies, while in-depth qualitative inquiry has been minimal. Additionally, an extensive review of the literature has found there have been no qualitative studies examining experiential groups co-facilitated by a course instructor and a doctoral student. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived ...


The Effects Of Ambient Temperature And Lighting Intensity On Wheel-Running Behavior In A Diurnal Rodent, The Nile Grass Rat (Arvicanthis Niloticus), Garrett M. Fogo, Alyssa M. Goodwin, Ohanes S. Khacherian, Brandi J. Ledbetter, Andrew J. Gall May 2019

The Effects Of Ambient Temperature And Lighting Intensity On Wheel-Running Behavior In A Diurnal Rodent, The Nile Grass Rat (Arvicanthis Niloticus), Garrett M. Fogo, Alyssa M. Goodwin, Ohanes S. Khacherian, Brandi J. Ledbetter, Andrew J. Gall

Faculty Publications

Environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle and temperature, affect the display of circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity patterns in mammals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that manipulating these environmental conditions would affect wheel-running activity patterns in a diurnal rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus). Grass rats are diurnal in the field, however, a subset switch from a day-active pattern to a night-active pattern of activity after the introduction of a running wheel. The mechanism of this chronotype switch remains largely unknown. In the present study, grass rats were presented with running wheels in 12:12 light-dark conditions. First ...


Effects Of Critical Reflection On University Students’ Cognitive Achievement In Agricultural Mechanization, Patterson P. Hilaire May 2019

Effects Of Critical Reflection On University Students’ Cognitive Achievement In Agricultural Mechanization, Patterson P. Hilaire

Theses and Dissertations

Experiential learning continues to play a vital role in agricultural education and mechanization laboratories (Shoulders & Myers, 2013). An essential component of experiential learning is critical reflection. Critical reflection helps students process and construct meaning from laboratory experiences. A study conducted by Shoulders and Myers (2013) revealed that only 15.4% of the agricultural educators the researchers interviewed incorporated reflective practices laboratory experiences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of critical reflection on students’ achievement following five agricultural mechanization laboratory activities. The results from this study revealed that critical reflection had a consistently positive effect on immediate cognitive achievement but not delayed cognitive achievement among the participants of this study; however, the results for delayed cognitive achievement were mixed. Recommendations include further research into effective practices for helping students increase long term learning from laboratory instructions.


Shooting Your Accuracy In The Foot: The Effect Of Action Video Games On Cognitive Control, Mickey Rice, Lexi Lease, Malia Walker Apr 2019

Shooting Your Accuracy In The Foot: The Effect Of Action Video Games On Cognitive Control, Mickey Rice, Lexi Lease, Malia Walker

Student Symposium

Previous research on long-term exposure to action (e.g., first-person shooter) video games has demonstrated a negative association between exposure and cognitive control (Bailey, West, & Anderson, 2010). To further explore the relationship between gaming and cognitive control, the current study examined the effects of brief video game exposure (20 minutes) on cognitive control using event-related potentials (ERPs). Cognitive control was assessed by ERP components associated with the ability to detect (N2) and resolve (SP) conflict when the conflict was either expected or unexpected. After playing either an action or strategy video game, participants completed a Stroop task while ERPs were ...


Patterns In Color Perception, Madeline Henson, Taimur Iftikhar Apr 2019

Patterns In Color Perception, Madeline Henson, Taimur Iftikhar

Student Symposium

Synesthesia is a neurological condition that forces individuals to process a lot of different senses at once. These different senses can be stimulated by anything; for example, if one hears some sounds, they might also perceive those sounds as colors and vice versa. Another form of Synesthesia, termed Grapheme-Color Synesthesia, can occur when one looks at different characters in a language and they see different colors generated in their brain. The amount of colors a person sees by looking at different characters varies. Our goal for our project was to figure out how different languages stimulate different neurological senses for ...


Perception Is Reality?, Madeline Henson, Taimur Iftikhar Apr 2019

Perception Is Reality?, Madeline Henson, Taimur Iftikhar

Student Symposium

Related presentation in Panel 1A: Brain Games