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2019

Neuroscience and Neurobiology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 249

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Visual And Chemosensory Pathways Associated With Male Courtship Decisions In Drosophila Melanogaster, Ross Mckinney Aug 2019

Visual And Chemosensory Pathways Associated With Male Courtship Decisions In Drosophila Melanogaster, Ross Mckinney

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Successful mating in diverse animal species often depends on ritualistic sequences of spatially and temporally coordinated behavioral elements. Yet, the sensory cues and neural circuits that mediate optimal mating display patterns are largely unknown. The courtship ritual in Drosophila melanogaster consists of a well-studied sequence of behavioral elements — including orienting, chasing, tapping, singing, and licking — that are known to depend on several sensory modalities, including both vision and chemosensation. However, the specific sensory inputs utilized by males to direct the spatial and temporal transitions between different elements of the courtship ritual are not well understood. In this thesis, I therefore ...


Accelerated Accumulation Of Retinal Α-Synuclein (Pser129) And Tau, Neuroinflammation, And Autophagic Dysregulation In A Seeded Mouse Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M. Summers, Robyn D. Kokemuller, Qing He, Shaowei Ding, Thierry Baron, Chenxu Yu, Rudy J. Valentine, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee Jul 2019

Accelerated Accumulation Of Retinal Α-Synuclein (Pser129) And Tau, Neuroinflammation, And Autophagic Dysregulation In A Seeded Mouse Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M. Summers, Robyn D. Kokemuller, Qing He, Shaowei Ding, Thierry Baron, Chenxu Yu, Rudy J. Valentine, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee

Chenxu Yu

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein within the central nervous system (CNS). Visual problems in PD patients are common, although retinal pathology associated with PD is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate retinal pathology in a transgenic mouse model (TgM83) expressing the human A53T α-synuclein mutation and assess the effect of α-synuclein “seeding” on the development of retinal pathology. Two-month-old TgM83 mice were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenate from old (12–18 months) TgM83 mice. Retinas were then analyzed at 5 months of age. We analyzed retinas ...


What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy Jul 2019

What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

We agree with Chapman & Huffman that human capacities are often assumed to be unique — or attempts are made to demonstrate uniqueness scientifically — in order to justify the exploitation of animals and ecosystems. To extend the argument that human exceptionalism is against our interests, we recommend adopting the One Welfare framework, according to which animal welfare, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing are inseparably linked. Let us distinguish ourselves from other animals by resisting our short- and mid-term Darwinian inclinations, consuming less, reproducing less, and striving for a much longer-term biological fitness for us all.


Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth Jul 2019

Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Research on the mental lives of farm animals is crucial to assess not only their physical but also their psychological wellbeing. Their current housing and handling practices are highly unlikely to meet their cognitive needs and demands, but our knowledge of their mental capacities is still limited. Although folk wisdom often refers to farm animals as dull and inflexible, recent studies show they have a rich interpretation of their environment and can solve complex problems. Yet an uncritical and anthropomorphic assessment of farm animal cognition and behaviour may lead to the attribution of an exaggerated amount of cognitive flexibility. Contrary ...


Microarray Gene Expression Profiles Of Fasting Induced Changes In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Expressing The Melanocortin-4 Receptor D298n Variant, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Coutoure, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle Jul 2019

Microarray Gene Expression Profiles Of Fasting Induced Changes In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Expressing The Melanocortin-4 Receptor D298n Variant, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Coutoure, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Transcriptional profiling coupled with blood metabolite analyses were used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting treatment or to a D298N missense mutation in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene. Gilts (12 homozygous for D298 and 12 homozygous for N298) were either fed ad libitum or fasted for 3 days. Fasting decreased body weight, backfat, and serum urea concentration and increased serum nonesterified fatty acid. In response to fasting, 7,029 genes in fat and 1,831 genes in liver were differentially expressed (DE). MC4R genotype did not significantly affect gene expression, body weight, backfat depth, or ...


Glutathione S-Transferase Regulates Mitochondrial Populations In Axons Through Increased Glutathione Oxidation, Gaynor A. Smith, Tzu-Huai Lin, Amy E. Sheehan, Wynand Van Der Goes Van Naters, Lukas J. Neukomm, Hillary K. Graves, Dana M. Bis-Brewer, Stephan Zuchner, Marc R. Freeman Jul 2019

Glutathione S-Transferase Regulates Mitochondrial Populations In Axons Through Increased Glutathione Oxidation, Gaynor A. Smith, Tzu-Huai Lin, Amy E. Sheehan, Wynand Van Der Goes Van Naters, Lukas J. Neukomm, Hillary K. Graves, Dana M. Bis-Brewer, Stephan Zuchner, Marc R. Freeman

Open Access Articles

Mitochondria are essential in long axons to provide metabolic support and sustain neuron integrity. A healthy mitochondrial pool is maintained by biogenesis, transport, mitophagy, fission, and fusion, but how these events are regulated in axons is not well defined. Here, we show that the Drosophila glutathione S-transferase (GST) Gfzf prevents mitochondrial hyperfusion in axons. Gfzf loss altered redox balance between glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and initiated mitochondrial fusion through the coordinated action of Mfn and Opa1. Gfzf functioned epistatically with the thioredoxin peroxidase Jafrac1 and the thioredoxin reductase 1 TrxR-1 to regulate mitochondrial dynamics. Altering GSH:GSSG ratios ...


The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd Jun 2019

The Dissociable Impact Of Auditory Vs. Visual Emotional Cues On Visual Processing, Emma K. Stewart Bsc, Derek Gv Mitchell Phd

Western Research Forum

Background: Emotional information has privileged access to processing resources, which can cause it to have a distracting or facilitating effect on task performance for reasons that are poorly understood. The sensory modality through which it is presented may be one determining factor. Some findings suggest that auditory stimuli facilitate visual task performance while visual stimuli interfere with it, but there are conflicting findings.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that emotional content of a different sensory modality from the task improves task-related performance via a general alerting and arousing effect for all stimuli, while emotional content of the same modality disrupts performance when ...


Optimization Of The Touchscreen-Based Visuomotor Conditional Learning Task In Mice, Oren Princz-Lebel, David I. Wasserman, Miguel Skirzewski, Penny A. Macdonald, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey Jun 2019

Optimization Of The Touchscreen-Based Visuomotor Conditional Learning Task In Mice, Oren Princz-Lebel, David I. Wasserman, Miguel Skirzewski, Penny A. Macdonald, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

The translational gap between animal models and clinical trials is a longstanding, yet largely unresolved, limitation in the study of cognition. This discrepancy is largely due to the differences in how cognition is assessed in animal models compared to those in clinical populations. In the stimulus-response (S-R) learning literature, for example, the techniques used to assess the acquisition of habitual behaviour differ greatly across species, leading to poor cross-species translation and often conflicting results. As a result, we set out to optimize a S-R learning task in mice using the touchscreen-based operant technologies. Similar to human studies, this touchscreen technique ...


Optimization Of Simultaneous Facial Emg And Fmri, Maggie Prenger Jun 2019

Optimization Of Simultaneous Facial Emg And Fmri, Maggie Prenger

Western Research Forum

The scientific study of emotion began in the 19th century with Duchenne’s study of the “universal and immutable” language of facial expressions. In The Mechanism of Human Physiognomy, he manipulates human facial expressions by electrically stimulating facial muscles. Facial electromyography (EMG) is a modern technique that is reminiscent of Duchenne’s work; it allows researchers to measure facial muscle activity through surface recording electrodes, providing a real-time measure of natural emotional reactions.

Although facial EMG is a reliable measure of emotional behavior, it fails to provide any information about brain activity responsible for emotional processes. Functional magnetic resonance ...


Spontaneous Mimicry Of Emotional Facial Expressions As A Function Of Trait Sadism, Cathleen Fleury, Mary Ritchie, Derek Mitchell Jun 2019

Spontaneous Mimicry Of Emotional Facial Expressions As A Function Of Trait Sadism, Cathleen Fleury, Mary Ritchie, Derek Mitchell

Western Research Forum

Using electromyography (EMG), it has been shown that facial muscles imperceptibly mirror the facial expressions of others, a phenomenon referred to as spontaneous facial mimicry. Facial mimicry may be involved in empathy processing, and is impaired in several empathy deficit disorders. It was previously believed to follow the direct-matching principle, a theory postulating that spontaneous facial mimicry involves the observer mirroring their partner’s expression exactly. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that context and individual differences may be influencing factors of spontaneous facial mimicry. In the present study, we propose to investigate the relationship between facial mimicry and empathy ...


Innate Mysticism: An Argument For Neurotheology, Zoe L. Walts Jun 2019

Innate Mysticism: An Argument For Neurotheology, Zoe L. Walts

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez Jun 2019

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Neurobiological Effects Of Probiotic-Supplemented Diets In Acutely Stressed Male Long-Evans Rats: Evidence Of Enhanced Resilience, Nicholas Natale, Bilal Hindi, Peter Santore, Molly H. Kent, Kelly Lambert Jun 2019

Neurobiological Effects Of Probiotic-Supplemented Diets In Acutely Stressed Male Long-Evans Rats: Evidence Of Enhanced Resilience, Nicholas Natale, Bilal Hindi, Peter Santore, Molly H. Kent, Kelly Lambert

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

~Considering that the human intestine is home to almost 100 trillion microorganisms including bacteria (Cryan, 2011), recent research has focused on the role of the microbiome in neurobiological functions such as stress, anxiety and coping responses.

~Focusing on animal models, previous findings indicate that modifications of the gut microbiota via antibiotics and certain probiotics alter the anxiety response via the vagus nerve & immune system mediation (MacQueen et al., 2017).

~Recently, the concept of Psychobiotics has been introduced to refer to the use of microbiota to positively influence mental health outcomes (Foster et al., 2017).


Conditional, Inducible Gene Silencing In Dopamine Neurons Reveals A Sex-Specific Role For Rit2 Gtpase In Acute Cocaine Response And Striatal Function, Carolyn G. Sweeney, Patrick Kearney, Rita R. Fagan, Lindsey A. Smith, Nicholas C. Bolden, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Iris V. Rivera, Jenya Kolpakova, Jun Xie, Guangping Gao, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin, Haley Melikian Jun 2019

Conditional, Inducible Gene Silencing In Dopamine Neurons Reveals A Sex-Specific Role For Rit2 Gtpase In Acute Cocaine Response And Striatal Function, Carolyn G. Sweeney, Patrick Kearney, Rita R. Fagan, Lindsey A. Smith, Nicholas C. Bolden, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Iris V. Rivera, Jenya Kolpakova, Jun Xie, Guangping Gao, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin, Haley Melikian

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Dopamine (DA) signaling is critical for movement, motivation, and addictive behavior. The neuronal GTPase, Rit2, is enriched in DA neurons (DANs), binds directly to the DA transporter (DAT), and is implicated in several DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it remains unknown whether Rit2 plays a role in either DAergic signaling and/or DA-dependent behaviors. Here, we leveraged the TET-OFF system to conditionally silence Rit2 in Pitx3IRES2-tTA mouse DANs. Following DAergic Rit2 knockdown (Rit2-KD), mice displayed an anxiolytic phenotype, with no change in baseline locomotion. Further, males exhibited increased acute cocaine sensitivity, whereas DAergic Rit2-KD suppressed acute cocaine sensitivity in females ...


Sense Of Community And Space, Amanda Corona May 2019

Sense Of Community And Space, Amanda Corona

Celebration of Learning

Sense of community (SOC) is defined as a person’s experience of a group or specific area (Kenkmann et al, 1996). Physical spaces can affect SOC; small colleges have higher SOC on average than universities (Lounsbury & DeNeui, 1996). A person’s identity, especially ethnic identity, can also influence SOC (Rivas-Drake, 2012; Liu, 2005). However, there is less work on the intersection of physical space and ethnic identity (Devlin et al, 2008). This raises the questions: how does the experience of a community space affect someone’s SOC, and would it vary by ethnicity?

The relationship between communal spaces and identity can be could explored by asking different individuals how they perceive a space. In one ...


Role Of Cholinergic Receptors In Prefrontal Activity Of Nonhuman Primates During An Oculomotor Rule-Based Working Memory Task, Alex J. Major May 2019

Role Of Cholinergic Receptors In Prefrontal Activity Of Nonhuman Primates During An Oculomotor Rule-Based Working Memory Task, Alex J. Major

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to flexibly react to our dynamic environment is a cardinal component of cognition and our human identity. Millions across the globe are affected by disorders of cognition, affecting their ability to live independently. Prefrontal cortex is required for optimal cognitive functioning, but its circuitry is often disrupted in conditions of impaired cognition. In addition, the cholinergic system is vital to optimal executive function, but this is disrupted in a number of conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. The actions of cholinergic receptors were explored in this project with local application of cholinergic compounds onto prefrontal neurons as ...


Spirituality And The Infant Brain: Implications For Attachment Theory And Therapeutic Process Across The Life Span, Caitlin Eliasson May 2019

Spirituality And The Infant Brain: Implications For Attachment Theory And Therapeutic Process Across The Life Span, Caitlin Eliasson

Consensus

No abstract provided.


Acc Theta Improves Hippocampal Contextual Processing During Remote Recall, Ryan A. Wirt, James M. Hyman May 2019

Acc Theta Improves Hippocampal Contextual Processing During Remote Recall, Ryan A. Wirt, James M. Hyman

Psychology Faculty Publications

Consolidation studies show that, over time, memory recall becomes independent of the medial temporal lobes. Multiple lines of research show that the medial frontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is involved with contextual information processing and remote recall. We hypothesize that interactions between the ACC and hippocampal area CA1 will change as memories became more remote. Animals are re-exposed to multiple environments at different retention intervals. During remote recall, ACC-CA1 theta coherence increases, with the ACC leading area CA1. ACC theta regulates unit spike timing, gamma oscillations, and ensemble and single-neuron information coding in CA1. Over the course ...


Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo May 2019

Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo

Open Access Articles

Somatic symptoms include a range of physical experiences, such as pain, muscle tension, body shaking, difficulty in breathing, heart palpitation, blushing, fatigue, and sweating. Somatic symptoms are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and some other psychiatric disorders. However, the etiology of somatic symptoms remains unclear. Somatic symptoms could be a response to emotional distress in patients with those psychiatric conditions. Increasing evidence supports the role of aberrant serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in somatic symptoms. The physiological alterations underlying diminished serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling may contribute to impaired signal transduction, reduced 5-HT, or NE release from ...


Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos May 2019

Is The Selective Tuning Model Of Visual Attention Still Relevant?, John K. Tsotsos

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Towards A Better Understanding Of Temporomandibular Disorder, Jessica R. Cox May 2019

Towards A Better Understanding Of Temporomandibular Disorder, Jessica R. Cox

MSU Graduate Theses

Results from the OPPERA study provided evidence that risk factors such as neck muscle tension, prolonged jaw opening, and female gender increase the likelihood of developing temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD), which are prevalent, debilitating orofacial pain conditions. Peripheral and central sensitization, which mediate a lowering of the stimulus required for pain signaling, are implicated in the underlying pathology of chronic TMJD. The goal of my study was to investigate cellular changes in the expression of proteins associated with the development of central sensitization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant in the upper trapezius muscles to promote ...


Functional Organization Of Cortical Maps For Ocular Dominance And Light-Dark Polarity In Primary Visual Cortex, Sohrab Najafian, Jian Zhong Jin, Jose-Manuel Alonso May 2019

Functional Organization Of Cortical Maps For Ocular Dominance And Light-Dark Polarity In Primary Visual Cortex, Sohrab Najafian, Jian Zhong Jin, Jose-Manuel Alonso

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


An Observational Study With The Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (Jake((R))) In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Seth L. Ness, Jean A. Frazier May 2019

An Observational Study With The Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (Jake((R))) In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Seth L. Ness, Jean A. Frazier

Jean A. Frazier

Objective: The Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (JAKE(R)) is a clinical research outcomes assessment system developed to more sensitively measure treatment outcomes and identify subpopulations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we describe JAKE and present results from its digital phenotyping (My JAKE) and biosensor (JAKE Sense) components.

Methods: An observational, non-interventional, prospective study of JAKE in children and adults with ASD was conducted at nine sites in the United States. Feedback on JAKE usability was obtained from caregivers. JAKE Sense included electroencephalography, eye tracking, electrocardiography, electrodermal activity, facial affect analysis, and actigraphy. Caregivers of individuals with ASD reported behaviors ...


Computations Of Top-Down Attention By Modulating V1 Dynamics, David Berga, Xavier Otazu May 2019

Computations Of Top-Down Attention By Modulating V1 Dynamics, David Berga, Xavier Otazu

MODVIS Workshop

The human visual system processes information defining what is visually conspicuous (saliency) to our perception, guiding eye movements towards certain objects depending on scene context and its feature characteristics. However, attention has been known to be biased by top-down influences (relevance), which define voluntary eye movements driven by goal-directed behavior and memory. We propose a unified model of the visual cortex able to predict, among other effects, top-down visual attention and saccadic eye movements. First, we simulate activations of early mechanisms of the visual system (RGC/LGN), by processing distinct image chromatic opponencies with Gabor-like filters. Second, we use a ...


Differentiating Changes In Population Encoding Models With Psychophysics And Neuroimaging, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto Phd May 2019

Differentiating Changes In Population Encoding Models With Psychophysics And Neuroimaging, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto Phd

MODVIS Workshop

It is now common among visual scientists to make inferences about neural population coding of stimuli from indirect measures such as those provided by neuroimaging and psychophysics. The success of such studies depends strongly on simulation work using standard population encoding models extended with decoders (in psychophysics) and measurement models (in neuroimaging). However, not all studies are accompanied by simulation work, and those that are tend to vary widely in their assumptions about encoding, decoding, and measurement. To solve these issues, we designed a Python package (PEMGUIN) to assist computational modelling by providing simple ways to manage encoders' tuning functions ...


Bifurcation Analysis Of A Photoreceptor Interaction Model For Retinitis Pigmentosa, Anca R. Radulescu May 2019

Bifurcation Analysis Of A Photoreceptor Interaction Model For Retinitis Pigmentosa, Anca R. Radulescu

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Spiking Activity In Networks Of Neurons Impacted By Axonal Swelling, Brian Frost, Stan Mintchev May 2019

Spiking Activity In Networks Of Neurons Impacted By Axonal Swelling, Brian Frost, Stan Mintchev

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Virtual Eye: A Spatial-Temporal Bottom-Up Eye Sensitivity Model, Todd Goodall May 2019

Virtual Eye: A Spatial-Temporal Bottom-Up Eye Sensitivity Model, Todd Goodall

MODVIS Workshop

Video quality and compression models use the

spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF), which is solved

based on a linear system approximation. This function measures

the eye’s sensitivity to sinusoid gratings, ignoring the subtle

connectivity and inhomogeniety of cell density across the

visual field. Non-linear aspects of the eye, such as the change

in frequency sensitivity with changing illumination, are not

captured by this simple approximation. We propose Virtual

Eye, a bottom-up approach that models the spatio-temporal

dynamics of the eye across the visual field. Each functional

retinal cell layer in the eye is modeled using non-uniform spatial

cell responses ...


Predicting Dynamics From Hardwiring In Canonical Low-Dimensional Coupled Networks, Anca R. Radulescu May 2019

Predicting Dynamics From Hardwiring In Canonical Low-Dimensional Coupled Networks, Anca R. Radulescu

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Variance Partitioning Reveals Consistent Representation Of Object Boundary Contours In Lo Across Different Datasets, Mark D. Lescroart, Utkarsh Singhal May 2019

Variance Partitioning Reveals Consistent Representation Of Object Boundary Contours In Lo Across Different Datasets, Mark D. Lescroart, Utkarsh Singhal

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.