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2019

Medicine and Health Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 873

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer Oct 2019

Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Icook 4-H, A Childhood Obesity Prevention Program, On Blood Pressure And Quality Of Life In Youth And Adults: A Randomized Control Trial, M. D. Olfert, O. A. Famodu, S. Flanagan, E. Smith, M. P. Leary, R. L. Hagedorn, J. A. White, M. M. Koenings, S. E. Colby, K. Kattelmann, L. Franzen-Castle, Adrienne A. White Jul 2019

The Effect Of Icook 4-H, A Childhood Obesity Prevention Program, On Blood Pressure And Quality Of Life In Youth And Adults: A Randomized Control Trial, M. D. Olfert, O. A. Famodu, S. Flanagan, E. Smith, M. P. Leary, R. L. Hagedorn, J. A. White, M. M. Koenings, S. E. Colby, K. Kattelmann, L. Franzen-Castle, Adrienne A. White

Kendra Kattelmann

Objective: Obesity increases the risk of developing hypertension and from population-based samples with estimations that of 2-4% of the U.S. pediatric population has hypertension, which may affect quality of life. This study examined the effects of an obesity prevention program on blood pressure and quality of life in youth and adult participants.
Methods: A multi-state research team recruited treatment dyads (youth and their adult meal preparer) to participate in a 12-week randomized control trial and follow-up through 24 months. The treatment group received a cooking and physical activity intervention, followed by booster sessions and mailed newsletters over the remaining ...


Prevalence And Predictors Of Household Food Insecurity Among Adult/Youth Dyads At The Initiation Of The Icook 4-H Two-Year Obesity Prevention Study, M. Mcelrone, S. E. Colby, L. Franzen-Castle, M. D. Olfert, K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White Jul 2019

Prevalence And Predictors Of Household Food Insecurity Among Adult/Youth Dyads At The Initiation Of The Icook 4-H Two-Year Obesity Prevention Study, M. Mcelrone, S. E. Colby, L. Franzen-Castle, M. D. Olfert, K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White

Kendra Kattelmann

Objective: Determine food insecurity prevalence and predictors among adult/youth dyads enrolled in a childhood obesity prevention study (iCook 4-H).
Methods: The iCook 4-H intervention was designed for youth (9-10 years old) and their adult main meals preparer to cook, eat, and play together. Although not an inclusion criteria, diverse, low income, and/or rural families were the target during recruitment. At baseline, adults completed surveys on food insecurity, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and youth anthropometrics were collected with body mass index (BMI) calculated. Descriptive statistics were computed and chi-square analysis was conducted to test differences between potential predictors and ...


Cooking And Meal Planning As Predictors Of Fruit And Vegetable Intake And Bmi In First-Year College Students, Andrea Hanson, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Lacey A. Mccormack, Wenjun Zhou, Onika N. Brown, Tanya M. Horacek, Karla P. Shelnutt, Tandalayo Kidd, Audrey Opoku-Acheampong, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D. Olfert, Sarah E. Colby Jul 2019

Cooking And Meal Planning As Predictors Of Fruit And Vegetable Intake And Bmi In First-Year College Students, Andrea Hanson, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Lacey A. Mccormack, Wenjun Zhou, Onika N. Brown, Tanya M. Horacek, Karla P. Shelnutt, Tandalayo Kidd, Audrey Opoku-Acheampong, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D. Olfert, Sarah E. Colby

Kendra Kattelmann

The objective was to determine if cooking skills and meal planning behaviors are associated with greater fruit and vegetable intake and lower body mass index (BMI) in first-year college students who are at risk for excessive weight gain. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline data from a multi-state research project aimed at preventing weight gain in first-year college students. Cooking type, frequency and confidence, self-instruction for healthful mealtime behavior intention, self-regulation of healthful mealtime behavior, and cup equivalents of fruits and vegetables (FV) were measured using validated surveys. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. First-year students (n ...


Call For Papers, Leigh Dillard Jul 2019

Call For Papers, Leigh Dillard

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Call for Papers


Effects Of Lean Beef Supplementation On Iron Status, Body Composition And Performance Of Collegiate Distance Runners, Danielle E. Burke, Jocelyn V. Johnson, Matthew D. Vukovich, Kendra K. Kattelmann 6884045 Jul 2019

Effects Of Lean Beef Supplementation On Iron Status, Body Composition And Performance Of Collegiate Distance Runners, Danielle E. Burke, Jocelyn V. Johnson, Matthew D. Vukovich, Kendra K. Kattelmann 6884045

Kendra Kattelmann

Iron deficiency is prevalent among endurance athletes, particularly females. Low iron may compromise oxygen delivery and physical performance. Vegetarianism, desire for convenience, and perceived health risks associated with red meat contribute to low bioavailable iron intakes. The purpose of this study was to examine if lean beef supplementation would maintain iron status, improve body composition and increase performance of distance runners after 8 weeks. Twenty-eight (14 female) Division-I cross-country runners were stratified by iron status, use of iron supplements, and gender, and randomized into a control (n = 14) and intervention group. All participants maintained their typical diet and consumed a ...


The Effectiveness Of Telemedicine For Weight Management In The Move! Program, April D. Ahrendt, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Thomas S. Rector, David A Maddox Jul 2019

The Effectiveness Of Telemedicine For Weight Management In The Move! Program, April D. Ahrendt, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Thomas S. Rector, David A Maddox

Kendra Kattelmann

PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of videoconferencing technology for delivering comprehensive weight management treatment.
METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted by extraction of data from medical records for the years 2008-2010. The treatment included a series of 12 weekly MOVE!® classes delivered using videoconferencing. Data were extracted from the time of baseline weight to 1 year after baseline weight for the MOVE! participants (n = 60) and from a concurrent control group (n = 60) that did not participate in MOVE! treatment.
FINDINGS: Results indicated that the MOVE! group lost weight while the control group gained weight, resulting in a mean ...


Accelerated Accumulation Of Retinal Α-Synuclein (Pser129) And Tau, Neuroinflammation, And Autophagic Dysregulation In A Seeded Mouse Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M. Summers, Robyn D. Kokemuller, Qing He, Shaowei Ding, Thierry Baron, Chenxu Yu, Rudy J. Valentine, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee Jul 2019

Accelerated Accumulation Of Retinal Α-Synuclein (Pser129) And Tau, Neuroinflammation, And Autophagic Dysregulation In A Seeded Mouse Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M. Summers, Robyn D. Kokemuller, Qing He, Shaowei Ding, Thierry Baron, Chenxu Yu, Rudy J. Valentine, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee

Chenxu Yu

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein within the central nervous system (CNS). Visual problems in PD patients are common, although retinal pathology associated with PD is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate retinal pathology in a transgenic mouse model (TgM83) expressing the human A53T α-synuclein mutation and assess the effect of α-synuclein “seeding” on the development of retinal pathology. Two-month-old TgM83 mice were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenate from old (12–18 months) TgM83 mice. Retinas were then analyzed at 5 months of age. We analyzed retinas ...


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman Jul 2019

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang Jul 2019

Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates ...


Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente Jul 2019

Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a poorly understood neurodevelopmental disorder of multifactorial origin. Animal-based research has been used to investigate ADHD etiology, pathogenesis and treatment, but the efficacy of this research for patients has not yet been systematically evaluated. Such evaluation is important given the resource consumption and ethical concerns incurred by animal use.

We used the citation tracking facility within Web of Science to locate citations of original research papers on animal models related to ADHD published prior to 2010 identified in PubMed by relevant search terms. Human medical papers citing those animal studies were carefully analyzed by ...


Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente Jul 2019

Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Basic and applied laboratory research, whenever intrusive or invasive, presents substantial ethical challenges for ethical committees, be it with human beings or with non-human animals. In this paper we discuss the use of non-human primates (NHPs), mostly as animal models, in laboratory based research. We examine the two ethical frameworks that support current legislation and guidelines: deontology and utilitarianism. While human based research is regulated under deontological principles, guidelines for laboratory animal research rely on utilitarianism. We argue that the utilitarian framework is inadequate for this purpose: on the one hand, it is almost impossible to accurately predict the benefits ...


Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente Jul 2019

Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a poorly understood neurodevelopmental disorder of multifactorial origin. Animal-based research has been used to investigate ADHD etiology, pathogenesis and treatment, but the efficacy of this research for patients has not yet been systematically evaluated. Such evaluation is important given the resource consumption and ethical concerns incurred by animal use.

We used the citation tracking facility within Web of Science to locate citations of original research papers on animal models related to ADHD published prior to 2010 identified in PubMed by relevant search terms. Human medical papers citing those animal studies were carefully analyzed by ...


Conscientious Objection To Harmful Animal Use Within Veterinary And Other Biomedical Education, Andrew Knight Jul 2019

Conscientious Objection To Harmful Animal Use Within Veterinary And Other Biomedical Education, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that ...


Bias During The Evaluation Of Animal Studies, Andrew Knight Jul 2019

Bias During The Evaluation Of Animal Studies, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed ...


Canine Dystocia In 50 Uk First-Opinion Emergency Care Veterinary Practices: Clinical Management And Outcomes, Dan G. O'Neill, Aoife M. O'Sullivan, Erin A. Manson, David B. Church, Paul Mcgreevy, Amanda K. Boag, Dave C. Brodbelt Jul 2019

Canine Dystocia In 50 Uk First-Opinion Emergency Care Veterinary Practices: Clinical Management And Outcomes, Dan G. O'Neill, Aoife M. O'Sullivan, Erin A. Manson, David B. Church, Paul Mcgreevy, Amanda K. Boag, Dave C. Brodbelt

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Canine dystocia is a relatively common veterinary presentation. First opinion emergency care clinical data from 50 Vets Now clinics across the UK were used to explore dystocia management and outcomes in bitches. Caesarean section (CS) was performed on 341/701 (48.6 per cent (95 per cent CI 44.9 to 52.4)) of dystocia cases. The bulldog (OR 7.60, 95 per cent CI 1.51 to 38.26, P=0.014), Border terrier (OR 4.89, 95 per cent CI 0.92 to 25.97, P=0.063) and golden retriever (OR 4.07, 95 per cent CI ...


Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer Jul 2019

Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Measuring emotions in nonhuman mammals is challenging. As animals are not able to verbally report how they feel, we need to find reliable indicators to assess their emotional state. Emotions can be described using two key dimensions: valence (negative or positive) and arousal (bodily activation or excitation). In this study, we investigated vocal expression of emotional valence in wild boars (Sus scrofa). The animals were observed in three naturally occurring situations: anticipation of a food reward (positive), affiliative interactions (positive), and agonistic interactions (negative). Body movement was used as an indicator of emotional arousal to control for the effect of ...


Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann Jul 2019

Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Background: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result ...


Gene Expression Profiling In Salmonella Choleraesuis-Infected Porcine Lung Using A Long Oligonucleotide Microarray, Shu-Hong Zhao, Daniel Kuhar, Joan K. Lunney, Harry Dawson, Catherine Guidry, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Christopher K. Tuggle Jul 2019

Gene Expression Profiling In Salmonella Choleraesuis-Infected Porcine Lung Using A Long Oligonucleotide Microarray, Shu-Hong Zhao, Daniel Kuhar, Joan K. Lunney, Harry Dawson, Catherine Guidry, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Understanding the transcriptional response to pathogenic bacterial infection within food animals is of fundamental and applied interest. To determine the transcriptional response to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (SC) infection, a 13,297-oligonucleotide swine array was used to analyze RNA from control, 24-h postinoculation (hpi), and 48-hpi porcine lung tissue from pigs infected with SC. In total, 57 genes showed differential expression (p < 0.001; false discovery rate = 12%). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of 61 genes was used to confirm the microarray results and to identify pathways responding to infection. Of the 33 genes identified by microarray analysis as differentially expressed, 23 were confirmed by qRT-PCR results. A novel finding was that two transglutaminase family genes (TGM1 and TGM3) showed dramatic increases in expression postinoculation; combined with several other apoptotic genes, they indicated the induction of apoptotic pathways during SC infection. A predominant T helper 1-type immune response occurred during infection, with interferon γ ...


Clinical Assessment Of 4th Year Osteopathic Medical Students: Outdoor Medicine Rotation, Erik E. Langenau, Sarah Blazovic, Ashley Cochran, Sarah Corcoran, Elisa Guisto, Austin Sorchik, Cameron Williams Jul 2019

Clinical Assessment Of 4th Year Osteopathic Medical Students: Outdoor Medicine Rotation, Erik E. Langenau, Sarah Blazovic, Ashley Cochran, Sarah Corcoran, Elisa Guisto, Austin Sorchik, Cameron Williams

Erik E. Langenau

Introduction: Securing clinical training sites remains a challenge for medical educators who often resort to paying preceptors or searching for new clinical training sites which haven’t traditionally taken students. We describe a unique partnership between the Boy Scouts of America and PCOM, providing a clinical training opportunity for OMS4 students at PCOM: Outdoor Clinical rotation the Summit Bechtel Family National Boy Scout Reserve in rural West Virginia at the National Scout jamboree, serving 35,000 scouts.

Methods and Curricular Design: By the end of the rotation, each PCOM student was able to (1) provide urgent care for common ...


The Effects Of Environmental Copper Exposure On Developing Zebrafish, Christina Kaucic Jul 2019

The Effects Of Environmental Copper Exposure On Developing Zebrafish, Christina Kaucic

Christina Kaucic


Copper is an essential metal that is key in many metabolic functions and is a vital cofactor in many enzymes. Copper homeostasis is dually important for optimal health. Excess copper has been associated with minor symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and memory loss as well as with neurological disorders such as Wilson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and some cancers in humans. Similarly, excess copper has been shown to damage visceral organs and produce abnormal behaviors in multiple fish species including the zebrafish who has a high degree of genome sequence homology when compared to humans. For this reason, the ...


Analysis Of Porcine Transcriptional Response To Salmonella Enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Suggests Novel Targets Of Nfkappab Are Activated In The Mesenteric Lymph Node, Yanfang Wang, Olivre P. Couture, Long Qu, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Daniel Kuhar, Joan K. Lunney, Dan Nettleton, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle Jul 2019

Analysis Of Porcine Transcriptional Response To Salmonella Enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Suggests Novel Targets Of Nfkappab Are Activated In The Mesenteric Lymph Node, Yanfang Wang, Olivre P. Couture, Long Qu, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Daniel Kuhar, Joan K. Lunney, Dan Nettleton, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Background: Specific knowledge of the molecular pathways controlling host-pathogen interactions can increase our understanding of immune response biology as well as provide targets for drug development and genetic improvement of disease resistance. Toward this end, we have characterized the porcine transcriptional response to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), a Salmonella serovar that predominately colonizes swine, yet can cause serious infections in human patients. Affymetrix technology was used to screen for differentially expressed genes in pig mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) responding to infection with S. Choleraesuis at acute (8 hours (h), 24 h and 48 h post-inoculation (pi)) and chronic ...


Distinct Peripheral Blood Rna Responses To Salmonella In Pigs Differing In Salmonella Shedding Levels: Intersection Of Ifng, Tlr And Mirna Pathways, Ting-Hua Huang, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Cumhur Yusuf Demirkale, Dan Nettleton, Susan Knetter, Curtis Christian, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Christopher K. Tuggle Jul 2019

Distinct Peripheral Blood Rna Responses To Salmonella In Pigs Differing In Salmonella Shedding Levels: Intersection Of Ifng, Tlr And Mirna Pathways, Ting-Hua Huang, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Cumhur Yusuf Demirkale, Dan Nettleton, Susan Knetter, Curtis Christian, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Transcriptomic analysis of the response to bacterial pathogens has been reported for several species, yet few studies have investigated the transcriptional differences in whole blood in subjects that differ in their disease response phenotypes. Salmonella species infect many vertebrate species, and pigs colonized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) are usually asymptomatic, making detection of these Salmonella-carrier pigs difficult. The variable fecal shedding of Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness and zoonotic disease. To investigate gene pathways and biomarkers associated with the variance in Salmonellashedding following experimental inoculation, we initiated the first analysis of the whole ...


Unique Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiles Of Chicken Macrophages Exposed To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Dan Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont Jul 2019

Unique Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiles Of Chicken Macrophages Exposed To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Dan Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont

Dan Nettleton

Background: Macrophages play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Bacteria require endotoxin, a complex lipopolysaccharide, for outer membrane permeability and the host interprets endotoxin as a signal to initiate an innate immune response. The focus of this study is kinetic and global transcriptional analysis of the chicken macrophage response to in vitro stimulation with endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium-798.

Results: The 38535-probeset Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome array was used to profile transcriptional response to endotoxin 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps). Using a maximum FDR (False Discovery Rate) of 0.05 to declare genes as ...


Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte Jul 2019

Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte

Honors Program Projects

Hexavalent chromium, or Cr(VI), is a potent oxidizer and known carcinogen, that is found at varying levels in the water sources of more than 200 million Americans. However, the exact mechanism of carcinogenicity remains unknown, and though the government currently regulates total chromium levels, they have yet to determine a permissible exposure limit for Cr(VI). Moreover, there is currently no preventative treatment for Cr(VI). Because of Cr(VI)’s strong oxidative power, we hypothesized that it causes DNA mutation and cell death via oxidation and that antioxidants could prevent this from occurring. To test this, we first ...


Drug Safety Africa: An Overview Of Safety Pharmacology & Toxicology In South Africa., Brian D Guth, Anne F Grobler, Kendall S Frazier, Andrea Greiter-Wilke, Danuta Herzyk, Tertius A Hough, Asrar Ali Khan, Michael Markert, James D Smith, Karen L. Svenson, Sara Wells, Michael K Pugsley Jul 2019

Drug Safety Africa: An Overview Of Safety Pharmacology & Toxicology In South Africa., Brian D Guth, Anne F Grobler, Kendall S Frazier, Andrea Greiter-Wilke, Danuta Herzyk, Tertius A Hough, Asrar Ali Khan, Michael Markert, James D Smith, Karen L. Svenson, Sara Wells, Michael K Pugsley

Faculty Research 2019

This meeting report is based on presentations given at the first Drug Safety Africa Meeting in Potchefstroom, South Africa from November 20-22, 2018 at the North-West University campus. There were 134 attendees (including 26 speakers and 34 students) from the pharmaceutical industry, academia, regulatory agencies as well as 6 exhibitors. These meeting proceedings are designed to inform the content that was presented in terms of Safety Pharmacology (SP) and Toxicology methods and models that are used by the pharmaceutical industry to characterize the safety profile of novel small chemical or biological molecules. The first part of this report includes an ...


Cooking And Meal Planning As Predictors Of Fruit And Vegetable Intake And Bmi In First-Year College Students, Andrea Hanson, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Lacey A. Mccormack, Wenjun Zhou, Onika N. Brown, Tanya M. Horacek, Karla P. Shelnutt, Tandalayo Kidd, Audrey Opoku-Acheampong, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D. Olfert, Sarah E. Colby Jul 2019

Cooking And Meal Planning As Predictors Of Fruit And Vegetable Intake And Bmi In First-Year College Students, Andrea Hanson, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Lacey A. Mccormack, Wenjun Zhou, Onika N. Brown, Tanya M. Horacek, Karla P. Shelnutt, Tandalayo Kidd, Audrey Opoku-Acheampong, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Melissa D. Olfert, Sarah E. Colby

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

The objective was to determine if cooking skills and meal planning behaviors are associated with greater fruit and vegetable intake and lower body mass index (BMI) in first-year college students who are at risk for excessive weight gain. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline data from a multi-state research project aimed at preventing weight gain in first-year college students. Cooking type, frequency and confidence, self-instruction for healthful mealtime behavior intention, self-regulation of healthful mealtime behavior, and cup equivalents of fruits and vegetables (FV) were measured using validated surveys. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. First-year students (n ...


Genomic Data Analysis Workflows For Tumors From Patient-Derived Xenografts (Pdxs): Challenges And Guidelines., Xing Yi Woo, Anuj Srivastava, Joel H Graber, Vinod Yadav, Vishal Kumar Sarsani, Allen K. Simons, Glen L Beane, Stephen C. Grubb, Guruprasad Ananda, Rangjiao Liu, Grace Stafford, Jeffrey Chuang, Susan Airhart, Radha Krishna Murthy Karuturi, Joshy George, Carol J Bult Jul 2019

Genomic Data Analysis Workflows For Tumors From Patient-Derived Xenografts (Pdxs): Challenges And Guidelines., Xing Yi Woo, Anuj Srivastava, Joel H Graber, Vinod Yadav, Vishal Kumar Sarsani, Allen K. Simons, Glen L Beane, Stephen C. Grubb, Guruprasad Ananda, Rangjiao Liu, Grace Stafford, Jeffrey Chuang, Susan Airhart, Radha Krishna Murthy Karuturi, Joshy George, Carol J Bult

Faculty Research 2019

BACKGROUND: Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are in vivo models of human cancer that have been used for translational cancer research and therapy selection for individual patients. The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) PDX resource comprises 455 models originating from 34 different primary sites (as of 05/08/2019). The models undergo rigorous quality control and are genomically characterized to identify somatic mutations, copy number alterations, and transcriptional profiles. Bioinformatics workflows for analyzing genomic data obtained from human tumors engrafted in a mouse host (i.e., Patient-Derived Xenografts; PDXs) must address challenges such as discriminating between mouse and human sequence reads and accurately ...


Engineering Mankind: The Sociopolitical Impact Of Eugenics In America, Megan Lee Jun 2019

Engineering Mankind: The Sociopolitical Impact Of Eugenics In America, Megan Lee

Voces Novae

During the early twentieth century, the American eugenics movement prospered, spreading its influence within the sociopolitical framework of the United States. The notion of eugenics – the control of human breeding to increase desirable traits, was extensively propagated through the creation of sterilization laws and public programs. Eventually, the public came to view eugenics as a necessity in order to preserve and improve the quality of mankind for the future.