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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Relationship Between Lower-Body Strength And Power, And Load Carriage Tasks: A Critical Review, Robin Marc Orr, J. Jay Dawes, Robert G. Lockie, Daniel Godeassi Aug 2019

The Relationship Between Lower-Body Strength And Power, And Load Carriage Tasks: A Critical Review, Robin Marc Orr, J. Jay Dawes, Robert G. Lockie, Daniel Godeassi

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 1001-1022, 2019. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise articles that have investigated the association between lower-body strength and power during load carriage in tactical personnel. Literature databases were searched with specific search terms, yielding 921 articles. Additional studies found from article reference lists were also assessed for eligibility. Out of these articles, 16 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised. Articles were assessed by the Downs and Black evaluation tool with inter-rater agreement determined by Cohen’s kappa and final results graded according to the Kennelly quality grading ...


Effectiveness Of Studying When Coupled With Exercise-Induced Arousal, Hannah A. Zabriskie, Edward M. Heath Jul 2019

Effectiveness Of Studying When Coupled With Exercise-Induced Arousal, Hannah A. Zabriskie, Edward M. Heath

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(5): 979-988, 2019. The basis of learning is knowledge of discrete information such as terms and definitions that can be developed through memorization. A strong knowledge base is something students strive to develop through self-directed study. Little research has investigated the role of simultaneous exercise and memorization on recall ability with a delay in recall of at least 24 hrs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise bout on memory by requiring participants to recall words 24 hrs after exposure to three different interventions: memorization while cycling, memorization ...


Sensitive And Reliable Measures Of Driver Performance In Simulated Motor-Racing, Christopher Irwin, Jamie Mollica, Ben Desbrow Jul 2019

Sensitive And Reliable Measures Of Driver Performance In Simulated Motor-Racing, Christopher Irwin, Jamie Mollica, Ben Desbrow

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 971-978, 2019. Motor racing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, associated with a high degree of risk for drivers. Hence, driving simulation provides a safe alternative to explore the impact acute physiological perturbations (e.g. heat stress or dehydration) on a driver’s performance. This study aimed to determine sensitive and reliable simulated driving performance parameters that could be employed in future driving performance studies. Thirty-six healthy males (age: 26.5 ± 8.1 y, body mass: 75.6 ± 12.2 kg, mean ± SD) completed a single experimental trial involving four simulated motor-racing ...


Breathing Limited Air Situational Training Masks (Blastmask) Versus Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (Scba) For Firefighters: A Pilot Study, Thomas Andre, Silvio Valladao, Shana Walsh, Derek Reisbeck May 2019

Breathing Limited Air Situational Training Masks (Blastmask) Versus Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (Scba) For Firefighters: A Pilot Study, Thomas Andre, Silvio Valladao, Shana Walsh, Derek Reisbeck

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 941-949, 2019. Despite maintaining high levels of fitness, firefighters’ performance may be negatively impacted by the use of a Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), an essential piece of safety equipment worn during structural firefighting. Routine training with SCBAs can be cost-prohibitive and inefficient. The Breathing Limited Air Situational Training Mask (BlastMask) was developed as a training aid used to simulate the SCBA. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and perceptual responses elicited by firefighters during steady state exercise when using the BlastMask compared to the SCBA. Current staff male firefighters (n ...


Effects Of Home-Based Exercise Training Systems, Combined With Diet, On Cardiometabolic Health, Christian K. Roberts, David E. Segovia, Eli Lankford May 2019

Effects Of Home-Based Exercise Training Systems, Combined With Diet, On Cardiometabolic Health, Christian K. Roberts, David E. Segovia, Eli Lankford

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 871-885, 2019. The efficacy of exercise training systems designed to be used in the home on cardiometabolic outcomes remains largely unknown. This investigation included two studies. Study 1 tested the effects a multi-exercise pulley system(NordicTrack Fusion CST with video trainer) and Study 2 an incline trainer (NordicTrack X22i with video trainer), both combined with daily food provision, for 12-weeks on indices of cardiometabolic health. Study 1 enrolled 27 adults (11 men, 16 women, 33.8±4.4 years of age) and Study 2 enrolled 29 adults (11 men, 18 women, 40.8 ...


Self-Myofascial Release Does Not Improve Back Squat Range Of Motion, Alter Muscle Activation, Or Aid In Perceived Recovery 24-Hours Following Lower Body Resistance Training., Zach M. Beier, Ian L. Earp, John A. Korak May 2019

Self-Myofascial Release Does Not Improve Back Squat Range Of Motion, Alter Muscle Activation, Or Aid In Perceived Recovery 24-Hours Following Lower Body Resistance Training., Zach M. Beier, Ian L. Earp, John A. Korak

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 839-846, 2019. Self-myofascial release (SMR) is an alternative therapy believed to increase myofascial mobility by exciting muscles and increasing blood flow to the treated area. Previous literature suggest SMR produces conflicting results on performance, muscle activation, range of motion (ROM), and recovery. This study was designed to utilize SMR on a fatigued individual prior to exercise and measure its’ effects on muscle activation, ROM, and perceived recovery compared to a dynamic warm-up session. The findings could help develop an efficient warm-up protocol for resistance-trained individuals. Electromyography (EMG) measured muscle activation of the rectus ...


Eeg Responses To Incremental Self-Paced Cycling Exercise In Young And Middle Aged Adults, Rachel M. Maceri, Nicholas P. Cherup, Nicholas J. Hanson May 2019

Eeg Responses To Incremental Self-Paced Cycling Exercise In Young And Middle Aged Adults, Rachel M. Maceri, Nicholas P. Cherup, Nicholas J. Hanson

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 800-810, 2019. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive method of measuring electrical activity of the brain during exercise. There is conflicting evidence as to how neural activity changes in relation to incremental exercise testing (IET), or if age has any effect. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how brain activity changes throughout an IET, and 2) if age affects this response. 13 younger (age: 24.9 ± 2.6 years, 9 males) and 10 middle-aged (49.1 ± 3.2 years, 3 males) recreationally active individuals volunteered for this study. A self-paced, perceptually ...


Comparison Of Steady State Exercise And Interval Training On Pitching Performance In Collegiate Baseball Players: A Pilot Study, Robert Rabena, Ryan Moran Apr 2019

Comparison Of Steady State Exercise And Interval Training On Pitching Performance In Collegiate Baseball Players: A Pilot Study, Robert Rabena, Ryan Moran

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 726-734, 2019. Traditionally, a baseball pitcher’s in-season conditioning between starts has consisted of steady state exercise. Little to no research exists on the effects of interval training on pitching performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between steady state exercise (SSE) and interval training (IT) on exercise and pitching performance in collegiate baseball pitchers following an 11-week program. A total of 13 collegiate baseball pitchers were randomly assigned to either the SSE or IT group and tested pre- and post-season on a one-mile run, 30-m sprint, pitching velocity ...


Power Output In Rugby Players Comparing Unilateral And Bilateral Isotonic Upper-Body Resistance Exercise, Evan Nakachi, James D. George, Allen Parcell, Dennis Eggett, Brent Feland Apr 2019

Power Output In Rugby Players Comparing Unilateral And Bilateral Isotonic Upper-Body Resistance Exercise, Evan Nakachi, James D. George, Allen Parcell, Dennis Eggett, Brent Feland

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 691-700, 2019. Bilateral deficit (BLD) occurs when the internal muscular force generated during simultaneous bilateral limb exercise is lower than the sum of internal muscular forces generated during separate right limb and left limb unilateral exercise, while attempting to oppose the same total external load. Numerous BLD studies have evaluated force output differences during exercise; however, no study has determined whether BLD exists when generating power during isotonic upper-body exercise. To address this, we measured and compared power output across unilateral and bilateral isotonic upper-body exercise. Seventeen college male rugby players (age = 21 ...


The Effect Of Exercise Order In Circuit Training On Muscular Strength And Functional Fitness In Older Women, Diogo Correia Cardozo, Belmiro Freitas De Salles, Pietro Mannarino, Ana Paula Sena Vasconcelos, Humberto Miranda, Jeffrey M. Willardson, Roberto Simão Apr 2019

The Effect Of Exercise Order In Circuit Training On Muscular Strength And Functional Fitness In Older Women, Diogo Correia Cardozo, Belmiro Freitas De Salles, Pietro Mannarino, Ana Paula Sena Vasconcelos, Humberto Miranda, Jeffrey M. Willardson, Roberto Simão

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(4): 657-665, 2019.The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different orders of exercises in circuit training on strength and functional fitness in older women over a 12-week period. After 10 repetition maximum (10-RM) and functional fitness baseline testing, thirty older women were randomly assigned into two groups. The exercise order for Group 1 was leg press, wide-grip lat pulldown, knee extension, pec deck fly, plantar flexion and triceps extension; Group 2 performed the same exercises, but in the opposite order: triceps extension, plantar flexion, pec deck fly, knee extension ...


Attitudes And Beliefs Regarding Pregnancy Physical Activity In A Non-Pregnant Population, Mallory R. Marshall, John K. Petrella Apr 2019

Attitudes And Beliefs Regarding Pregnancy Physical Activity In A Non-Pregnant Population, Mallory R. Marshall, John K. Petrella

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 636-645, 2019. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and beliefs about pregnancy physical activity (PA) in non-pregnant individuals. We hypothesized that younger, more educated, females, those who had ever been pregnant (or partner had been pregnant, for males) and physically active individuals would view pregnancy PA more positively than older individuals, those with less education, males, those who had not ever been pregnant (partner had not been pregnant, for males), and those who are inactive, respectively. Participants were non-pregnant adults ages 20+ years who were recruited by word-of-mouth, social ...


Dorsiflexion Range Of Motion In Copers And Those With Chronic Ankle Instability, Madison M. Vomacka, Melena R. Calhoun, Monica R. Lininger, Jupil Ko Apr 2019

Dorsiflexion Range Of Motion In Copers And Those With Chronic Ankle Instability, Madison M. Vomacka, Melena R. Calhoun, Monica R. Lininger, Jupil Ko

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(1): 614-622, 2019. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) is used to classify individuals as ankle sprain copers, or as one suffering from chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, literature examining factors contributing to these classifications on the CAIT is lacking, as the CAIT itself does not offer explanations for specific anthropometric measures that influence a patient’s classification. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if there was a difference between dorsiflexion active range of motion (AROM) between copers, those with CAI, and a healthy control group. Twenty-two individuals with recent ankle sprains were recruited ...


Effect Of An 8-Week Plyometric Training Program With Raised Forefoot Platforms On Agility And Vertical Jump Performance, Matthieu Pj Voisin, Mikaël Scohier Feb 2019

Effect Of An 8-Week Plyometric Training Program With Raised Forefoot Platforms On Agility And Vertical Jump Performance, Matthieu Pj Voisin, Mikaël Scohier

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 491-504, 2019. Some athletes use solid rubber platforms strapped onto the forefoot during plyometric exercises in order to increase their explosive performance including vertical jump height and agility. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a plyometric training program realized with these ‘raised forefoot platforms,’ designed to keep the heels off the ground, to the same program conducted with regular shoes. Forty-nine subjects performed 2 sessions of plyometric training for eight weeks, either with raised forefoot platforms (n=20) or regular shoes (n=29). Countermovement jump (CMJ) height and ...


Caffeine Alters Rpe-Based Intensity Production, Tyler Langford, Eric O'Neal, Eric M. Scudamore, Samantha Johnson, Caitlin Stevenson, Veronika Pribyslavska, Matt Green Feb 2019

Caffeine Alters Rpe-Based Intensity Production, Tyler Langford, Eric O'Neal, Eric M. Scudamore, Samantha Johnson, Caitlin Stevenson, Veronika Pribyslavska, Matt Green

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 412-424, 2019. This study examined effects of caffeine (CAF) on power output (PO) selection and associated physiological responses during cycling at moderate and high intensities prescribed by RPE (0-10 scale). Participants (n = 9) (VO2peak: 55.4 ± 6.32 mL · kg-1 · min-1) cycled for 20 min at RPE4 and 20 min at RPE7 separated by 10 min recovery following caffeine (CAF) (6 mg · kg-1) and placebo (PLA) ingestion. PO, HR, serum lactate [La], VO2, VE, and RER were recorded every 5 min. Session RPE (S-RPE) was recorded following 10 min recovery. Repeated-measures ANOVA’s ...


Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Boot Use Elevates Blood Lactate During Subsequent Exercise, Richard T. Marcello, Lucas Fortini, Beau Kjerulf Greer Feb 2019

Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Boot Use Elevates Blood Lactate During Subsequent Exercise, Richard T. Marcello, Lucas Fortini, Beau Kjerulf Greer

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 385-392, 2019. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) boot use between submaximal cycling trials on heart rate (HR) and blood lactate concentrations. Ten healthy participants (9M; 1F) performed two consecutive 60 minute rides at 60% of functional threshold power with a 30 minute rest between rides. The rest period was spent in a supine position using IPC boots (BOOT) or sitting in a similar position without boots (CON). HRs were collected every 15 minutes during cycling rides, and lactate was measured at the ...


Aerobic Fitness Markers Associated With Post-Paddling Breath Hold Capacity In Competitive Surfers, Cory J. Greever, Kaden K.L. Groseclose, April L. Denny, Danielle C. Jones Feb 2019

Aerobic Fitness Markers Associated With Post-Paddling Breath Hold Capacity In Competitive Surfers, Cory J. Greever, Kaden K.L. Groseclose, April L. Denny, Danielle C. Jones

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 366-373, 2019. Competitive surfing is a growing sport with evolving performance and safety demands. One particular challenge surfers face is the need to endure long breath-holds following bouts of surf paddling. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between aerobic fitness markers, such as VO2peak and ventilatory thresholds, and post-paddling breath-hold capacity in competitive surfers. Eleven male collegiate level competitive surfers completed both a maximal graded exercise test and a simulated post-paddling breath-hold challenge on a modified paddling ergometer. Associations between markers of aerobic fitness and post-paddling breath-hold capacity ...


State Population Influences Athletic Performance Combine Test Scores In High School-Aged American Football Players, Zachary M. Gillen, Marni E. Shoemaker, Brianna D. Mckay, Joel T. Cramer Jan 2019

State Population Influences Athletic Performance Combine Test Scores In High School-Aged American Football Players, Zachary M. Gillen, Marni E. Shoemaker, Brianna D. Mckay, Joel T. Cramer

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 256-262, 2019. This study compared athletic performance differences among high school American football combine participants originating from states of different population sizes. High school-aged American football players (n=7,214) who had participated in athletic performance combines between March 2015 and January 2016 were included in this analysis. Data included combine date and location, school state of origin, football position, class, height, weight, 10-, 20-, and 40-yd dash times, pro-agility, L-cone drill, vertical jump, broad jump, and power push-up. Participants were separated into high- (state population>10,000,000; HIGH; n=2,804 ...


Physiological And Perceptual Responses To High-Intensity Circuit Training Using Body Weight Resistance Exercise: Are There Sex-Specific Differences?, Bethanne A. Clayton, Rachel A. Tinius, Lee J. Winchester, Brenna R. Menke, Michelle C. Reece, Jill Maples Jan 2019

Physiological And Perceptual Responses To High-Intensity Circuit Training Using Body Weight Resistance Exercise: Are There Sex-Specific Differences?, Bethanne A. Clayton, Rachel A. Tinius, Lee J. Winchester, Brenna R. Menke, Michelle C. Reece, Jill Maples

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(4): 245-255, 2019. High-intensity circuit training (HICT) using body weight as resistance is a popular fitness trend and an ideal exercise modality in terms of functionality and economy. Given the popularity of HICT, evidence suggests that sex may elicit unique physiological and perceptual responses to this mode of exercise and there is a need for further work in this area. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and perceptual responses of females and males to HICT using body weight resistance exercise. Forty-five participants (23 females and 22 males) completed baseline testing and ...


Beyond Peak, A Simple Approach To Assess Rowing Power And The Impact Of Training: A Technical Report, Julian D. Egan-Shuttler, Rohan Edmonds, Cassandra Eddy, Veronica O’Neill, Stephen Ives Jan 2019

Beyond Peak, A Simple Approach To Assess Rowing Power And The Impact Of Training: A Technical Report, Julian D. Egan-Shuttler, Rohan Edmonds, Cassandra Eddy, Veronica O’Neill, Stephen Ives

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 233-244, 2019. Recently, rowing power has been shown to be a key determinant of rowing performance. However, rowing power testing can vary greatly, and is not standardized. Here we sought to evaluate rowing power over a 15 sec rowing test utilizing a stroke-by-stroke analysis before and after 4 weeks of training in youth rowers. Methods: 18 adolescent male rowers were assigned to complete either 4 weeks of plyometric training (PLYO, n=9), or steady state cycling (Control, n=9), for 30 minutes before on water training three days/week. Each group was matched ...


Agreement Among Six Methods Of Predicting The Anaerobic Lactate Threshold In Elite Cross-Country Skiers, Sean L. Carter, Ian Newhouse Jan 2019

Agreement Among Six Methods Of Predicting The Anaerobic Lactate Threshold In Elite Cross-Country Skiers, Sean L. Carter, Ian Newhouse

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 155-172, 2019. The anaerobic lactate threshold (LTan) is used to prescribe training intensity and measure endurance capacity. The LTan identifies a critical point where small increases in workload result in large increases in blood lactate concentration. LTan is usually predicted through visual inspection of a blood lactate (bLa) vs workload plot. Numerous other methods for predicting LTan exist, and the literature lacks a consensus regarding validity of prediction methods. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement among visual inspection (VI), maximum distance (Dmax) and modified maximum distance (Dmod) from the ...


Profiling The Occupational Tasks And Physical Conditioning Of Specialist Police, Shane Irving, Robin (Rob) Marc Orr, Rodney Pope Jan 2019

Profiling The Occupational Tasks And Physical Conditioning Of Specialist Police, Shane Irving, Robin (Rob) Marc Orr, Rodney Pope

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 173-186, 2019. Specialist police are required to perform high risk and dangerous tasks that are physically demanding. The aims of this study were to establish the natures and contexts of tasks performed by specialist police officers and to explore the physical fitness regimes they undertake to maintain their operational fitness for these tasks. A survey approach was employed and members of operational units of the Australian and New Zealand Police Tactical Groups (PTG) participated in the survey. A total of nine (100%) PTG units cooperated, with 132 respondents (31% of the PTG operational ...


The Effect Of Cuff Width For Determining Limb Occlusion Pressure: A Comparison Of Blood Flow Restriction Devices, Alyssa Weatherholt, William R. Vanwye, Jackie Lohmann, Johnny Owens Jan 2019

The Effect Of Cuff Width For Determining Limb Occlusion Pressure: A Comparison Of Blood Flow Restriction Devices, Alyssa Weatherholt, William R. Vanwye, Jackie Lohmann, Johnny Owens

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 136-143, 2019. The purpose of this study was to compare the standing lower extremity limb occlusion pressure (LOP) between two units. It was hypothesized that the Delfi unit, which utilizes a wider cuff (11.5 cm), would require significantly less LOP as compared to the KAASTU unit, which utilizes a narrow cuff (5 cm). Twenty-nine healthy participants (22 men, 7 women) mean age 24 years old (± 1.7 SD) volunteered. The procedure was identical for each cuff, completed with 5 minutes of rest in between. The cuff was placed on the proximal left ...


Factors Affecting Phd Student Success, Sonia N. Young, William R. Vanwye, Mark A. Schafer, Troy A. Robertson, Ashley Vincent Poore Jan 2019

Factors Affecting Phd Student Success, Sonia N. Young, William R. Vanwye, Mark A. Schafer, Troy A. Robertson, Ashley Vincent Poore

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(1): 34-45, 2019. Attrition rates for Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs in the United States across the fields of engineering, life sciences, social sciences, mathematics and physical sciences, and humanities range from 36 – 51%. A qualitative literature review indicates certain factors may impact the PhD student’s success in completing the program and degree. The factors focused on in this review include the student-advisor relationship, mentorship, and the dissertation process. Although kinesiology doctoral programs are evaluated and ranked by the National Academy of Kinesiology, little information is available exploring kinesiology PhD student success. General ...


Ethical Issues Relating To Scientific Discovery In Exercise Science, James W. Navalta, Whitley J. Stone, Scott Lyons Jan 2019

Ethical Issues Relating To Scientific Discovery In Exercise Science, James W. Navalta, Whitley J. Stone, Scott Lyons

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(1): 1-8, 2019. This work aims to present concepts related to ethical issues in conducting and reporting scientific research in a clear and straightforward manner. Considerations around research design including authorship, sound research practices, non-discrimination in subject recruitment, objectivity, respect for intellectual property, and financial interests are detailed. Further, concepts relating to the conducting of research including the competency of the researcher, conflicts of interest, accurately representing data, and ethical practices in human and animal research are presented. Attention pertaining to the dissemination of research including plagiarism, duplicate submission, redundant publication, and figure manipulation ...


The Energy Expenditure Of Tinikling: A Culturally Relevant Filipino Dance, Daniel P. Heil, Alona Angosta, Wei Zhu, Rhigel Tan Jan 2019

The Energy Expenditure Of Tinikling: A Culturally Relevant Filipino Dance, Daniel P. Heil, Alona Angosta, Wei Zhu, Rhigel Tan

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(4): 111-121, 2019. Filipino Americans have higher risks for developing cardiovascular disease than many other U.S. minority groups and Caucasians. As a precursor to developing a culturally-relevant physical activity (PA) intervention targeting high-risk Filipino Americans, this study sought to evaluate the energy cost and intensity of Tinikling, or bamboo dance, a popular type of Philippine folk dance. These energy cost values were directly compared to the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) cut-points commonly used to define the PA guidelines. Twenty-two pairs of Filipino American adults performed five minutes of continuous Tinikling dance to a three-count ...


Reliability Of The Polar T31 Uncoded Heart Rate Monitor In Free Motion And Treadmill Activities, Jeffrey Montes, James W. Navalta Jan 2019

Reliability Of The Polar T31 Uncoded Heart Rate Monitor In Free Motion And Treadmill Activities, Jeffrey Montes, James W. Navalta

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(4): 69-76, 2019. The Polar T31 uncoded heart rate monitor (T31) is currently accepted as a precision measurement device that can be used in lieu of electrocardiography. However, minimal literature exists to verify reliability when used for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability of heart rate (HR) measurements obtained from the T31. Forty volunteers participated in a three-day test-retest protocol. Participants gave anthropometric data on the first day. On the second day, they performed two 5-minute self-paced free motion walks (FMW) and two 5-minute self-paced free motion jogs ...