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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Examination Of Student-Athletes' Developmental Transition From Youth Sport To College Sport, Coleman Childers May 2019

Examination Of Student-Athletes' Developmental Transition From Youth Sport To College Sport, Coleman Childers

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of research in developmental sport psychology has targeted the youth and adolescent age groups (aged five to 18) and has tended to avoid athletes in organized and highly competitive environment such as major college athletics. The transition from high school to college brings many challenges. Academically and socially, students encounter increased course rigor, decreased in-class time, and adjustment to new social groups. Additionally, student-athletes encounter scrutiny from the public, extensive time commitments, changing social dynamics, and physical and mental demands as they combine athletic and academic pursuits. This on-going study explores student-athletes’ perspectives of the developmental transition from ...


Quantitative Evaluation Of Geared Manual Wheelchair Mobility In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: An Integrative Approach, Omid Jahanian May 2019

Quantitative Evaluation Of Geared Manual Wheelchair Mobility In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: An Integrative Approach, Omid Jahanian

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to quantify the effects of using geared wheelchair wheels on upper extremity biomechanics and energy expenditure during functional mobility tasks in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The effects of using geared wheels on hand-rim biomechanics, glenohumeral joint dynamics, and shoulder muscle activity were investigated during manual wheelchair propulsion over tiled and carpeted level-floors and up a ramp in low gear (1.5:1) and standard gear (1:1) conditions. The results for the hand-rim biomechanics indicated that regardless of the terrain, using the geared wheels in the low gear condition significantly decreased the ...


Validity And Reliability Of A 5-Minute Web-Camera Based Eye Tracking Test To Assess Visual Memory And Cognition, Emily Bates May 2019

Validity And Reliability Of A 5-Minute Web-Camera Based Eye Tracking Test To Assess Visual Memory And Cognition, Emily Bates

Theses and Dissertations

There are approximately 5.7 million Americans currently living with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Early detection of cognitive impairment allows for earlier treatment, potentially slowing or halting cognitive decline. A 30-min web-camera eye tracking assessment (30-min VPC) has been validated as a tool to predict AD risk. However, a shorter version would allow for greater scalability and improve user experience. The purpose of this study was to: 1) determine the validity of the 5-minute web-camera based VPC test with the 30-min test, 2) determine the test-retest reliability of the 5-min test, 3) compare the 5-minute test scores of cognitively intact ...


Comparison Of Physical Intensity Between Interactive Video Game Cycling And Conventional Stationary Cycling In Adolescents With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Tariq Mohammed Alsoqairan May 2019

Comparison Of Physical Intensity Between Interactive Video Game Cycling And Conventional Stationary Cycling In Adolescents With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Tariq Mohammed Alsoqairan

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Obesity has become a serious health concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Researchers have indicated that sedentary behaviors, especially technological activities, such as video games and other forms of screen-based activities is the main barrier to participate in physical activities. Active video games have demonstrated the efficacy in increasing physical activity and reducing body weight in children and adolescents with disabilities.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the exercise intensity and enjoyment level of interactive video game cycling (IVGC) in comparison with conventional stationary cycling (CSC) during matched number of sessions utilizing the same ...


Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap May 2019

Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Muscle atrophy results from a dysfunction in protein turnover that leads to loss of mass and function and occurs concurrently with multiple pathologies such as cancer and extended bed rest. Atrophy reduces overall quality of life while increasing morbidity and mortality. Currently, efficacious therapeutic interventions to treat and prevent muscle wasting in all its forms are lacking, however if conserved mechanisms can be identified between wasting conditions, this would aid in the development of multipurpose therapeutics to ameliorate this pathology. Purpose: To examine circulating factors present across atrophic pathologies. Methods: 35 male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to hindlimb ...


Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry May 2019

Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss affects both military and civilian persons. The hallmark of this injury is incomplete muscle regeneration, excessive fibrosis, and chronic inflammatory signaling resulting in permanent functional loss. Since permanent functional loss drastically reduces quality of life, many studies have been conducted to improve force recovery. Current scientific literature considers a repair strategy of either devitalized scaffolds infused with growth factors or viable tissue plus activating factors to be the more promising interventions for optimal force recovery. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to incorporate autologous repair and physical activity and observe the effects of muscle force recovery ...


Hip Abductor To Hip Adductor Strength Ratio Measurements In Patients With Non-Specific Low Back Pain, Matthew Hugg Apr 2019

Hip Abductor To Hip Adductor Strength Ratio Measurements In Patients With Non-Specific Low Back Pain, Matthew Hugg

Theses and Dissertations

Background: The hip musculature is globally known to support the pelvis, which in turn can aid in reducing the occurrence of low back pain (LBP). Previous research has shown a decrease in strength of the hip abductors in patients with LBP. The hip abductors also have an important role in stabilizing the pelvis while walking. The hip adductors attach to the pubic symphysis and assist in stabilizing the pelvis. Due to the ability to activate and assist with hip and leg motions, the adductor muscles may have an effect on controlling hip motion to reduce LBP and sacroiliac dysfunction. The ...


Effect Of Trb3 On Skeletal Muscle Mass Regulation And Exercise-Induced Adaptation, Ran Hee Choi Apr 2019

Effect Of Trb3 On Skeletal Muscle Mass Regulation And Exercise-Induced Adaptation, Ran Hee Choi

Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle, which composes over 40% of body mass, is responsible for daily locomotion and energy metabolism. It is a malleable tissue that can adapt its structure and function in response to internal and external environmental stimuli. Changing muscle mass and energy substrate utilization is a common skeletal muscle adaptation in response to various pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Failure to maintain skeletal muscle mass and function has been correlated with increasing morbidity and mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Hence, maintenance of skeletal muscle integrity is a recommended strategy in achieving better quality of ...


The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue During The Progression Of Cancer Cachexia, Brandon N. Vanderveen Apr 2019

The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue During The Progression Of Cancer Cachexia, Brandon N. Vanderveen

Theses and Dissertations

Cachexia is the unintentional loss of body weight secondary to chronic disease and is prevalent is roughly 50% of cancer patients. The loss of body weight and skeletal muscle mass is reduced functional capacity associated with reduced life quality. The etiology of cachexia is multimodal and complex; however, cachexia has been linked to several systemic (e.g. chronic inflammation, hypogonadism, anemia, insulin resistance) and behavioral (e.g. anorexia, inactivity) changes that can compound to accelerate muscle mass and body weight loss. While several inflammatory cytokines are associated with cachexia’s disease progression, our laboratory has established that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is ...


Identification Of Factors Contributing To Musculoskeletal Injuries In Military Basic Trainees, Amy Fraley Hand Apr 2019

Identification Of Factors Contributing To Musculoskeletal Injuries In Military Basic Trainees, Amy Fraley Hand

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the physical activity requirements of the United States (U.S.) Armed Forces, there is a concerning incidence rate of musculoskeletal injuries in military personnel. In the basic trainee population specifically, multiple studies have reported a range of exercise- related injury incidence from 14% to 42% in males and 27% to 61.7% in females. Depending on the severity, these injuries can exclude basic trainees from participation, ultimately altering career trajectory and creating the possibility of long-term disability. The studies of this dissertation examine variations in muscle strength, flexibility, and dynamic postural control as a means to identify those ...


Effects Of Attentional Focus Cues On Soccer Trap Kinematics And Performance, Ladule Lako Losarah Mar 2019

Effects Of Attentional Focus Cues On Soccer Trap Kinematics And Performance, Ladule Lako Losarah

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research was to assess how the kinematic performance of an inside of the foot soccer ball control movement changed with an internal, external, or holistic attentional focus coaching cue. The researchers used pendulum catapult to launch a soccer ball from 8.5 meters at the participant. Ten female active NCAA division 1 soccer players received one of three cues, or no cue, and then had five trials to control the ball onto an artificial turf mat to score 1-3 points depending on where the ball landed. Participants completed a manipulation check survey to ascertain the ...


Single Leg Hop Landing Analysis In Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability, Lateral Ankle Sprain Copers, And Healthy Individuals, Jordyn Ashlyn Rine Mar 2019

Single Leg Hop Landing Analysis In Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability, Lateral Ankle Sprain Copers, And Healthy Individuals, Jordyn Ashlyn Rine

Theses and Dissertations

CONTEXT: There are an estimated 28,000 ankle injuries that occur per day in the United States, thus making the pathology one of the most common sports-related injuries. Lateral ankle sprains account for 80% of all athletic injuries and approximately 73% will suffer from a recurrent injury. The residual symptoms that linger following repetitive lateral ankle sprains are often correlated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) copers successfully cope with the damage that results from sustaining a lateral ankle sprain, whereas CAI patients suffer from residual symptoms. Traditional measures of COP from force-plate data are useful in ...


Body Mass As The Optimal Load Predictor For Power Clean Variations: A Practical Approach, Marcel Lopes Dos Santos Mar 2019

Body Mass As The Optimal Load Predictor For Power Clean Variations: A Practical Approach, Marcel Lopes Dos Santos

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of estimating the optimal load of the Hang Power Clean (HPC), Hang High Pull (HHP), and Mid-thigh Clean Pull (MTP) based on a relative percentage of the subjects’ body mass (BM). Fifteen males with experience in weightlifting (age: 21.8 ± 1.9 years; BM: 83.2 ± 9.0 kg; height: 175.4 ± 6.0 cm; 1-repetition maximum [1RM]: 93.0 ± 12.7 kg; 1RM to BM ratio: 1.12 ± 0.13) performed HPC, HHP, and MTP at intensities of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% BM. Kinematic data ...


Impact Of A Single Injury Prevention Instructional Session On The Incidence Of Injury Among U.S. Army Rotc Cadets, Joshua Wooldridge Feb 2019

Impact Of A Single Injury Prevention Instructional Session On The Incidence Of Injury Among U.S. Army Rotc Cadets, Joshua Wooldridge

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries are the leading health concern for the United States Army. These injuries are the third leading cause of hospitalizations for Army service members and the primary cause for the majority of service-connect disability discharges. Over 80% of musculoskeletal injuries are overuse injuries caused by physical training. The Joint Services Physical Training Injury Prevention Work Group considers education to be a mandatory component of all injury prevention efforts; however, little military research has investigated the impact of education as a primary intervention. Objective: To examine the effect of an injury prevention education class on the incidence of injuries ...


Validation Of A 5-Minute Vpc Test To Assess And Compare Cognitively Intact Individuals And Individuals With Cognitive Impairments, Spencer Smith Jan 2019

Validation Of A 5-Minute Vpc Test To Assess And Compare Cognitively Intact Individuals And Individuals With Cognitive Impairments, Spencer Smith

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of cognitive impairments in the older adult population is growing. Finding treatment solutions to impede a cognitive decline can possibly lead to fewer cases of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease. A Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) could serve as a tool to predict, monitor, and regulate people who are susceptible to a cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to 1) to determine the validity of the Neurotrack 5-minute VPC test with the Neurotrack 30-minute VPC test, 2) to determine the test-retest reliability of the Neurotrack 5-minute VPC test, 3) to compare Neurotrack 5-minute VPC ...