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2019

Genetics and Genomics

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Articles 1 - 30 of 545

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And The Evolution Of Multivariate Phenotypes, Dean C. Adams, Michael L. Collyer Nov 2019

Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And The Evolution Of Multivariate Phenotypes, Dean C. Adams, Michael L. Collyer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Evolutionary biology is multivariate, and advances in phylogenetic comparative methods for multivariate phenotypes have surged to accommodate this fact. Evolutionary trends in multivariate phenotypes are derived from distances and directions between species in a multivariate phenotype space. For these patterns to be interpretable, phenotypes should be characterized by traits in commensurate units and scale. Visualizing such trends, as is achieved with phylomorphospaces, should continue to play a prominent role in macroevolutionary analyses. Evaluating phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models (e.g., phylogenetic analysis of variance and regression) is valuable, but using parametric procedures is limited to only a few phenotypic ...


Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. Vandyk, Adam J. Bogdanove Oct 2019

Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. Vandyk, Adam J. Bogdanove

Nicholas J. Booher

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are repeat-containing proteins used by plant pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host gene expression. Repeats are polymorphic and individually specify single nucleotides in the DNA target, with some degeneracy. A TAL effector-nucleotide binding code that links repeat type to specified nucleotide enables prediction of genomic binding sites for TAL effectors and customization of TAL effectors for use in DNA targeting, in particular as custom transcription factors for engineered gene regulation and as site-specific nucleases for genome editing. We have developed a suite of web-based tools called TAL Effector-Nucleotide Targeter 2.0 (TALE-NT 2.0;https://boglab.plp ...


Increased Interactions And Engulfment Of Dendrites By Microglia Precede Purkinje Cell Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Niemann Pick Type-C., Larisa Kavetsky, Kayla K Green, Bridget R Boyle, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Zachary M Padron, Sierra E Melli, Victoria L Kuhnel, Harriet M Jackson, Rosa E Blanco, Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes Oct 2019

Increased Interactions And Engulfment Of Dendrites By Microglia Precede Purkinje Cell Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Niemann Pick Type-C., Larisa Kavetsky, Kayla K Green, Bridget R Boyle, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Zachary M Padron, Sierra E Melli, Victoria L Kuhnel, Harriet M Jackson, Rosa E Blanco, Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes

Ileana Soto Reyes

Niemann Pick Type-C disease (NPC) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by pathogenic variants in the Npc1 or Npc2 genes that lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in lysosomes. NPC1 deficiency causes neurodegeneration, dementia and early death. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are particularly hypersensitive to NPC1 deficiency and degenerate earlier than other neurons in the brain. Activation of microglia is an important contributor to PCs degeneration in NPC. However, the mechanisms by which activated microglia promote PCs degeneration in NPC are not completely understood. Here, we are demonstrating that in the Npc1nmf164 mouse cerebellum, microglia ...


Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Accelerates Axonal Degeneration In Dba/2j Glaucoma, Rebecca A Buchanan, Kate E Foley, Keating W Pepper, Alaina M Reagan, Kelly J Keezer, Amanda A Hewes, Cory A Diemler, Christoph Preuss, Ileana Soto Reyes, Simon W M John, Gareth R Howell Oct 2019

Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Accelerates Axonal Degeneration In Dba/2j Glaucoma, Rebecca A Buchanan, Kate E Foley, Keating W Pepper, Alaina M Reagan, Kelly J Keezer, Amanda A Hewes, Cory A Diemler, Christoph Preuss, Ileana Soto Reyes, Simon W M John, Gareth R Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Purpose: Glaucoma is a complex disease with major risk factors including advancing age and increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Dissecting these earliest events will likely identify new avenues for therapeutics. Previously, we performed transcriptional profiling in DBA/2J (D2) mice, a widely used mouse model relevant to glaucoma. Here, we use these data to identify and test regulators of early gene expression changes in DBA/2J glaucoma.

Methods: Upstream regulator analysis (URA) in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify potential master regulators of differentially expressed genes. The function of one putative regulator, mesenchyme homeobox 2 (Meox2), was tested using a ...


Enhancing Face Validity Of Mouse Models Of Alzheimer's Disease With Natural Genetic Variation., Kristen D Onos, Asli Uyar, Kelly J Keezer, Harriet M Jackson, Christoph Preuss, Casey J Acklin, Rita O'Rourke, Rebecca Buchanan, Travis L Cossette, Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Ileana Soto Reyes, Gregory W Carter, Gareth R Howell Oct 2019

Enhancing Face Validity Of Mouse Models Of Alzheimer's Disease With Natural Genetic Variation., Kristen D Onos, Asli Uyar, Kelly J Keezer, Harriet M Jackson, Christoph Preuss, Casey J Acklin, Rita O'Rourke, Rebecca Buchanan, Travis L Cossette, Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Ileana Soto Reyes, Gregory W Carter, Gareth R Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Classical laboratory strains show limited genetic diversity and do not harness natural genetic variation. Mouse models relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have largely been developed using these classical laboratory strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6), and this has likely contributed to the failure of translation of findings from mice to the clinic. Therefore, here we test the potential for natural genetic variation to enhance the translatability of AD mouse models. Two widely used AD-relevant transgenes, APPswe and PS1de9 (APP/PS1), were backcrossed from B6 to three wild-derived strains CAST/EiJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, representative of three Mus musculus ...


Increased Interactions And Engulfment Of Dendrites By Microglia Precede Purkinje Cell Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Niemann Pick Type-C., Larisa Kavetsky, Kayla K Green, Bridget R Boyle, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Zachary M Padron, Sierra E Melli, Victoria L Kuhnel, Harriet M Jackson, Rosa E Blanco, Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes Oct 2019

Increased Interactions And Engulfment Of Dendrites By Microglia Precede Purkinje Cell Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Niemann Pick Type-C., Larisa Kavetsky, Kayla K Green, Bridget R Boyle, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Zachary M Padron, Sierra E Melli, Victoria L Kuhnel, Harriet M Jackson, Rosa E Blanco, Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Niemann Pick Type-C disease (NPC) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by pathogenic variants in the Npc1 or Npc2 genes that lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in lysosomes. NPC1 deficiency causes neurodegeneration, dementia and early death. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are particularly hypersensitive to NPC1 deficiency and degenerate earlier than other neurons in the brain. Activation of microglia is an important contributor to PCs degeneration in NPC. However, the mechanisms by which activated microglia promote PCs degeneration in NPC are not completely understood. Here, we are demonstrating that in the Npc1nmf164 mouse cerebellum, microglia ...


Beaver And Aspen : Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers Oct 2019

Beaver And Aspen : Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers

Nicolaas Bouwes

In the West, climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought. Restoration of soils and water storage capacity can help create resilient uplands and riverscapes (i.e., streams and the valley bottoms). Over the past two centuries, common land uses, the removal of beaver and wood, straightening of streams, and damage to riparian areas have created simplified, structurally starved, riverscapes. Degraded streams are very efficient at transporting water, sediment, and nutrients downstream. Aspen forests are also biological hotspots that have been degraded by past land uses such as overbrowsing ungulates, land clearing, fire suppression, and ...


Sdrap: An Annotation Pipeline For Highly Scrambled Genomes, Jasper Braun Oct 2019

Sdrap: An Annotation Pipeline For Highly Scrambled Genomes, Jasper Braun

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Network Structure And Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Deena R. Schmidt Oct 2019

Network Structure And Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Deena R. Schmidt

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Loop Homology Of Bi-Secondary Structures, Andrei Bura Oct 2019

Loop Homology Of Bi-Secondary Structures, Andrei Bura

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Pollen Traits To Build A Mathematical Model Of Pollen Competition - A Biologist's Perspective, Rob Swanson, Alex Capaldi Oct 2019

Quantifying Pollen Traits To Build A Mathematical Model Of Pollen Competition - A Biologist's Perspective, Rob Swanson, Alex Capaldi

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Topology And Dynamics Of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Meta-Analysis, Claus Kadelka Oct 2019

Topology And Dynamics Of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Meta-Analysis, Claus Kadelka

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of The Role Of Alpha-Arylphorin In The Heliothis Virescens Midgut Response To Cry1ac Toxin From Bacillus Thuringiensis, Jerreme Jamael Jackson Sep 2019

Characterization Of The Role Of Alpha-Arylphorin In The Heliothis Virescens Midgut Response To Cry1ac Toxin From Bacillus Thuringiensis, Jerreme Jamael Jackson

Jerreme Jackson

Homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium in Heliothis virescens is mediated by the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that lie adjacent to the basal lamina. In response to extrinsic and intrinsic signals, ISC proliferation and differentiation promotes epithelial growth and regeneration following the loss of integrity. We tested the in vivo effects of the ISC mitogen, a [alpha]-arylphorin, on ISC proliferation and the morphological changes of the midgut during larval development. Additionally, we examined how these changes affected the intestinal epithelium response to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. Histological and in vitro evidence supported two distinct ...


Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont Sep 2019

Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Max Rothschild

Exposure to high temperatures is known to impair immune functions and disease resistance of poultry. Characterizing changes in the transcriptome can help identify mechanisms by which immune tissues, such as the thymus, respond to heat stress. In this study, 22-day-old chickens from two genetic lines (a relatively resistant Fayoumi line and a more susceptible broiler line) were exposed to acute heat stress (35 °C) and/or immune simulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg/kg). Transcriptome responses in the thymus were identified by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Expression of most genes was unaffected by heat and/or LPS in the Fayoumi line, whereas ...


Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont Sep 2019

Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exposure to high temperatures is known to impair immune functions and disease resistance of poultry. Characterizing changes in the transcriptome can help identify mechanisms by which immune tissues, such as the thymus, respond to heat stress. In this study, 22-day-old chickens from two genetic lines (a relatively resistant Fayoumi line and a more susceptible broiler line) were exposed to acute heat stress (35 °C) and/or immune simulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg/kg). Transcriptome responses in the thymus were identified by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Expression of most genes was unaffected by heat and/or LPS in the Fayoumi line, whereas ...


Dna Fingerprinting Reveals Low Genetic Diversity In Gunnison's Prairie Dog (Cynomys Gunnisoni), Steven E. Travis, C. N. Slobodchikoff, Paul Keim Sep 2019

Dna Fingerprinting Reveals Low Genetic Diversity In Gunnison's Prairie Dog (Cynomys Gunnisoni), Steven E. Travis, C. N. Slobodchikoff, Paul Keim

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

The use of molecular techniques for the assessment of familial relationships among social species of mammals has become relatively commonplace. However, some species represent poor candidates for such studies due to naturally low levels of genetic diversity, leading to unacceptably large standard errors associated with estimates of relatedness. Here, we report on a preliminary study of genetic diversity within two populations of a social species of ground squirrel, Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) using DNA fingerprinting. We observed low levels of diversity in the form of large mean coefficients of genetic similarity among individuals occupying the same population. Overall ...


Ontogenesis Of The Sella Turcica Among Egyptians: Forensic And Radiological Study, Wafaa Mohamed El-Sehly, Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, Mohamed Samir Shaban Sep 2019

Ontogenesis Of The Sella Turcica Among Egyptians: Forensic And Radiological Study, Wafaa Mohamed El-Sehly, Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, Mohamed Samir Shaban

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Introduction: The sella turcica has gained importance as a stable bony landmark in cephalometric studies.
Aim of the work: The aim of the work was to explore the changes that accompany postnatal ontogeny of the sella turcica until full development, and to verify its contribution in age estimation and sexual assignment among Egyptians.
Subjects and methods: Six selected measurements of the sella turcica of 215 Egyptian patients were assessed using Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT). The patients represented different ages and were referred to the Radiodiagnosis and Intervention Department. The gathered data were then subjected to statistical analysis including correlation and ...


Genetic Overview Of The Maya Populations: Mitochondrial Dna Haplogroups, Angélica González-Oliver, Dircé Pineda-Vázquez, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, Isabel De La Cruz-Laina, Luis Medrano-González, Lourdes Márquez-Morfín, Allan Ortega-Muñoz Sep 2019

Genetic Overview Of The Maya Populations: Mitochondrial Dna Haplogroups, Angélica González-Oliver, Dircé Pineda-Vázquez, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, Isabel De La Cruz-Laina, Luis Medrano-González, Lourdes Márquez-Morfín, Allan Ortega-Muñoz

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

We identified the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups A, B, C and D in 75 present-day Maya individuals, 24 Maya individuals of the colonial period and one pre-Columbian Maya individual from Quintana Roo, Mexico. We examined these data together with those of 21 Maya populations accounting for 647 present-day Maya individuals and 104 ancient Maya individuals. A demographic study based on the analysis of fertility and endogamy was carried out in two modern Maya populations to identify cultural factors that influence the mitochondrial haplogroup genetic diversity. Most present-day and ancient Maya populations show a distribution pattern of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies A, C ...


Genetic Variants Of Duffy And Hemoglobin S Genes In An Afrodescendent Population From Columbia, Diana C. Ortega, Heiber Cardenas, Guillermo Barreto Sep 2019

Genetic Variants Of Duffy And Hemoglobin S Genes In An Afrodescendent Population From Columbia, Diana C. Ortega, Heiber Cardenas, Guillermo Barreto

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Malaria is an endemic disease in a large part of Colombia, and the city of Buenaventura reports one of the highest malaria infection rates. Some genetic variants confer resistance to malaria, such as the heterozygote for hemoglobin S (HbS) and the homozygous variant FYBES/FYBES of the Duffy gene. The aim of this work was the molecular characterization of these genes in an afrodescendent population from the urban area of Buenaventura. A total of 819 individuals from a stratified random sampling in each of the 12 communities of this city were analysed. Molecular analysis was performed using PCR-RFLP ...


Complexity, Genetic Causation, And Hereditarianism, Charles Roseman Sep 2019

Complexity, Genetic Causation, And Hereditarianism, Charles Roseman

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Hereditarians have claimed that recent advances in psychological and psychiatric genetics support their contention that individual and group socially important aspects of behavior and cognition are largely insensitive to environmental context. This has been countered by anti- hereditarians who (correctly) claim that the conclusion of genetic ineluctability is false. Anti- hereditarians, however, sometimes use problematic arguments based on complexity and the ignorance that comes with complexity and a demand for mechanistic, as opposed to variational, explanations for the ways in which genes affect phenotype. I argue here, as a committed anti-hereditarian, that the complexity gambit and the demand for mechanisms ...


How The Atacama Skeleton Might Advance Discussion Of Responsible Conduct Of Research Responsibilities, Thomas May, Mariko Nakano-Okuno Sep 2019

How The Atacama Skeleton Might Advance Discussion Of Responsible Conduct Of Research Responsibilities, Thomas May, Mariko Nakano-Okuno

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Controversies resulting from genetic testing on skeletal remains of disputed stewardship raise important questions about obligations inherent on genetic researchers to assure ethical chain of custody. In this paper, we analyze and evaluate several proposed positions on whether such research should be published. Following jurisprudential standards for legitimate regulatory systems, we argue that responsible conduct of research requires reasonable attention to chain of custody, but cannot require guarantees, particularly in cases of ancient remains.


Oligogenic Effects Of 16p11.2 Copy-Number Variation On Craniofacial Development, Yuqi Qiu, Curtis K. Deutsch, Jonathan Sebat Sep 2019

Oligogenic Effects Of 16p11.2 Copy-Number Variation On Craniofacial Development, Yuqi Qiu, Curtis K. Deutsch, Jonathan Sebat

Open Access Articles

A copy-number variant (CNV) of 16p11.2 encompassing 30 genes is associated with developmental and psychiatric disorders, head size, and body mass. The genetic mechanisms that underlie these associations are not understood. To determine the influence of 16p11.2 genes on development, we investigated the effects of CNV on craniofacial structure in humans and model organisms. We show that deletion and duplication of 16p11.2 have "mirror" effects on specific craniofacial features that are conserved between human and rodent models of the CNV. By testing dosage effects of individual genes on the shape of the mandible in zebrafish, we identify ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Michelle L. Soupir

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Integrated Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Mirna-Mrna Crosstalk In Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma., Yang Zhang, Yong Chen, Jinhai Yu, Guiming Liu, Zhigang Huang Sep 2019

Integrated Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Mirna-Mrna Crosstalk In Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma., Yang Zhang, Yong Chen, Jinhai Yu, Guiming Liu, Zhigang Huang

Yong Chen

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has proven to be a powerful tool in delineating myriads of molecular subtypes of cancer, as well as in revealing accumulation of genomic mutations throughout cancer progression. Whole genome microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles were obtained from patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) using deep sequencing technology, and were analyzed by utilizing integrative computational approaches. A large number of protein-coding and non-coding genes were detected to be differentially expressed, indicating a functional switch in LSCC cells. A total of 127 mutated genes were detected to be significantly associated with ectoderm and epidermis development. Eleven ...


Uncover Disease Genes By Maximizing Information Flow In The Phenome-Interactome Network., Yong Chen, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Uncover Disease Genes By Maximizing Information Flow In The Phenome-Interactome Network., Yong Chen, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

MOTIVATION: Pinpointing genes that underlie human inherited diseases among candidate genes in susceptibility genetic regions is the primary step towards the understanding of pathogenesis of diseases. Although several probabilistic models have been proposed to prioritize candidate genes using phenotype similarities and protein-protein interactions, no combinatorial approaches have been proposed in the literature.

RESULTS: We propose the first combinatorial approach for prioritizing candidate genes. We first construct a phenome-interactome network by integrating the given phenotype similarity profile, protein-protein interaction network and associations between diseases and genes. Then, we introduce a computational method called MAXIF to maximize the information flow in this ...


Fully Bayesian Analysis Of Allele-Specific Rna-Seq Data, Ignacio Alvarez-Castro, Jarad Niemi Sep 2019

Fully Bayesian Analysis Of Allele-Specific Rna-Seq Data, Ignacio Alvarez-Castro, Jarad Niemi

Jarad Niemi

Diploid organisms have two copies of each gene, called alleles, that can be separately transcribed. The RNA abundance associated to any particular allele is known as allele-specific expression (ASE). When two alleles have polymorphisms in transcribed regions, ASE can be studied using RNA-seq read count data. ASE has characteristics different from the regular RNA-seq expression: ASE cannot be assessed for every gene, measures of ASE can be biased towards one of the alleles (reference allele), and ASE provides two measures of expression for a single gene for each biological samples with leads to additional complications for single-gene models. We present ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Adina Howe

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Integrating Human Omics Data To Prioritize Candidate Genes., Yong Chen, Xuebing Wu, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Integrating Human Omics Data To Prioritize Candidate Genes., Yong Chen, Xuebing Wu, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

BACKGROUND: The identification of genes involved in human complex diseases remains a great challenge in computational systems biology. Although methods have been developed to use disease phenotypic similarities with a protein-protein interaction network for the prioritization of candidate genes, other valuable omics data sources have been largely overlooked in these methods.

METHODS: With this understanding, we proposed a method called BRIDGE to prioritize candidate genes by integrating disease phenotypic similarities with such omics data as protein-protein interactions, gene sequence similarities, gene expression patterns, gene ontology annotations, and gene pathway memberships. BRIDGE utilizes a multiple regression model with lasso penalty to ...


Tracing Evolutionary Footprints To Identify Novel Gene Functional Linkages., Yong Chen, Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Shuyan Zhang, Tong He, Fenglou Mao, Congyan Zhang, Huina Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Pingsheng Liu Sep 2019

Tracing Evolutionary Footprints To Identify Novel Gene Functional Linkages., Yong Chen, Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Shuyan Zhang, Tong He, Fenglou Mao, Congyan Zhang, Huina Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Pingsheng Liu

Yong Chen

Systematic determination of gene function is an essential step in fully understanding the precise contribution of each gene for the proper execution of molecular functions in the cell. Gene functional linkage is defined as to describe the relationship of a group of genes with similar functions. With thousands of genomes sequenced, there arises a great opportunity to utilize gene evolutionary information to identify gene functional linkages. To this end, we established a computational method (called TRACE) to trace gene footprints through a gene functional network constructed from 341 prokaryotic genomes. TRACE performance was validated and successfully tested to predict enzyme ...


Investigating Evolutionary Dynamics Of Rha1 Operons, Yong Chen, Dandan Geng, Kristina Ehrhardt, Shaoqiang Zhang Sep 2019

Investigating Evolutionary Dynamics Of Rha1 Operons, Yong Chen, Dandan Geng, Kristina Ehrhardt, Shaoqiang Zhang

Yong Chen

Grouping genes as operons is an important genomic feature of prokaryotic organisms. The comprehensive understanding of the operon organizations would be helpful to decipher transcriptional mechanisms, cellular pathways, and the evolutionary landscape of prokaryotic genomes. Although thousands of prokaryotes have been sequenced, genome-wide investigation of the evolutionary dynamics (division and recombination) of operons among these genomes remains unexplored. Here, we systematically analyzed the operon dynamics of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (RHA1), an oleaginous bacterium with high potential applications in biofuel, by comparing 340 prokaryotic genomes that were carefully selected from different genera. Interestingly, 99% of RHA1 operons were observed to exhibit ...