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2019

Environmental Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 172

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex Jul 2019

First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex

Guiping Hu

Here we report on a static, algebraic, spreadsheet-implemented modeling approach to estimate the costs, energy inputs and outputs, and global warming potential of biomass feedstocks. Inputs to the model included literature sourced data for: environmental factors, crop physiological-parameters such as radiation use efficiency and water use efficiency, and crop cost components. Using an energy-input-output life-cycle-assessment approach, we calculated the energy associated with each cost component, allowing an estimate of the total energy required to produce the crop and fuel alongside the energy return on investment. We did this for crop scenarios in the upper Midwest US and Far West US ...


Healthy Food As A New Technology—The Implications Of Technological Diffusion And Food Price For Changes In Eating Habits, Anne E. Dohmen, D. Raj Raman Jul 2019

Healthy Food As A New Technology—The Implications Of Technological Diffusion And Food Price For Changes In Eating Habits, Anne E. Dohmen, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

Diet influences health and poor diets drive up healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole. Multiple governmental programs in the US have aimed to educate citizens about diet choices, resulting in documented successes, as well as, unintended consequences such as increased food waste. Here we examine some of the relationships between healthy diets, food prices, and wealth by drawing parallels between the diffusion of technological innovation and healthy food diets. We introduce a simple modeling framework to estimate the adoption rates of healthy diets based on income and food prices, and describe the implications of the modeling results ...


First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex Jul 2019

First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex

D. Raj Raman

Here we report on a static, algebraic, spreadsheet-implemented modeling approach to estimate the costs, energy inputs and outputs, and global warming potential of biomass feedstocks. Inputs to the model included literature sourced data for: environmental factors, crop physiological-parameters such as radiation use efficiency and water use efficiency, and crop cost components. Using an energy-input-output life-cycle-assessment approach, we calculated the energy associated with each cost component, allowing an estimate of the total energy required to produce the crop and fuel alongside the energy return on investment. We did this for crop scenarios in the upper Midwest US and Far West US ...


Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott Jul 2019

Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Vocalizations carry emotional, physiological and individual information. This suggests that they may serve as potentially useful indicators for inferring animal welfare. At the same time, automated methods for analysing and classifying sound have developed rapidly, particularly in the fields of ecology, conservation and sound scene classification. These methods are already used to automatically classify animal vocalizations, for example, in identifying animal species and estimating numbers of individuals. Despite this potential, they have not yet found widespread application in animal welfare monitoring. In this review, we first discuss current trends in sound analysis for ecology, conservation and sound classification. Following this ...


Introduction Of Genetically Engineered Organisms - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement—July 2007, Mary Berenbaum, Michael Blanchette, Paul Christensen, R. James Cook, John Cordts, Terri Dunahay, Rebecca Edelstein, Samantha Floyd, Paul Gepts, Susana Goggi, Vickie Hage, Levis Handley, Andrea Huberty, Bruce Macbryde, Virgil Meier, Manjit Misra, Therese Murtagh, Clint Nesbitt, Catherine Preston, Steven G. Pueppke, Andrew Roberts, Robyn Rose, Peter Schmeissner, Carmen Soileau, Rhey Solomon, Stephanie Stephens, John Turner, Piet Van Der Meer, Michael Wach, Michael Watson, Mark Westgate, Jeffrey Wolt, Christine Zakarka Jul 2019

Introduction Of Genetically Engineered Organisms - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement—July 2007, Mary Berenbaum, Michael Blanchette, Paul Christensen, R. James Cook, John Cordts, Terri Dunahay, Rebecca Edelstein, Samantha Floyd, Paul Gepts, Susana Goggi, Vickie Hage, Levis Handley, Andrea Huberty, Bruce Macbryde, Virgil Meier, Manjit Misra, Therese Murtagh, Clint Nesbitt, Catherine Preston, Steven G. Pueppke, Andrew Roberts, Robyn Rose, Peter Schmeissner, Carmen Soileau, Rhey Solomon, Stephanie Stephens, John Turner, Piet Van Der Meer, Michael Wach, Michael Watson, Mark Westgate, Jeffrey Wolt, Christine Zakarka

A. Susana Goggi

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates the environmental introduction of genetically engineered (GE) organisms, including crop and noncrop plants, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and micro-organisms. APHIS regulations are grounded in the most up-to-date science and are designed to provide a level of oversight appropriate for the safe introduction of GE organisms. APHIS is considering whether revisions to its regulations are necessary. One purpose of such revisions would be to address current and future technological trends resulting in GE plants with which the agency is less familiar, such as plants with environmental ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2019

Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment ...


Extreme Climatic Variability During Migration Invokes Physiological And Dietary Plasticity Among Spring Migrating Ducks, Adam K. Janke, Michael J. Anteau, Joshua D. Stafford Jun 2019

Extreme Climatic Variability During Migration Invokes Physiological And Dietary Plasticity Among Spring Migrating Ducks, Adam K. Janke, Michael J. Anteau, Joshua D. Stafford

Adam Janke

Environmental stochasticity encountered during migration can have negative consequences for individuals and population demographics through direct reductions in survival or cross-seasonal impacts. We took advantage of substantial interannual variation in spring migration conditions over a 4 year field study to examine physiological and dietary variation among two species of migrant ducks. We collected female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838)) and Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors (Linnaeus, 1766)) during spring migration and measured lipid and protein reserves, an index of recent lipid metabolism based on concentrations of lipid metabolites in plasma, and diets. We documented systematic interannual variation among these metrics ...


Prairie Wetlands Confer Consistent Migrant Refueling Conditions Across A Gradient Of Agricultural Land Use Intensities, Adam Janke, Micheal J. Anteau, Joshua D. Stafford Jun 2019

Prairie Wetlands Confer Consistent Migrant Refueling Conditions Across A Gradient Of Agricultural Land Use Intensities, Adam Janke, Micheal J. Anteau, Joshua D. Stafford

Adam Janke

Increasing global demands for land to produce food, fiber, and energy threatens temperate grassland and wetland ecosystems, catalyzing a need to inform strategic and efficient approaches to conserve ecological function in these ecosystems. In the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, an extensive agricultural footprint has grown since the late 19th century and recently expanded in extent and intensity of cultivation in response to improved technology and global demands. Despite extensive modifications, many wetlands remain in a matrix of intensively farmed uplands in this landscape. We comprehensively evaluated contributions of those wetlands to spring-migrating ducks by studying two wetland-obligate foragers ...


Estimating Density And Detection Of Bobcats In Fragmented Midwestern Landscapes Using Spatial Capture–Recapture Data From Camera Traps, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Tim C. Swearingen, Edward D. Davis, Charles R. Anderson, Jonathan A. Jenks, Christopher S. Deperno, Robert D. Bluett Jun 2019

Estimating Density And Detection Of Bobcats In Fragmented Midwestern Landscapes Using Spatial Capture–Recapture Data From Camera Traps, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Tim C. Swearingen, Edward D. Davis, Charles R. Anderson, Jonathan A. Jenks, Christopher S. Deperno, Robert D. Bluett

Robert Klaver

Camera‐trapping data analyzed with spatially explicit capture–recapture (SCR) models can provide a rigorous method for estimating density of small populations of elusive carnivore species. We sought to develop and evaluate the efficacy of SCR models for estimating density of a presumed low‐density bobcat (Lynx rufus) population in fragmented landscapes of west‐central Illinois, USA. We analyzed camera‐trapping data from 49 camera stations in a 1,458‐km2 area deployed over a 77‐day period from 1 February to 18 April 2017. Mean operational time of cameras was 52 days (range = 32–67 days). We captured 23 ...


Comparing Carapa Guianensis Seed Production In 3 Amazonian Forests, Carmen Valencia Jun 2019

Comparing Carapa Guianensis Seed Production In 3 Amazonian Forests, Carmen Valencia

DePaul Discoveries

This paper is the first part of a project that has the purpose of creating models that help us better understand variation in seed production in Carapa guianensis, a species in the mahogany family. The goal of this paper is to visualize seed production patterns to inform species management. When this study is completed, it will aid local communities harvesting Carapa in projecting revenue from the oil produced from the seeds. Carapa is a masting species, which means it has an intermittent synchronous production of large seed crops. The major suspected causes of variation in seed production are resource acquisition ...


Evaluating Oyster Aquaculture’S Cost-Effectiveness As A Nitrogen Removal Best Management Practice – A Case Study Of The Delaware Inland Bays, Jefferson F. Flood Jun 2019

Evaluating Oyster Aquaculture’S Cost-Effectiveness As A Nitrogen Removal Best Management Practice – A Case Study Of The Delaware Inland Bays, Jefferson F. Flood

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Disease and overfishing have led to a dramatic decline in wild populations and subsequent harvests of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica over the past few decades in Delaware and other states along the Atlantic Coast. However, in addition to their value as food to consumers, oysters, whether wild populations or cultured stocks, can provide ecosystem services such as nutrient removal, which may result in localized water quality improvements. Consequently, recent policies in Delaware have sought to establish and grow an oyster aquaculture industry. However, a key challenge to achieving efficient levels of industry growth and water quality improvements is that ...


Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, M Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, J D. Loftis, J Boon, D Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, M Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, J D. Loftis, J Boon, D Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2019

Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment ...


Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott Jun 2019

Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott

Conservation Biology and Animal Welfare

Vocalizations carry emotional, physiological and individual information. This suggests that they may serve as potentially useful indicators for inferring animal welfare. At the same time, automated methods for analysing and classifying sound have developed rapidly, particularly in the fields of ecology, conservation and sound scene classification. These methods are already used to automatically classify animal vocalizations, for example, in identifying animal species and estimating numbers of individuals. Despite this potential, they have not yet found widespread application in animal welfare monitoring. In this review, we first discuss current trends in sound analysis for ecology, conservation and sound classification. Following this ...


Matrix Recharge In A Shrink-Swell Floodplain Forest Soil, Savannah R. Morales Jun 2019

Matrix Recharge In A Shrink-Swell Floodplain Forest Soil, Savannah R. Morales

LSU Master's Theses

Despite the global distribution of fine-grained Vertisols, the hydrology of these floodplain soils is still not well understood. Vertisols shrink and swell depending on soil moisture leading to a range of soil pore sizes, from large macropore cracks to smaller micropores, and consequently a range of hydraulic conductivities. Despite the plethora of research indicating the importance of both flooding and soil moisture in floodplain ecosystems, the specific role that flooding plays in soil moisture recharge has been less widely studied and remains of interest. Blue food dye and deuterated water were used as tracers to determine the role of the ...


A Crash In The Night, Mary Ann Steiner, Sam Taylor, Judy Diamond Jun 2019

A Crash In The Night, Mary Ann Steiner, Sam Taylor, Judy Diamond

Zea E-Books

The illustrations in this book describe a wildlife encounter. Wild animals, like people, have challenges in life. They are adaptable and inventive, and they find new ways of solving problems to help them survive. As you turn the pages, describe what you see. How would you solve this wildlife challenge?

Mary Ann Steiner: Working on this story was exciting to me because I believe at any age, we can notice what is happening around us and make decisions to protect and enjoy nature! In this story, the kids see an exciting new character in the community. Once they figure out ...


Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen Jun 2019

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen

Zea E-Books

This book surveys Wyoming’s mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian faunas. In addition to introducing the state’s geography, geology, climate, and major ecosystems, it provides 65 biological profiles of 72 mammal species, 195 profiles of 196 birds, 9 profiles of 12 reptiles, and 6 profiles of 9 amphibians. There are also species lists of Wyoming’s 117 mammals, 445 birds, 22 reptiles, and 12 amphibians. Also included are descriptions of nearly 50 national and state properties, including parks, forests, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in Wyoming. The book includes a text of more than 150,000 words, nearly ...


Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson Jun 2019

Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson

Learning Communities Research and Practice

At Humboldt State University (HSU), location is everything. Students are as drawn to our spectacular natural setting as they are to the unique majors in the natural resource sciences that the university has to offer. However, the isolation that nurtures the pristine natural beauty of the area presents a difficult reality for students who are accustomed to more densely populated environments. With the large majority of our incoming students coming from distant cities, we set out to cultivate a “home away from home” by connecting first-year students majoring in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to the communities and local ...


Aquatic Invasive Species Change Ecosystem Services From The World's Largest Wild Sockeye Salmon Fisheries In Alaska, Tobias Schwoerer, Joseph M. Little, Milo D. Adkison Jun 2019

Aquatic Invasive Species Change Ecosystem Services From The World's Largest Wild Sockeye Salmon Fisheries In Alaska, Tobias Schwoerer, Joseph M. Little, Milo D. Adkison

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This study combines a multi-method approach to structured expert judgment with market valuation to forecast fisheries damages from introduced invasive species. The method is applied to a case study of Alaska’s first submersed aquatic invasive plant, Elodea spp., threatening Alaska’s salmon fisheries. Assuming that Elodea spp. remains unmanaged, estimated mean damages to commercial sockeye fisheries aggregated across Alaska amount to a potential $159 million annually with a 5% chance of exceeding $577 million annually ($2015 USD). The associated mean loss of natural capital amounts to $5.1 billion cumulatively over the next 100 years reaching $400 million after ...


Any Port In A Storm: Vessel Activity And The Risk Of Iuu-Caught Fish Passing Through The World’S Most Important Fishing Ports, Gilles Hosch, Bradley Soule, Max Schofield, Trevor Thomas, Charles Kilgour, Tim Huntington Jun 2019

Any Port In A Storm: Vessel Activity And The Risk Of Iuu-Caught Fish Passing Through The World’S Most Important Fishing Ports, Gilles Hosch, Bradley Soule, Max Schofield, Trevor Thomas, Charles Kilgour, Tim Huntington

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This study assesses the risk of fish from illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) sources passing through the world’s most important fishing ports and explores the drivers of this risk.

Like previous studies it has attempted to rank ports and States based on landings and vessel visits reported by governments by using Automatic Identification System (AIS) positional data transmitted by fishing and fish carrier vessels to identify the locations of ports and rank them based on the frequency of visits by foreign-flagged and domestic-flagged vessels. It advances our thinking in that (i) the analysis includes an estimation of the hold ...


The State Of Canada’S Birds 2019, North American Bird Conservation Initiative Canada Jun 2019

The State Of Canada’S Birds 2019, North American Bird Conservation Initiative Canada

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

BIRDS TELL US ABOUT THE HEALTH OF OUR WATER, AIR, AND LAND WE NEED TO LISTEN AND ACT

THE STATE OF CANADA’S BIRDS: Shorebirds, grassland birds, and aerial insectivores are in steep decline.

WATERFOWL AND WETLAND BIRDS CONSERVATION PARTNERSHIPS WORK

GRASSLAND BIRDS ARE RUNNING OUT OF TIME

SHOREBIRDS ARE LOSING GROUND

SEABIRDS A GLOBAL CONSERVATION CRISIS

FOREST BIRDS CONSERVATION WITHOUT BORDERS

BIRDS OF PREY AND AERIAL INSECTIVORES LEARNING FROM THE PAST

WHAT’S GOOD FOR BIRDS IS GOOD FOR US

CANADIANS ARE MONITORING THE STATE OF CANADA’S BIRDS


Distribution And Productivity Of Naturalized Alfalfa In Mixed-Grass Prairie, Lan Xu, Arvid Boe, Patricia Johnson, Roger N. Gates, Christopher G. Misar Jun 2019

Distribution And Productivity Of Naturalized Alfalfa In Mixed-Grass Prairie, Lan Xu, Arvid Boe, Patricia Johnson, Roger N. Gates, Christopher G. Misar

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage and conservation crop in North America but occurrences of naturalized alfalfa in rangelands are rare. A naturalized population of yellow-flowered alfalfa in mixed-grass prairie on the Grand River National Grassland in South Dakota has potential agricultural value for the region. Despite this value, the distribution pattern of this alfalfa among and within native plant communities in the northern Great Plains is unknown. Field studies were conducted from 2003 through 2006 along topographic positions at two sites where yellow-flowered alfalfa was naturalized to evaluate the relationships of yellow-flowered alfalfa on biomass production, cover ...


Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee May 2019

Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hydrological changes attributable to global warming increase the severity and frequency of droughts, which in turn affect agriculture. Hence, we proposed the Standardized Agricultural Drought Index (SADI), which is a new drought index specialized for agriculture and crops, and evaluated current and expected droughts in the Korean Peninsula. The SADI applies crop phenology to the hydrological cycle, which is a basic element that assesses drought. The SADI of rice and maize was calculated using representative hydrological variables (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the crop growing season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of SADI, the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index, which ...


Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese May 2019

Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese

Stephen J Dinsmore

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is the focus of large-scale habitat restoration efforts because of recent population declines. From 2006-2017 we monitored monarchs at >400 sites throughout Iowa to link site occupancy and colonization/extinction dynamics to the presence of milkweed, site-specific habitat metrics, and landscape context at differing spatial scales. We used a robust design occupancy model in Program MARK and a hierarchical model selection approach to estimate site occupancy, extinction and colonization probabilities, and detection probability. Occupancy models revealed that monarchs responded differently to landscape features, environmental conditions, and local habitat conditions for site occupancy, extinction, and colonization ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver May 2019

Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver

Lisa A. Schulte Moore

We conducted a designed experiment to test whether having a thermal‐imaging camera available affected researchers’ nest detection rates when searching for bird nests in cropland and grassland habitat in an agricultural landscape of Iowa, USA, in 2016. With known active nests present, naïve observers searched for nests with and without a thermal imager available. We did not find a difference in detection probabilities, although only a large difference would have been detectable with our sample size. Extraneous heat signatures from reflected solar radiation and dense vegetation were key factors limiting the usefulness of thermal imagers for locating nests.


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith May 2019

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


Effects Of Forest Management On Densities And Nest Survival Of Breeding Birds In Upland Hardwood Ecosystems, Michael Barnes May 2019

Effects Of Forest Management On Densities And Nest Survival Of Breeding Birds In Upland Hardwood Ecosystems, Michael Barnes

Electronic Thesis Collection

Over the past 50 years, significant declines in 47% of Neotropical migrant bird species have been documented in North America. Declines are most likely due to the loss and fragmentation of breeding, wintering, and stopover habitat mainly caused by agriculture and urban development. This loss of critical habitat results in population sinks that need to be maintained by immigration from a population source found in continuously forested landscapes. However, in landscapes harvested for timber, forest management practices alter the landscape and as a result, affect breeding bird abundances and nest success. The objective of our study was to determine the ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan May 2019

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...