Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2019

Biology

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 553

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez Dec 2019

Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez

Honors Theses

The success of certain ant species in urban areas is largely unknown. Available food in the environment could affect the composition of ants in urban areas due to a possible relationship between ant physiology and diet. I tested the oil preference of ants as a function of available arthropod prey in urban environments. I hypothesized that as arthropod diversity decreased, ant abundance at oil baits would decrease. Oil is an important nutrient that can affect ant body functions and activities. Ant foraging activities have been found to be affected by lipid depletion. A food source where ants can obtain oil ...


Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer Oct 2019

Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Molecular Phylogeny Provides New Insights On The Taxonomy And Composition Of Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) And Related Genera, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Pyrka, Jiljí Sitko, Witold Jeżewski, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Vasyl V. Tkach, Zdzisław Laskowski Aug 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Provides New Insights On The Taxonomy And Composition Of Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) And Related Genera, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Pyrka, Jiljí Sitko, Witold Jeżewski, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Vasyl V. Tkach, Zdzisław Laskowski

Biology Faculty Publications

Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 is one of the largest genera of the Dicrocoeliidae and is one of the best examples of the systematic complexity and taxonomic instability within this family. We present the molecular analyses based on novel sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes obtained from 56 isolates of adult flukes and larval stages of dicrocoeliids belonging to Lyperosomum, Skrjabinus, Zonorchis as well as previously available sequence data. According to obtained results we propose to return Zonorchis clathratus and Z. petiolatus into Lyperosomum, and to recognize L. alagesi as a synonym of L. petiolatum. Our study shows that L. petiolatum commonly ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson Aug 2019

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye Aug 2019

Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) are migratory birds that build their nests over water and in large groups called colonies. Their typical breeding range is in central southern Canada and northern United States; however, a previously uncertain number of Eared Grebes (grebes) also nest around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, at the southern edge of their breeding range. Little is known about the habitat requirements for grebe nesting colonies at such low latitudes and if they are different from colonies found elsewhere. My objectives for this research were to determine the status of the grebe nesting population as well as ...


Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi Aug 2019

Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stephen Jay Gould, a great scientist and evolutionary biologists, suggested that if we could replay the tape of life, we would not have observed similar course of events because evolution is stochastic and if affected by several events. Since then, the possibility that evolution is repeatable or predictable has been debated. Studies using large-scale evolution experiments, long-term data for individual populations, and controlled experiments in nature, have demonstrated phenotypic and genetic convergence in several taxa. These studies suggest that despite some randomness, predictable evolutionary patterns can emerge on a large temporal and spatial scale. However, a few cases also exist ...


Phylogeny Of The Ciliate Family Psilotrichidae (Protista, Ciliophora), A Curious And Poorly-Known Taxon, With Notes On Two Algae-Bearing Psilotrichids From Guam, Usa, Xiaotian Luo, Jie A. Huang, Lifang Li, Weibo Song, William A. Bourland Jul 2019

Phylogeny Of The Ciliate Family Psilotrichidae (Protista, Ciliophora), A Curious And Poorly-Known Taxon, With Notes On Two Algae-Bearing Psilotrichids From Guam, Usa, Xiaotian Luo, Jie A. Huang, Lifang Li, Weibo Song, William A. Bourland

William Bourland

Background: The classification of the family Psilotrichidae, a curious group of ciliated protists with unique morphological and ontogenetic features, is ambiguous and poorly understood particularly due to the lack of molecular data. Hence, the systematic relationship between this group and other taxa in the subclass Hypotrichia remains unresolved. In this paper the morphology and phylogenetics of species from two genera of Psilotrichida are studied to shed new light on the phylogeny and species diversity of this group of ciliates.

Results: The 18S rRNA gene sequences of species from two psilotrichid genera were obtained. In the phylogenetic trees, the available psilotrichid ...


Genotype Network Intersections Promote Evolutionary Innovation, Devin P. Bendixsen, James Collet, Bjørn Østman, Eric J. Hayden Jul 2019

Genotype Network Intersections Promote Evolutionary Innovation, Devin P. Bendixsen, James Collet, Bjørn Østman, Eric J. Hayden

Eric J. Hayden

Evolutionary innovations are qualitatively novel traits that emerge through evolution and increase biodiversity. The genetic mechanisms of innovation remain poorly understood. A systems view of innovation requires the analysis of genotype networks—the vast networks of genetic variants that produce the same phenotype. Innovations can occur at the intersection of two different genotype networks. However, the experimental characterization of genotype networks has been hindered by the vast number of genetic variants that need to be functionally analyzed. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to study the fitness landscape at the intersection of the genotype networks of two catalytic RNA molecules (ribozymes ...


The Genesis Of Malaria: The Origin Of Mosquitoes And Their Protistan Cargo, Plasmodium Falciparum, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin Jul 2019

The Genesis Of Malaria: The Origin Of Mosquitoes And Their Protistan Cargo, Plasmodium Falciparum, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Malaria is caused by the parasite belonging to the genus Plasmodium; however, creation biologists maintain this organism was not always parasitic. Plasmodium is probably a degenerate form of algae. Mosquitoes, the vector of Plasmodium, were probably designed to be pollinators, not parasite vectors. In this article, we present both the evolutionary and creation explanation for the origin of malaria with a mention to its vector, the mosquito.

The purpose of this article is to provide a reasonable explanation for the genesis of malaria. Microbiology and parasitology research based on the creation paradigm appears to provide some answers to these puzzling ...


Serratia Marcescens: The Miracle Bacillus, Alan L. Gillen, Rebekah Gibbs Jul 2019

Serratia Marcescens: The Miracle Bacillus, Alan L. Gillen, Rebekah Gibbs

Alan L. Gillen

The objectives of this article are to explain the mysterious appearance of crimson-colored bacteria on food and communion bread/wafers, over the centuries, as well as to describe the biological basis


The Genesis Of Pathogenic E. Coli, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver Jul 2019

The Genesis Of Pathogenic E. Coli, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver

Alan L. Gillen

Even though some strains are pathogenic, most E. coli strains still show evidence of being one of God’s “very good” creations.

Fig. 1. E. coli Gram stain (Wiki commons image). E. coli are Gram-negative bacteria, thus red or pink colored. The red color is due to a counterstain, called safranin.

Escherichia coli is frequently in the news (Fig. 1). E. coli often gets “bad press” for contaminating drinking water or causing a food-borne infection (via hamburgers, apple juice, spinach, or other foods). Recently a new strain (E. coli O145) has been implicated in contaminating lettuce in the U.S ...


Robert Koch, Creation, And The Specificity Of Germs, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver, Frank Sherwin Jul 2019

Robert Koch, Creation, And The Specificity Of Germs, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Microbiology is dominated by evolution today. Just look at any text, journal article, or the topics presented at professional scientific meetings. Darwin is dominant.

Microbiology is dominated by evolution today. Just look at any text, journal article, or the topics presented at professional scientific meetings. Darwin is dominant. Many argue that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky 1973). But it was not always this way. In fact, a review of the major founders of microbiology has shown that they were creationists.1 We would argue that a better idea thanevolution and one of much ...


Antony Van Leeuwenhoek: Creation “Magnified” Through His Magnificent Microscopes, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver Jul 2019

Antony Van Leeuwenhoek: Creation “Magnified” Through His Magnificent Microscopes, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver

Alan L. Gillen

Although van Leeuwenhoek was not the inventor of the microscope, he advanced it more than anyone else for seeing living things.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek1 (Fig. 1) found great joy in God’s smallest creatures. He first discovered protozoans in his youth. The Dutch haberdasher retained a child-like joy of discovery from his youth until his death at age 90. He lived to see tiny microbes though his homemade microscopes. He loved to grind and focus a new lens in order to see the unseen world. Leeuwenhoek spent countless hours grinding tiny lenses and looking through them. This Christian lay ...


Biblical Leprosy: Shedding Light On The Disease That Shuns, Alan L. Gillen Jul 2019

Biblical Leprosy: Shedding Light On The Disease That Shuns, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

Leprosy has terrified humanity since ancient times and was reported as early as 600 BC in India, China, and Egypt. Hansen’s disease is still a major health problem.

Disease is a constant reminder of just how much things have changed since God pronounced a curse on the earth. At first, everything was “very good,” but Adam’s sin brought death and decay into the world.


Microbes And The Days Of Creation, Alan L. Gillen Jul 2019

Microbes And The Days Of Creation, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

The world of germs and microbes has received much attention in recent years. But where do microbes fit into the creation account? Were they created along with the rest of the plants and animals in the first week of creation, or were they created later, after the Fall? These are some questions that creation microbiologists have been asking in recent years. Ongoing research, based on the creation paradigm, appears to provide some answers to these puzzling questions. The answers to these questions are not explicit in Scripture, so the answers cannot be dogmatic. However, a reasonable extrapolation from biological data ...


Louis Pasteur’S Views On Creation, Evolution, And The Genesis Of Germs, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin Jul 2019

Louis Pasteur’S Views On Creation, Evolution, And The Genesis Of Germs, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

“There is no remembrance of men of old, and even those who are yet to come will not be remembered by those who follow.” Ecclesiastes 1:11 (NIV)

In past years revisionist historians have been rewriting the worldview of Christians who have made some of the major discoveries in biology and medicine. It appears that postmodern revisionists are rewriting history to support their agenda of a more “secular” explanation to science. The Judeo-Christian worldview is not politically correct in most universities. This is true in regard to past scientists such as Louis Pasteur who believed in creation. According to reliable ...


Darwin At The Drugstore? Testing The Biological Fitness Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Alan L. Gillen, Sarah Anderson Jul 2019

Darwin At The Drugstore? Testing The Biological Fitness Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Alan L. Gillen, Sarah Anderson

Alan L. Gillen

The issue of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is growing. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen. New strains of MRSA are resistant to methicillin and numerous other antibiotics, placing the patient in significant danger. Indeed, the Centers for Disease Control revealed in 2007 that the number of deaths due to MRSA exceeded that of AIDS in the United States. It is no wonder that antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant and important health care issues. The ability of bacterial pathogens to evade traditional antibiotics is faster than the drug makers’ ability to make new ...


Quantification Of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae From Water Sources In Hall County, Georgia, Usa, Monica Leavell, Jeanelle Morgan, Margi Flood, Swapna Bhat Jul 2019

Quantification Of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae From Water Sources In Hall County, Georgia, Usa, Monica Leavell, Jeanelle Morgan, Margi Flood, Swapna Bhat

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a family of enzymes that confer resistance to a number of antibiotics, including those containing a beta lactam ring. ESBLs exhibit antibiotic resistance by destroying the antibiotic’s structure and may be encoded by bacterial plasmids that can easily be transferred between bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. Organisms that produce ESBLs pose both threats and challenges in the administration of appropriate therapeutic agents to treat infections. Water environments such as streams can help the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can originate from a variety of sources, including food processing, waste water treatment plants, and urban runoff ...


Play Behavior Varies By Age Class In Wild African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Emily P. Palmer Jul 2019

Play Behavior Varies By Age Class In Wild African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Emily P. Palmer

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Many environmental factors effect the behaviors of African elephants, Loxodonta africana, such as, health, drought, and dominance. The purpose of this research was to observe play behaviors within the different age classes (calf, juvenile, and adult) of wild elephants during recent drought conditions in Amboseli National Park, Ol Pejeta Conservancy, and Samburu National Reserve in Kenya. Scan sampling every 15 minutes was used to record play behavior. The results from this study indicated that there are differences in the types of play behavior among the age classes. Adults displayed the most play frequencies for environmental, alone locomotion, and tactile play ...


Contextual Fear Learning And Memory Differ Between Stress Coping Styles In Zebrafish, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong Jul 2019

Contextual Fear Learning And Memory Differ Between Stress Coping Styles In Zebrafish, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong

Biology Faculty Publications

Animals frequently overcome stressors and the ability to learn and recall these salient experiences is essential to an individual’s survival. As part of an animal’s stress coping style, behavioral and physiological responses to stressors are often consistent across contexts and time. However, we are only beginning to understand how cognitive traits can be biased by different coping styles. Here we investigate learning and memory differences in zebrafish (Danio rerio) displaying proactive and reactive stress coping styles. We assessed learning rate and memory duration using an associative fear conditioning paradigm that trained zebrafish to associate a context with exposure ...


A New Approach To The Potential Energy Of Solids, Radhika Chauhan, Sanjeev K. Verma, Anushri Gupta, Anita Kumari, B. D. Indu Jul 2019

A New Approach To The Potential Energy Of Solids, Radhika Chauhan, Sanjeev K. Verma, Anushri Gupta, Anita Kumari, B. D. Indu

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

A general theory is developed to investigate the expression for potential energy without using (i) empirical results and (ii) process of parameterizing. The simple approach of thermodynamics is adopted to obtain the expressions for the interaction energy of solids in terms of interatomic separation and crystal volume. The new findings have been applied to obtain the expressions for bulk modulus and pressure. The variation of the potential energy function, which provides a means to understand the stability of a crystal has been found in excellent agreements to the earlier results. The use of obtained harmonic and anharmonic force constants may ...


Kinetic Study For The Effect Of New Inhibitors On The Activity Of Purified Gpt From Blood Of Cardiovascular Patients, Firas Maher Jul 2019

Kinetic Study For The Effect Of New Inhibitors On The Activity Of Purified Gpt From Blood Of Cardiovascular Patients, Firas Maher

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this study several biochemical parameters for cardiovascular patients have been measured CK-MB ,LDH ,GPT and GOT in addition to lipid profile , MDA ,Vitamin C and Vitamin E . New derivatives of ascorbic acid have been synthesized and tested to inhibit the purified GPT from the blood of cardiovascular patients Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) was purified from cardiovascular patients using ammonium sulphate salt for precipitation then dialysed using 0.1 M Tris-HCL buffer pH7.8 , then filtrated by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-100 , followed by electrophoresis using poly acrylamide – bis acrylamide and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Derivatives of 3-(acetyl ...


Neighborhoods And Partial Sums Of A New Class Of Meromorphic Multivalent Functions Defined By Fractional Calculus, Aqeel Ketab Al-Khafaji, Waggas Galib Atshan, Salwa Salman Abed Jul 2019

Neighborhoods And Partial Sums Of A New Class Of Meromorphic Multivalent Functions Defined By Fractional Calculus, Aqeel Ketab Al-Khafaji, Waggas Galib Atshan, Salwa Salman Abed

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this paper, we introduce and study a new class A^* (λ,μ,ν,η,p,ζ,τ) of meromorphic multivalent functions defined by fractional calculus operator of the punctured unit disc U^*. On this class we obtain several results like, coefficient inequality, modified Hadamard product, (N,δ)- neighborhood, partial sums, convex linear combination and integral operator.


Biomedical Applications Of Chasmanthera Dependens Stem Extract Mediated Silver Nanoparticles As Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anticoagulant, Thrombolytic, And Larvicidal Agents, Daniel Ayandiran Aina, Oluwafayoke Owolo, Agbaje Lateef, Folasade O. Aina, Abbas Saeed Hakeem, Morenike Adeoye-Isijola, Victor Okon, Tesleem B. Asafa, Joseph Adetunji Elegbede, Olumide D. Olukanni, Isaac Adediji Jul 2019

Biomedical Applications Of Chasmanthera Dependens Stem Extract Mediated Silver Nanoparticles As Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anticoagulant, Thrombolytic, And Larvicidal Agents, Daniel Ayandiran Aina, Oluwafayoke Owolo, Agbaje Lateef, Folasade O. Aina, Abbas Saeed Hakeem, Morenike Adeoye-Isijola, Victor Okon, Tesleem B. Asafa, Joseph Adetunji Elegbede, Olumide D. Olukanni, Isaac Adediji

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The stem extract of Chasmanthera dependens was used in the biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in this study. The AgNPs was characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), EDX, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Antibacterial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, thrombolytic and larvicidal activities of the biosynthesised nanoparticles were carried out. There was a peak at 418 nm with a strong silver peak observed around 2.7KeV when the EDX analysis was carried out. The FESEM showed a large number of cubically shaped nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 24.53 to 92.38 nm. CDE-AgNPs was effective against ...


Editorial Board Jul 2019

Editorial Board

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

No abstract provided.


Our Impressive Immune System: More Than A Defense, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad Jul 2019

Our Impressive Immune System: More Than A Defense, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad

Alan L. Gillen

Most likely the immune system was put into place in the original human body design. We know from Exodus 20:11 and other verses that God completed His work of creation in six days. Therefore, the human body and its functional parts, including the components of the immune system, must have been part of the original creation. God said that all He had made was very good (Genesis 1:31). Since there were no pathogens (germs), parasites, or diseases prior the Edenic Fall and subsequent Curse, the immune system may have functioned differently in that world unmarred by sin and ...


Excellence By Simplicity: Life And Contributions Of Professor Ramesh Maheshwari (1940-2019), Keyur Adhvaryu Jul 2019

Excellence By Simplicity: Life And Contributions Of Professor Ramesh Maheshwari (1940-2019), Keyur Adhvaryu

Fungal Genetics Reports

Professor Ramesh Maheshwari passed in Bangalore on 30 March 2019. His work generated fundamental understanding in diverse areas of fungal biology including the germination and infection of plants by rust fungi, the life-cycle of Neurospora in its natural habitat; fungal senescence and heterokaryosis, and the production of microconidia in fungi. He was a member of many professional societies including the American Society of Plant Physiologists, Society of Microbiologists of India, and the Indian Phytopathological Society, and he served on the Editorial Board for Journal of Genetics. He nurtured scientific curiosity in his students and colleagues.


Staph Bacteria From First Breath The Interweaving Of The Nasal Microbiome With The Intricate And Complex Nose, Alan L. Gillen Jun 2019

Staph Bacteria From First Breath The Interweaving Of The Nasal Microbiome With The Intricate And Complex Nose, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

Many microbes live in a mutualistic relationship with the human body, make up the human microbiome, and play a role in our health by stimulating and modulating the immune system. Man’s body is “covered” both inside and outside with millions of microbes that play a role in maintaining normal bodily functions and sustaining life in our changing world. The inner nose in the human body is colonized by millions of microbes during the first week of life. This internal colonization of the upper respiratory system is termed our nasal microbiome. Though we cannot see it, this microbiome is important ...


The Design Of The Mosquito And Its Dangers, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin Jun 2019

The Design Of The Mosquito And Its Dangers, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Mosquitoes (Family Culicidae) have been the scourge of mankind since the Fall. Although seemingly designed to inflict suffering and pain via rapid reproduction and formidable mouthparts, evidence mounts that this creature was not always the deadly vector it is today. Mosquitoes are currently and have always been pollinators. The majority of their lives they feed on plants, nectar, pollen, and microbes even in today's world. The Zika virus is but the latest of a significant list of pathogens spread by “the world’s most dangerous animal.” In the past, Christians have been involved in key discoveries linking mosquitoes to ...


The Origin Of Fleas And The Genesis Of Plague, Alan L. Gillen Jun 2019

The Origin Of Fleas And The Genesis Of Plague, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

Human history has been riddled by diseases spread by flea vectors including the bubonic plague. Recently, Madagascar has documented more than 100 cases. Fleas were part of God’s “very good” (Genesis 1:31) creation that transformed to an ectoparasitic condition after the Curse. Creation biologists continue to synthesize a working model of this conversion from environmental recyclers to parasites as a secondary state. Morphological design of the flea combined with its unique feeding ability has resulted in it being an exceptional vector for Yersinia pestis, the causative bacterium of the plague.