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2019

Behavioral Neurobiology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Murine Genetic Variance In Sugar And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences: Roles Of Dopamine, Opioid And Nmda Receptors And Nutritive Sensing, Tamar T. Kraft Sep 2019

Murine Genetic Variance In Sugar And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences: Roles Of Dopamine, Opioid And Nmda Receptors And Nutritive Sensing, Tamar T. Kraft

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As obesity and diabetes have emerged as a severe public health crisis, understanding the mechanisms underlying the consumption of sugars and fats has become a topic of vigorous study. From a biological standpoint, genetic dispositions, neurochemical and hormonal influences, and predetermined orosensory and postingestive signals that modulate the hunger and satiety process may govern physiological aspects of the obesity puzzle. In addition to an innate appetite and attraction for simple carbohydrates and fats, learning plays an important role in modulating preferences for sugar- and fat-rich foods in rodents, including inbred mouse strains. Marked genetic variance has been observed among murine ...


Neurogenesis Is Altered Between And Across Brain Regions After Neurodegeneration And Injury, Alice Perez Sep 2019

Neurogenesis Is Altered Between And Across Brain Regions After Neurodegeneration And Injury, Alice Perez

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adult neurogenesis is the addition of new neurons in the adult brain. In mammals, neurogenesis is largely restricted to the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, which underlie learning, memory, and olfaction. In songbirds, new neurons are incorporated into telencephalic regions that subserve the production, perception, and maintenance of song. Studies of the regulation of neurogenesis have exclusively focused on a single brain region and within a single hemisphere. Interestingly, it has yet to be investigated whether there are correlations between numbers of new neurons across regions and hemispheres within the same animal. Here we examined these differences in a rat model ...


The Role Of The Direct And Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways In The Learning, Performance, And Goal-Directed Control Of Action Sequences, Eric Garr Sep 2019

The Role Of The Direct And Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways In The Learning, Performance, And Goal-Directed Control Of Action Sequences, Eric Garr

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals engage in intricately woven action sequences that are constructed from trial-and-error learning, but the mechanisms by which the brain links together individual actions which are later recalled as fluid chains of behavior are not fully understood. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the learning and goal-directed control of action sequences in rats. Experiment 1 addresses a question that comes out of a reinforcement learning model of action sequencing: how does the extent of training change how the performance of an action sequence is impacted by reward devaluation. The data show that action sequences remain goal-directed overall regardless ...


Optimization Of The Touchscreen-Based Visuomotor Conditional Learning Task In Mice, Oren Princz-Lebel, David I. Wasserman, Miguel Skirzewski, Penny A. Macdonald, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey Jun 2019

Optimization Of The Touchscreen-Based Visuomotor Conditional Learning Task In Mice, Oren Princz-Lebel, David I. Wasserman, Miguel Skirzewski, Penny A. Macdonald, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

The translational gap between animal models and clinical trials is a longstanding, yet largely unresolved, limitation in the study of cognition. This discrepancy is largely due to the differences in how cognition is assessed in animal models compared to those in clinical populations. In the stimulus-response (S-R) learning literature, for example, the techniques used to assess the acquisition of habitual behaviour differ greatly across species, leading to poor cross-species translation and often conflicting results. As a result, we set out to optimize a S-R learning task in mice using the touchscreen-based operant technologies. Similar to human studies, this touchscreen technique ...


Conditional, Inducible Gene Silencing In Dopamine Neurons Reveals A Sex-Specific Role For Rit2 Gtpase In Acute Cocaine Response And Striatal Function, Carolyn G. Sweeney, Patrick Kearney, Rita R. Fagan, Lindsey A. Smith, Nicholas C. Bolden, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Iris V. Rivera, Jenya Kolpakova, Jun Xie, Guangping Gao, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin, Haley Melikian Jun 2019

Conditional, Inducible Gene Silencing In Dopamine Neurons Reveals A Sex-Specific Role For Rit2 Gtpase In Acute Cocaine Response And Striatal Function, Carolyn G. Sweeney, Patrick Kearney, Rita R. Fagan, Lindsey A. Smith, Nicholas C. Bolden, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Iris V. Rivera, Jenya Kolpakova, Jun Xie, Guangping Gao, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin, Haley Melikian

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Dopamine (DA) signaling is critical for movement, motivation, and addictive behavior. The neuronal GTPase, Rit2, is enriched in DA neurons (DANs), binds directly to the DA transporter (DAT), and is implicated in several DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it remains unknown whether Rit2 plays a role in either DAergic signaling and/or DA-dependent behaviors. Here, we leveraged the TET-OFF system to conditionally silence Rit2 in Pitx3IRES2-tTA mouse DANs. Following DAergic Rit2 knockdown (Rit2-KD), mice displayed an anxiolytic phenotype, with no change in baseline locomotion. Further, males exhibited increased acute cocaine sensitivity, whereas DAergic Rit2-KD suppressed acute cocaine sensitivity in females ...


Spirituality And The Infant Brain: Implications For Attachment Theory And Therapeutic Process Across The Life Span, Caitlin Eliasson May 2019

Spirituality And The Infant Brain: Implications For Attachment Theory And Therapeutic Process Across The Life Span, Caitlin Eliasson

Consensus

No abstract provided.


Jet Lag: What’S Light Got To Do With It?, Melissa Richardson May 2019

Jet Lag: What’S Light Got To Do With It?, Melissa Richardson

Adventist Human-Subject Researchers Association

Jet lag results in memory loss and sleepiness. Current treatments for jet lag focus on symptoms and not the cause of jet lag; disrupted light environment. This study in mice, uncovered mechanisms of how light regulates jet lag recovery and memory. This work informs our future studies in humans.


Investigating The Neurobiology Of Motivational Deficiencies In Major Depressive Disorder: 5-Ht1b Receptor Involvement In Behavioral Effects Of Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sarah Ferrigno May 2019

Investigating The Neurobiology Of Motivational Deficiencies In Major Depressive Disorder: 5-Ht1b Receptor Involvement In Behavioral Effects Of Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sarah Ferrigno

University Scholar Projects

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac) are the most commonly prescribed treatments for depression. Although efficacious for symptoms such as a depressed mood, SSRIs do not alleviate symptoms of amotivation, anergia, and fatigue. Furthermore, in clinical and preclinical studies, SSRIs have been shown to exacerbate motivational impairments and general fatigue. It is likely that fluoxetine-induced dysfunctions are due to overstimulation of one or more 5-HT receptors, with one possible candidate being the 5-HT1B receptor. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the role of 5-HT1BRs in fluoxetine-induced amotivation using a rodent behavioral ...


Characterization Of Ethanol-Related Phenotypic Differences Between C57bl/6j And C57bl/6nj Substrains: Role Of Cyfip2?, Matthew C. Hartmann May 2019

Characterization Of Ethanol-Related Phenotypic Differences Between C57bl/6j And C57bl/6nj Substrains: Role Of Cyfip2?, Matthew C. Hartmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The C57BL/6 (B6) mouse is the most commonly used inbred strain in biomedical research, and has served as the basis for various large-scale genetic and genomic projects. Although the parental substrain, C57BL/6J (B6J), originated at The Jackson Laboratory, isolated breeding colonies are now maintained at numerous sites. This separation has resulted in genetic drift that has led to the emergence of phenotypic differences among these colonies. For instance, B6J mice display higher levels of voluntary ethanol consumption and increased locomotor responses to psychostimulants, relative to C57BL/6N mice (B6N). Initial progress has been made in elucidating the genetic ...


Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page May 2019

Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page

Graduate School of Art Theses

This text examines the complexity of attempting to empathize with bodies that are vastly othered from my own. This broad yet nuanced subject crosses epistemological boundaries and complicates the dualities between both the mind and body, and between the corporeal and the virtual. My desire to better understand the conditions of another’s experience originates from a painful traumatic loss which caused me to feel isolated and incomplete. In response to this suffering, I long to emotionally connect with other beings and create artwork that attempts to bridge the qualia of individual experience.

I am interested in the capacity (or ...


Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty May 2019

Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty

Theses and Dissertations

The conglomeration of myriad activities in neural systems often results in prominent oscillations. The primary goal of the research presented in this thesis was to study effects of sensory stimulus on the olfactory system of rats, focusing on the olfactory bulb (OB) and the anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Extracellular electrophysiological measurements revealed distinct frequency bands of oscillations in OB and aPC. However, how these oscillatory fluctuations help the animal to process sensory input is not clearly understood. Here we show high frequency oscillations in olfactory bulb carry feedforward signals to anterior piriform cortex whereas feedback from the aPC is predominantly ...


Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long May 2019

Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long

Theses and Dissertations

In perceptual learning studies, participants engage in extensive training in the discrimination of visual stimuli in order to modulate perceptual performance. Much of the literature in perceptual learning has looked at the induction of the reorganization of low-level representations in V1. However, much remains to be understood about the mechanisms behind how the adult brain (an expert in visual object categorization) extracts high-level visual objects from the environment and categorically represents them in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, I used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in object representation formation during a hybrid visual search and prototype ...


The Effects Of Ambient Temperature And Lighting Intensity On Wheel-Running Behavior In A Diurnal Rodent, The Nile Grass Rat (Arvicanthis Niloticus), Garrett M. Fogo, Alyssa M. Goodwin, Ohanes S. Khacherian, Brandi J. Ledbetter, Andrew J. Gall May 2019

The Effects Of Ambient Temperature And Lighting Intensity On Wheel-Running Behavior In A Diurnal Rodent, The Nile Grass Rat (Arvicanthis Niloticus), Garrett M. Fogo, Alyssa M. Goodwin, Ohanes S. Khacherian, Brandi J. Ledbetter, Andrew J. Gall

Faculty Publications

Environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle and temperature, affect the display of circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity patterns in mammals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that manipulating these environmental conditions would affect wheel-running activity patterns in a diurnal rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus). Grass rats are diurnal in the field, however, a subset switch from a day-active pattern to a night-active pattern of activity after the introduction of a running wheel. The mechanism of this chronotype switch remains largely unknown. In the present study, grass rats were presented with running wheels in 12:12 light-dark conditions. First ...


Context-Specific Effects Of Vasotocin On Social Approach In The Male Common Goldfish, Carassius Auratus, Katharine Torrey May 2019

Context-Specific Effects Of Vasotocin On Social Approach In The Male Common Goldfish, Carassius Auratus, Katharine Torrey

Honors Projects

The peptide vasotocin (VT) and its mammalian homologue, vasopressin (VP), produce effects on social behavior that are highly species- and context-specific. We recently sequenced two genes for V1a-like receptors (VTR) in the goldfish brain, one that encodes for a fully-functioning canonical receptor and one that encodes for a non-functional truncated receptor. The current study is an investigation of whether social context may alter expression of these receptor types and thus, potentially, behavioral responses to VT. We used western blotting and immunohistochemistry with custom anti-VTR antibodies to characterize the distribution of VTR throughout the forebrain and the hindbrain. Western blot results ...


Preference For Odor-Taste Mixtures Is Dependent On Previous Experience., Kelsey Allison Mcqueen May 2019

Preference For Odor-Taste Mixtures Is Dependent On Previous Experience., Kelsey Allison Mcqueen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The perception of flavors occurs when a tastant is simultaneously detected and associated with an odorant (i.e., odor-taste mixture). Sampling an odor and taste together results in a congruent odor-taste mixture. Mixing an odor and taste from different congruent odor-taste pairs results in incongruent odor-taste mixtures. Creation of a flavor percept requires sampling a novel chemosensory stimulus; however, mammals exhibit robust neophobic behavior when presented with new chemosensory stimuli. To determine preferences for novel odorants and experienced odor-taste mixtures, we employ a two-bottle brief-access preference task where two chemosensory stimuli are presented simultaneously. We found that rats show a ...


The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin May 2019

The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety affects nearly twice as many women as it affects men across all cultures and economic groups. Importantly, girls have a higher chance of inheriting anxiety disorders than boys, and many anxiety disorders appear at a very young age. However, little is known about sex differences in brain and behavioral development and how they relate to anxiety in adulthood. Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) mediated signaling has been implicated in depression and anxiety, however most studies that focus on the involvement of the 5-HT1A-R have been conducted in adults. Little is known about how the 5-HT1A ...


Interhemispheric Communication And Lateralization In The Mouse Hippocampus, Jake Jordan May 2019

Interhemispheric Communication And Lateralization In The Mouse Hippocampus, Jake Jordan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The hippocampus is essential for memory and spatial navigation. Many theories have been proposed to explain how the hippocampus contributes to cognition; however, none has fully explained relevant neurophysiological and behavioral data. Hemispheric lateralization of hippocampal function has been reported in humans and in rodents, and lateralization of hippocampal neural circuitry has been reported in rodents. Most theories of hippocampal function fail to consider the hippocampus as a bilateral structure with hemispheric differences. Further, proposed theories of hippocampal lateralization have their own limitations in explaining empirical data concerning left/right function. Little is known about communication between the hippocampi across ...


Law And The Biology Of Rape: Reflections On Transitions, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Law And The Biology Of Rape: Reflections On Transitions, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This Article serves is a sequel to a previous Article: Sex, Culture, and the Biology of Rape: Toward Explanation and Prevention, 87 Cal. L. Rev. 827 (1999). Part I briefly considers the threshold question: why consider the behavioral biology of sexual aggression at all? Part II proposes that the first step in transitioning to a more accurate and more useful model of rape behavior is to avoid a number of common definitional ambiguities that plague most rape discussions. Because those ambiguities are particularly likely to foster misunderstandings about biobehavioral perspectives, Part II also clarifies the scope of what biobehavioral theories ...


Law And Biology: Toward An Integrated Model Of Human Behavior, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Law And Biology: Toward An Integrated Model Of Human Behavior, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

As first year law students unhappily discover, the meaning of "law" is frustratingly protean, shifting by usage and user. Depending on whom you ask, law is a system of rules, a body of precedents, a legislative enactment, a collection of norms, a process by which social goals are pursued, or some dynamic mixture of these. Law's principal purpose is to define and protect individual rights, to ensure public order, to resolve disputes, to redistribute wealth, to dispense justice, to prevent or compensate for injury, to optimize economic efficiency, or perhaps to do something else. And yet one thing is ...


Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story Apr 2019

Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The death gene grim and its pathway for apoptosis has been studied extensively in Drosophila Melanogaster. The effects of grim mutations on circadian neurodevelopment and locomotor assays have yet to be investigated. Mutations in the gene disconnected (disco) has been shown to disrupt the normal development of the circadian circuitry, specifically the small ventro-lateral neurons (s-LNv’s). Which has shown to severely decrease rhythmicity during free-running periods. Alternatively, we have observed an increase in rhythmicity during free-running periods in grim mutations. Our goal is to investigate the neurodevelopment of the circadian circuitry and their associated locomotor activities in these Drosophila ...


Acute Social Defeat-Induced Neuroinflammation In The Vmpfc Of Syrian Hamsters Via Microglial Activation, Thomas Clarity Apr 2019

Acute Social Defeat-Induced Neuroinflammation In The Vmpfc Of Syrian Hamsters Via Microglial Activation, Thomas Clarity

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Research suggests causal relationships between neuroinflammation and stress-related psychopathologies. Exposure to moderate or chronic psychological stress in rodents leads to increased activation of microglia, the brain’s resident immune cells. The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a key limbic region involved in top-down regulation of psychological stress and mediates the deleterious effects of microglial activity following prolonged restraint stress. While there is a growing body of literature indicating that chronic social defeat increases microglial activity in the vmPFC, there has been little research investigating the effects of acute social defeat stress. Here, we used an acute social defeat paradigm ...


Evolutionary Analysis In Law: Some Objections Considered, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Evolutionary Analysis In Law: Some Objections Considered, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This Article appears in a special issue of the Brooklyn Law Review on DNA: Lessons from the Past - Problems for the Future. It first addresses why law needs insights from behavioral biology, and then identifies and responds to a variety of structural and conceptual barriers to such evolutionary analysis in law.


Cognitive Rehabilitation Of Prospective Memory Deficits After Acquired Brain Injury: Cognitive, Behavioral, And Physiological Measures, Meaghan Race Apr 2019

Cognitive Rehabilitation Of Prospective Memory Deficits After Acquired Brain Injury: Cognitive, Behavioral, And Physiological Measures, Meaghan Race

Senior Theses and Projects

Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects approximately 3.5 million Americans each year and is associated with cognitive and emotional changes. Prospective memory (PM) deficits are important predictors of functioning in daily life for individuals with ABI. Previous studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) via PM training has a high rate of success in improving quality of life, independence and productivity for ABI survivors. There is limited information on utilizing imaging techniques in relation to changes in cognition and behavior following rehabilitation; however, previous studies suggest that imaging provides evidence that CRT could be related to changes to underlying ...


Development Of An Intrahippocampal Kindling Model Of Epilepsy, Carter F. Jones Apr 2019

Development Of An Intrahippocampal Kindling Model Of Epilepsy, Carter F. Jones

Senior Theses and Projects

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects about 1% of the global population. This debilitating condition is associated with overexcitation and ineffective inhibition of neuronal pathways in the brain causing serious and a diverse set of symptoms, most prominently seizures. While some antiepileptic drug (AED) regimes have been proven to be effective in treating this condition, there are many cases where the drugs do not do enough. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used for decades as an effective anticonvulsant. Its powerful and natural processes result in some patients becoming seizure-free. Sometimes, these patients remain free of seizures even after ...


Redefining Burnout: Exploring Common Conceptualizations And The Neurophysiology Of Chronic Stress To Establish An Integrated Allostatic Model, Danny A. Guzzi Apr 2019

Redefining Burnout: Exploring Common Conceptualizations And The Neurophysiology Of Chronic Stress To Establish An Integrated Allostatic Model, Danny A. Guzzi

Dissertations

Burnout is a widely researched stress-related phenomenon associated with numerous adverse outcomes for employees and organizations. Unfortunately, burnout is not well understood and research to this point has been flawed due to a lack of consensus on the definition, dimensionality, and context of the construct. Prevalent conceptualizations of burnout have been criticized for being arbitrarily developed without solid theoretical foundation and for failing to clearly distinguish burnout from depression or other work-related conditions such as compassion fatigue, secondary traumatization, and vicarious traumatization. The current project first examines relevant literature to identify commonalities among prevalent burnout conceptualizations. Then relevant stress research ...


Forgotten Children & Bonds That Heal: The Critical Nature Of Attachment, August Ashbaker Mar 2019

Forgotten Children & Bonds That Heal: The Critical Nature Of Attachment, August Ashbaker

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

Human attachment is one of the most critical factors in proper neurological and physiological development. Attachment is built through the mutuality of emotional impact, as well as the regular reception of physical touch. Infants and children who have been deprived of these vital necessities through the lacking initiatives of their caregivers—through neglect—display visible signs of its physiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impact. Research has found neglect to be the highest risk factor for permanent damage to brain development in comparison to other forms of complex trauma (i.e. chronic caregiver interpersonal trauma in childhood); it is also the ...


The Intersection Of Neuroscience And Art, Matilde Mendes Pinto Mar 2019

The Intersection Of Neuroscience And Art, Matilde Mendes Pinto

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The Interaction of Neuroscience and Art will give you an insight into how they interact with each other by analyzing visual art, musical art and theatrical art.


Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman Mar 2019

Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neurotransmitter systems are important in regulating the stress response. If a behavioral response is disproportional to a stressor it is characterized as anxiety-like behavior. Many anxiolytic compounds, such as ethanol, increase stressor engagement, but how these compounds interact with an organism on a neurogenetic level is less understood. In this study, I assessed the impact of chronic ethanol treatment on behavior and gene expression of GABAAreceptors subunits on two strains of zebrafish. Each strain was selectively bred to display the proactive or reactive stress coping style where proactive individuals will actively engage a stressor more than reactive individuals ...


Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong Mar 2019

Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Individuals of the same species often display differences in correlated suites of behaviors which are made conspicuous when challenges – stressful, fear-inducing, etc. – are presented. In many species, a specific suite of behaviors (risk-aversion, aggression, exploration, learning, and memory) characterize an alternative set of stress coping styles (proactive and reactive). Such behaviors are regulated in the brain by specific neurotransmitters along with proteins that regulate them. One neurotransmitter regulator protein, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) shows higher baseline whole-brain expression in proactive relative to reactive animals. However, it is not known whether its expression is a cause or a consequence of the stress coping ...


How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell Mar 2019

How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.