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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir Dec 2019

Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A long-term poultry manure fertilizer study was initiated in 1998 and continued until 2009 under corn-soybean (CS) rotation. To match changing landscape trends, the plots were switched to continuous corn (CC) from 2010 to 2017. In both CS and CC phases, poultry manure (PM) was applied at the crop rotation recommended agronomic N rate and either half (CC phase) or double (CS phase) the recommended rate. Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to comparison plots at the crop recommended application rate (168 kg N ha−1 and 224 kg N ha−1 for the CS and CC phases, respectively) throughout the ...


Radical Botany: Plants And Speculative Fiction [Table Of Contents], Natania Meeker, Antónia Szabari Dec 2019

Radical Botany: Plants And Speculative Fiction [Table Of Contents], Natania Meeker, Antónia Szabari

Literature

No abstract provided.


Máy Lọc Nước Điện Giải Kangen Leveluk K8 Nhật Bản Chính Hãng, Nhung Seven Dec 2019

Máy Lọc Nước Điện Giải Kangen Leveluk K8 Nhật Bản Chính Hãng, Nhung Seven

Nhung Seven

Giới thiệu sản phẩm máy lọc nước điện giải kangen leveluk k8 Nhật Bản chính hãng đến từ thương hiệu kangen water (Enagic). Máy điện giải leveluk k8 (Kangen 8) là loại máy chống oxy hóa mạnh mẽ nhất của Enagic – có 8 tấm titan platin nhúng để cải thiện ion hóa nước và tăng khả năng sản xuất chất chống oxy hoá.

Máy kangen k8 là sản phẩm được nhiều người quan tâm nhất trong thời gian hiện tại với khả năng điện phân cao nhất mang lại nguồn nước sạch dinh dưỡng đảm bảo sức khỏe người dùng ...


Polyhistidine Facilitates Direct Membrane Translocation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Into Cells, Han-Jung Lee, Yue-Wern Huang, Shiow-Her Chiou, Robert Aronstam Dec 2019

Polyhistidine Facilitates Direct Membrane Translocation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Into Cells, Han-Jung Lee, Yue-Wern Huang, Shiow-Her Chiou, Robert Aronstam

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

The bovine lactoferricin L6 (RRWQWR) has been previously identified as a novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that is able to efficiently internalize into human cells. L6 interacts with quantum dots (QDs) noncovalently to generate stable L6/QD complexes that enter cells by endocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate a modified L6 (HL6; CHHHHHRRWQWRHHHHHC), in which short polyhistidine peptides are introduced into both flanks of L6, has enhanced cell-penetrating ability in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma A549 cells. The mechanism of cellular uptake of HL6/QD complexes is primarily direct membrane translocation rather than endocytosis. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), but not pyrenebutyrate (PB), ethanol, oleic ...


Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez Dec 2019

Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez

Honors Theses

The success of certain ant species in urban areas is largely unknown. Available food in the environment could affect the composition of ants in urban areas due to a possible relationship between ant physiology and diet. I tested the oil preference of ants as a function of available arthropod prey in urban environments. I hypothesized that as arthropod diversity decreased, ant abundance at oil baits would decrease. Oil is an important nutrient that can affect ant body functions and activities. Ant foraging activities have been found to be affected by lipid depletion. A food source where ants can obtain oil ...


Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Locally Controls Anterior-Posterior Patterning Of The Axial Skeleton., Joonho Suh, Je-Hyun Eom, Na-Kyung Kim, Kyung Mi Woo, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Se-Jin Lee, Yun-Sil Lee Dec 2019

Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Locally Controls Anterior-Posterior Patterning Of The Axial Skeleton., Joonho Suh, Je-Hyun Eom, Na-Kyung Kim, Kyung Mi Woo, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Se-Jin Lee, Yun-Sil Lee

Faculty Research 2019

Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a transforming growth factor β family member that has been identified as the central player of anterior-posterior (A-P) axial skeletal patterning. Mice homozygous for Gdf11 deletion exhibit severe anterior homeotic transformations of the vertebrae and craniofacial defects. During early embryogenesis, Gdf11 is expressed predominantly in the primitive streak and tail bud regions, where new mesodermal cells arise. On the basis of this expression pattern of Gdf11 and the phenotype of Gdf11 mutant mice, it has been suggested that GDF11 acts to specify positional identity along the A-P axis either by local changes in ...


Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil Dec 2019

Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year. While research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the uninjured brain, there has been a lack of investigation on the mechanical properties of the brain after experiencing a primary blast-induced TBI. In this paper, whole porcine brains were exposed to a shock wave to simulate blast-induced TBI. First, ten (10) brains were subjected to unconfined compression experiments immediately following shock wave exposure. In addition, 22 brains exposed to a shock wave were placed in saline solution and refrigerated between 30 minutes and 6.0 hours before undergoing ...


The Response Of Utah Lake's Plant And Algal Community Structure To Cultural Eutrophication, Leighton R. King Dec 2019

The Response Of Utah Lake's Plant And Algal Community Structure To Cultural Eutrophication, Leighton R. King

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human activities have long had a negative impact on the water quality of freshwater lakes around the world. Utah Lake, located in north-central Utah, has been a subject of such impacts, as the lake experiences recurrent harmful algal blooms during the summer months. Lake warnings and closures have made the public increasingly aware of the ecological and economic impact of these blooms. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare historical and present-day water quality and ecosystem conditions using environmental data contained in sediment cores, 2) identify whether, and when, Utah Lake transitioned from clearwater to turbid conditions, and ...


Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner Dec 2019

Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner

Agronomy Publications

Sustainable agriculture describes crop management approaches that address the interdependent goals of increasing or at least maintaining yield while protecting the environment, conserving natural resources, and slowing climate change. Numerous authors have espoused limiting synthetic fertilizer and pesticides and promoting organic agriculture (Lechenet et al., 2014; Martinez-Alcantara et al., 2016; Muller at al. 2017), less meat consumption (West et al., 2014; Poore and Nemecek, 2018; Springmann et al., 2018), or combinations of these strategies as viable solutions to achieve those goals, thereby improving agricultural sustainability.


Comparison Of Morphological Traits In Cowpea Pod Length, Seed Number Per Pod, Seed Weight, Seed Color And Seed Density In Usda Germplasm Accessions And Arkansas Breeding Lines, Sora Imamura Dec 2019

Comparison Of Morphological Traits In Cowpea Pod Length, Seed Number Per Pod, Seed Weight, Seed Color And Seed Density In Usda Germplasm Accessions And Arkansas Breeding Lines, Sora Imamura

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of the study was to compare and correlate the Arkansas cowpea breeding lines to the USDA cowpea germplasm accessions on the following morphological traits: seed color, pod length, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, and seed density. The seed density is defined as the weight of seed in gram per centimeter of pod length. Three hundred seventeen cowpea genotypes were used in this experiment. Out of the 317, 285 germplasm accessions were from the USDA GRIN and 32 lines were from the Arkansas breeding program.

T-test between Arkansas breeding lines and USDA germplasm accessions were done ...


Jual Obat Aborsi Malang 082242266717 Toko Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Acep Shop Nov 2019

Jual Obat Aborsi Malang 082242266717 Toko Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Acep Shop

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What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen Nov 2019

What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term field studies can serve as model systems for population biology, allowing for theory and methods to be tested under well-characterized conditions. We illustrate these ideas in three long-term field systems that have made outsized contributions to our understanding of population ecology, evolution, and conservation biology ...


Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And The Evolution Of Multivariate Phenotypes, Dean C. Adams, Michael L. Collyer Nov 2019

Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And The Evolution Of Multivariate Phenotypes, Dean C. Adams, Michael L. Collyer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Evolutionary biology is multivariate, and advances in phylogenetic comparative methods for multivariate phenotypes have surged to accommodate this fact. Evolutionary trends in multivariate phenotypes are derived from distances and directions between species in a multivariate phenotype space. For these patterns to be interpretable, phenotypes should be characterized by traits in commensurate units and scale. Visualizing such trends, as is achieved with phylomorphospaces, should continue to play a prominent role in macroevolutionary analyses. Evaluating phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models (e.g., phylogenetic analysis of variance and regression) is valuable, but using parametric procedures is limited to only a few phenotypic ...


P-12 Characterization Of Cgx Tautomerase And Mutants With Acetylenecarboxylic Acid, Daniel Chi, Karen Draths, Amaya Sirinimal Oct 2019

P-12 Characterization Of Cgx Tautomerase And Mutants With Acetylenecarboxylic Acid, Daniel Chi, Karen Draths, Amaya Sirinimal

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

In the production of commodity chemicals through microbial synthesis, the use of renewable sugars as a raw material is increasingly common. However, this generates competition between its use in the chemical industry and the food industry. Therefore, developing alternative biosynthetic pathways involving other renewable feedstocks to replace starch-derived feedstocks is crucial. CgX, a tautomerase native to Corynebacterium glutamicum, catalyzes the hydration and subsequent decarboxylation of acetylenecarboxylic acid (ACA), a compound that can be produced from methane gas and carbon dioxide, both abundant greenhouse gases. The products formed from the CgX (wild-type)-catalyzed reaction of ACA results in a mixture of ...


Depaul Digest Oct 2019

Depaul Digest

DePaul Magazine

DePaulia Fantasy Football League; Democratizing Medicine; Campus/Alumni Calendar of Events; Regional Chapters; Musings: DePaul FEST; Milestones; Student Profile: Gabby Henderson; Master Class: The Perniciousness of "Ethical Decision-Making"


Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2019

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. Vandyk, Adam J. Bogdanove Oct 2019

Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. Vandyk, Adam J. Bogdanove

Nicholas J. Booher

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are repeat-containing proteins used by plant pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host gene expression. Repeats are polymorphic and individually specify single nucleotides in the DNA target, with some degeneracy. A TAL effector-nucleotide binding code that links repeat type to specified nucleotide enables prediction of genomic binding sites for TAL effectors and customization of TAL effectors for use in DNA targeting, in particular as custom transcription factors for engineered gene regulation and as site-specific nucleases for genome editing. We have developed a suite of web-based tools called TAL Effector-Nucleotide Targeter 2.0 (TALE-NT 2.0;https://boglab.plp ...


Increased Interactions And Engulfment Of Dendrites By Microglia Precede Purkinje Cell Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Niemann Pick Type-C., Larisa Kavetsky, Kayla K Green, Bridget R Boyle, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Zachary M Padron, Sierra E Melli, Victoria L Kuhnel, Harriet M Jackson, Rosa E Blanco, Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes Oct 2019

Increased Interactions And Engulfment Of Dendrites By Microglia Precede Purkinje Cell Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Niemann Pick Type-C., Larisa Kavetsky, Kayla K Green, Bridget R Boyle, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Zachary M Padron, Sierra E Melli, Victoria L Kuhnel, Harriet M Jackson, Rosa E Blanco, Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes

Ileana Soto Reyes

Niemann Pick Type-C disease (NPC) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by pathogenic variants in the Npc1 or Npc2 genes that lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in lysosomes. NPC1 deficiency causes neurodegeneration, dementia and early death. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are particularly hypersensitive to NPC1 deficiency and degenerate earlier than other neurons in the brain. Activation of microglia is an important contributor to PCs degeneration in NPC. However, the mechanisms by which activated microglia promote PCs degeneration in NPC are not completely understood. Here, we are demonstrating that in the Npc1nmf164 mouse cerebellum, microglia ...


Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt Oct 2019

Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt

Andrew G. Fountain

Although cryoconite holes, sediment-filled melt holes on glacier surfaces, appear small and homogenous, their microbial inhabitants may be spatially partitioned. This partitioning could be particularly important for maintaining biodiversity in holes that remain isolated for many years, such as in Antarctica. We hypothesized that cryoconite holes with greater species richness and biomass should exhibit greater partitioning between the sediments and water, promoting greater biodiversity through spatial niche partitioning. We tested this hypothesis by sampling frozen cryoconite holes along a gradient of biomass and biodiversity in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, where ice-lidded cryoconite holes are a ubiquitous feature of glaciers. We ...


Climate Warming Trends In The U.S. Midwest Using Four Thermal Models, Lori J. Abendroth, Fernando E. Miguez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield Oct 2019

Climate Warming Trends In The U.S. Midwest Using Four Thermal Models, Lori J. Abendroth, Fernando E. Miguez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield

Michael Castellano

Thermal time (TT) is an agro-climate index widely established and used in predicting plant development based on temperature. This index is a powerful tool for measuring multi-faceted changes in temperature occurring from climate change. In the present study, TT was calculated for the entire frost-free period and individual spring, summer, and fall seasons using growing degree day (GDD), general thermal index (GTI), crop heat unit (CHU), and heat stress degree day (HSDD) models for 1054 counties across 12 Midwest states on a daily basis from 1950 to 2017. The temporal trend for each county was fit with a linear regression ...


Recommendations For Measurement And Management Of An Elite Athlete, William Sands, Marco Cardinale, Jeni Mcneal, Steven Murray, Christopher Sole, Jacob Reed, Nikos Apostolopoulos, Michael Stone Oct 2019

Recommendations For Measurement And Management Of An Elite Athlete, William Sands, Marco Cardinale, Jeni Mcneal, Steven Murray, Christopher Sole, Jacob Reed, Nikos Apostolopoulos, Michael Stone

Jacob Reed

Athletes who merit the title elite' are rare and differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from athletes of lower qualifications. Serving and studying elite athletes may demand non-traditional approaches. Research involving elite athletes suffers because of the typical nomothetic requirements for large sample sizes and other statistical assumptions that do not apply to this population. Ideographic research uses single-athlete study designs, trend analyses, and statistical process control. Single-athlete designs seek to measure differences in repeated measurements under prescribed conditions, and trend analyses may permit systematic monitoring and prediction of future outcomes. Statistical process control uses control charting and other methods from ...


A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Increased Physical Activity And Walking Distance In Broilers, Meaghan M. Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck Oct 2019

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Increased Physical Activity And Walking Distance In Broilers, Meaghan M. Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Modern broilers are selected for fast growth and a large proportion of breast tissue, contributing to a top-heavy phenotype, leg disorders, and inactivity as birds reach market weight. Therefore, the objective was to motivate broilers to move through environmental enrichment. A total of 1,200 Ross 308 broilers were housed in pens of 30 for 6 wk: 600 birds were exposed to a novel laser enrichment device (LASER) and 600 were control. Each device projected 2 randomly moving red laser dots onto the floor 4 times/day for 4-min “laser periods.” Seven LASER and 7 control pens, with 5 focal ...


Phylogenomics Resolves Major Relationships And Reveals Significant Diversification Rate Shifts In The Evolution Of Silk Moths And Relatives, J. R. Barber Oct 2019

Phylogenomics Resolves Major Relationships And Reveals Significant Diversification Rate Shifts In The Evolution Of Silk Moths And Relatives, J. R. Barber

Jesse R. Barber

Background: Silkmoths and their relatives constitute the ecologically and taxonomically diverse superfamily Bombycoidea, which includes some of the most charismatic species of Lepidoptera. Despite displaying spectacular forms and diverse ecological traits, relatively little attention has been given to understanding their evolution and drivers of their diversity. To begin to address this problem, we created a new Bombycoidea-specific Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) probe set and sampled up to 571 loci for 117 taxa across all major lineages of the Bombycoidea, with a newly developed DNA extraction protocol that allows Lepidoptera specimens to be readily sequenced from pinned natural history collections.

Results ...


Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Increases Neuronal Cell Loss In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Ileana Soto Reyes, Weronika A. Grabowska, Kristen D. Onos, Leah C. Graham, Harriet M. Jackson, Stephen N. Simeone, Gareth R. Howell Oct 2019

Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Increases Neuronal Cell Loss In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Ileana Soto Reyes, Weronika A. Grabowska, Kristen D. Onos, Leah C. Graham, Harriet M. Jackson, Stephen N. Simeone, Gareth R. Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Evidence suggests that multiple genetic and environmental factors conspire together to increase susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid cascade hypothesis states that deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is central to AD; however, evidence in humans and animals suggests that Aβ buildup alone is not sufficient to cause neuronal cell loss and cognitive decline. Mouse models that express high levels of mutant forms of amyloid precursor protein and/or cleaving enzymes deposit amyloid but do not show neuron loss. Therefore, a double-hit hypothesis for AD has been proposed whereby vascular dysfunction precedes and promotes Aβ toxicity. In support ...


Deficiency Of Complement Component 5 Ameliorates Glaucoma In Dba/2j Mice, Gareth R. Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes, Margaret Ryan, Leah C. Graham, Richard S. Smith, Simon W.M. John Oct 2019

Deficiency Of Complement Component 5 Ameliorates Glaucoma In Dba/2j Mice, Gareth R. Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes, Margaret Ryan, Leah C. Graham, Richard S. Smith, Simon W.M. John

Ileana Soto Reyes

Background Glaucoma is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in blindness. Studies in animal models have shown that activation of inflammatory processes occurs early in the disease. In particular, the complement cascade is activated very early in DBA/2J mice, a widely used mouse model of glaucoma. A comprehensive analysis of the role of the complement cascade in DBA/2J glaucoma has not been possible because DBA/2J mice are naturally deficient in complement component 5 (C5, also known as hemolytic complement, Hc), a key mediator of the downstream processes of the ...


Chronic Consumption Of A Western Diet Induces Robust Glial Activation In Aging Mice And In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Leah C. Graham, Jeffrey M. Harder, Ileana Soto Reyes, Wilhelmine N. De Vries, Simon W. M. John, Gareth R. Howell Oct 2019

Chronic Consumption Of A Western Diet Induces Robust Glial Activation In Aging Mice And In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Leah C. Graham, Jeffrey M. Harder, Ileana Soto Reyes, Wilhelmine N. De Vries, Simon W. M. John, Gareth R. Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet ...


Dba/2j Mice Are Susceptible To Diabetic Nephropathy And Diabetic Exacerbation Of Iop Elevation, Ileana Soto Reyes, Gareth R. Howell, Cai W. John, Joseph L. Kief, Richard T. Libby, Simon W.M. John Oct 2019

Dba/2j Mice Are Susceptible To Diabetic Nephropathy And Diabetic Exacerbation Of Iop Elevation, Ileana Soto Reyes, Gareth R. Howell, Cai W. John, Joseph L. Kief, Richard T. Libby, Simon W.M. John

Ileana Soto Reyes

Some pathological manifestations of diabetes in the eye include retinopathy, cataracts and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in non-proliferative stages of diabetic retinopathy and small increases in IOP in diabetic patients has raised the possibility that diabetes affects the development and progression of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. The Ins2Akita mutation is known to cause diabetes and retinopathy on a C57BL/6J (B6) background by as early as 3 months of age. Here, the impact of the Akita mutation on glaucoma was assessed using DBA/2J (D2) mice, a widely used mouse model of ocular hypertension ...


Apoe Stabilization By Exercise Prevents Aging Neurovascular Dysfunction And Complement Induction, Ileana Soto Reyes, Leah C. Graham, Hannah J. Richter, Stephen N. Simeone, Jake E. Radell, Weronika Grabowska, W. Keith Funkhouser, Megan C. Howell, Gareth R. Howell Oct 2019

Apoe Stabilization By Exercise Prevents Aging Neurovascular Dysfunction And Complement Induction, Ileana Soto Reyes, Leah C. Graham, Hannah J. Richter, Stephen N. Simeone, Jake E. Radell, Weronika Grabowska, W. Keith Funkhouser, Megan C. Howell, Gareth R. Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the processes that lead to age-related decline of brain structures and function. Here we use RNA-seq in combination with high resolution histological analyses to show that aging leads to a significant deterioration of neurovascular structures including basement membrane reduction, pericyte loss, and astrocyte dysfunction. Neurovascular decline was sufficient to cause vascular leakage and correlated strongly with an increase in neuroinflammation including up-regulation of complement component C1QA in microglia/monocytes. Importantly, long-term aerobic exercise from midlife to old age prevented this age-related ...


Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Accelerates Axonal Degeneration In Dba/2j Glaucoma, Rebecca A Buchanan, Kate E Foley, Keating W Pepper, Alaina M Reagan, Kelly J Keezer, Amanda A Hewes, Cory A Diemler, Christoph Preuss, Ileana Soto Reyes, Simon W M John, Gareth R Howell Oct 2019

Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Accelerates Axonal Degeneration In Dba/2j Glaucoma, Rebecca A Buchanan, Kate E Foley, Keating W Pepper, Alaina M Reagan, Kelly J Keezer, Amanda A Hewes, Cory A Diemler, Christoph Preuss, Ileana Soto Reyes, Simon W M John, Gareth R Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Purpose: Glaucoma is a complex disease with major risk factors including advancing age and increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Dissecting these earliest events will likely identify new avenues for therapeutics. Previously, we performed transcriptional profiling in DBA/2J (D2) mice, a widely used mouse model relevant to glaucoma. Here, we use these data to identify and test regulators of early gene expression changes in DBA/2J glaucoma.

Methods: Upstream regulator analysis (URA) in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify potential master regulators of differentially expressed genes. The function of one putative regulator, mesenchyme homeobox 2 (Meox2), was tested using a ...