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2014

Breast Cancer

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Expressed In Cancer Cells Promotes Mammary Tumor Growth And Metastasis, Wadie D Mahauad-Fernandez, Kris A Demali, Alicia K Olivier, Chioma M Okeoma Dec 2014

Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Expressed In Cancer Cells Promotes Mammary Tumor Growth And Metastasis, Wadie D Mahauad-Fernandez, Kris A Demali, Alicia K Olivier, Chioma M Okeoma

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Publications

Introduction: Several innate immunity genes are overexpressed in human cancers and their roles remain controversial. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is one such gene whose role in cancer is not clear. BST-2 is a unique innate immunity gene with both antiviral and pro-tumor functions and therefore can serve as a paradigm for understanding the roles of other innate immunity genes in cancers.

Methods: Meta-analysis of tumors from breast cancer patients obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets were evaluated for levels of BST-2 expression and for tumor aggressiveness. In vivo, we examined ...


Toxicity And Cosmesis Outcomes For Single Fraction Intra-Operative Electron Radiotherapy (Ioert) For Breast Cancer, Monica Hanna, Robert Ash, Wesley Babaran, Michele M. Carpenter, Afshin Forouzannia, Jay K. Harness, Brian Kaltenecker, Snehith Maddula, Venita Williams, Lawrence Wagman Dec 2014

Toxicity And Cosmesis Outcomes For Single Fraction Intra-Operative Electron Radiotherapy (Ioert) For Breast Cancer, Monica Hanna, Robert Ash, Wesley Babaran, Michele M. Carpenter, Afshin Forouzannia, Jay K. Harness, Brian Kaltenecker, Snehith Maddula, Venita Williams, Lawrence Wagman

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Background: Adjuvant radiation therapy is proven to reduce local recurrence in patients with early stage breast cancer. To reduce toxicity, improve geographic accuracy, and reduce treatment time, IOERT can be utilized as an alternative to external beam radiation therapy. The study’s objective was to determine the short term toxicity and cosmesis profile of single fraction IOERT given as definitive treatment in a community setting. Materials and Methods: From Mar 2012 to Jul 2014, 84 patients (3 bilateral), ages 45-91 y.o. with stage 0-II were treated with IOERT (Mobetron, IntraOp Medical, Sunnyvale, CA). A single 21 Gy fraction was ...


Identification Of Novel Natural Compounds With Anti-Breast Cancer Activities, Yusra Saif Al Dhaheri May 2014

Identification Of Novel Natural Compounds With Anti-Breast Cancer Activities, Yusra Saif Al Dhaheri

Dissertations

Breast cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In this dissertation, natural compounds with anti-breast cancer activities were identified. We investigated the effect of Salinomycin, a potassium ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus, on the survival of three human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231. High concentrations of Salinomycin induced a G2 arrest, down regulation of survivin and triggered apoptosis. Interestingly, treatments with low concentrations of Salinomycin induced a transient G1 arrest at an earlier time and G2 arrest and senescence, associated with enlarged cell morphology, at a later time. There was also ...


Identification Of Novel Natural Compounds With Anti-Breast Cancer Activities, Yusra Saif Al Dhaheri. May 2014

Identification Of Novel Natural Compounds With Anti-Breast Cancer Activities, Yusra Saif Al Dhaheri.

Theses

Breast cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In this dissertation, natural compounds with anti-breast cancer activities were identified. We investigated the effect of Salinomycin, a potassium ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus, on the survival of three human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231. High concentrations of Salinomycin induced a G2 arrest, down regulation of surviving and triggered apoptosis. Interestingly, treatments with low concentration of Salinomycin induced a transient G1 arrest at an earlier time and G2 arrest and senescence, associated with enlarged cell morphology, at a later time. There was also ...


Investigation Of Rice Bran Derived Anti-Cancer Pentapeptide For Mechanistic Potency In Breast Cancer Cell Models, Ruiqi Li May 2014

Investigation Of Rice Bran Derived Anti-Cancer Pentapeptide For Mechanistic Potency In Breast Cancer Cell Models, Ruiqi Li

Theses and Dissertations

Bioactive peptides derived from food sources with anti-proliferative properties against cancer have drawn more attention in recent years. A pentapeptide derived from rice bran has shown anti-proliferative propertiesagainst human breast cancer cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic action of the pentapeptide-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell models (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The growth inhibition activity of the pentapeptide was

evaluated by MTS[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3- arboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt] assayand trypan blue assay in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

The apoptotic properties of pentapeptide-induced apoptosis on cancerous breast cells were evaluated by ...


Imbalance Between Neutrophil Elastase And Elafin Promotes Breast Cancer Growth And Progression, Joseph Anthony Caruso May 2014

Imbalance Between Neutrophil Elastase And Elafin Promotes Breast Cancer Growth And Progression, Joseph Anthony Caruso

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Elafin, an endogenous serine protease inhibitor, is a critical component of the epithelial barrier against neutrophil elastase (NE) activity. The central hypothesis examined in this dissertation was that elafin has tumor suppressive properties in breast cancer. In support of this hypothesis, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed that elafin was downregulated in the majority of invasive breast tumors and a subset of pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared to elafin expression in the normal mammary epithelium. To understand the role of elafin in the mammary epithelium and the impetus for its downregulation during breast tumorigenesis, primary and immortalized human mammary epithelial ...


Transcription Factor Activator Protein 2c And Downstream Redox Biology Effectors In Development And Carcinogenesis, Anthony Roger Cyr May 2014

Transcription Factor Activator Protein 2c And Downstream Redox Biology Effectors In Development And Carcinogenesis, Anthony Roger Cyr

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple phenotypes that specify both treatment options and prognosis. The Luminal A-type breast cancers, characterized by high levels of estrogen receptor (ER) expression and transcriptional activity, have a stable of hormone-related treatment options and a favorable prognosis. Recent efforts to identify mechanisms governing the Luminal A phenotype have identified transcription factor activator protein 2C (TFAP2C) as a critical regulator of both ER and ER-associated gene expression, making it a prime target for manipulation in breast cancer therapy. To that end, we sought to establish specific contributions of TFAP2C in both normal development and ...


Economic Evaluation Of Potential Applications Of Gene Expression Profiling In Clinical Oncology, Malek Hannouf Apr 2014

Economic Evaluation Of Potential Applications Of Gene Expression Profiling In Clinical Oncology, Malek Hannouf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Histopathological analysis of tumor is currently the main tool used to guide cancer management. Gene expression profiling may provide additional valuable information for both classification and prognostication of individual tumors. A number of gene expression profiling assays have been developed recently to inform therapy decisions in women with early stage breast cancer and help identify the primary tumor site in patients with metastatic cancer of unknown primary. The impact of these assays on health and economic outcomes, if introduced into general practice, has not been determined. I aimed to conduct an economic evaluation of regulatory-approved gene expression profiling assays for ...


Augmenting Anti-Tumor Immunity By Targeting Macrophage Cox-2 In Breast Cancer, Edward Po-Hwa Chen Jan 2014

Augmenting Anti-Tumor Immunity By Targeting Macrophage Cox-2 In Breast Cancer, Edward Po-Hwa Chen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with poor prognosis across a range of human cancers, including breast. While the contributions of tumor cell-derived COX-2 are well studied, those of the stroma remain ill-defined. Macrophages, an essential component of the tumor microenvironment, exist within a range of two polar phenotypes, influenced by signals in their local environment: anti-tumorigenic M1 or pro-tumorigenic M2. M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are positively associated with tumorigenesis. This thesis investigates the contribution of macrophage COX-2 in two models of HER2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis utilizing mice selectively lacking macrophage COX-2 (COX-2MÃ?KO) and the contribution of COX-2 derived ...


The Cytotoxic Effect Of The Bcl-2 Family Of Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Yamileth Chin Jan 2014

The Cytotoxic Effect Of The Bcl-2 Family Of Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Yamileth Chin

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women ages 20 to 59. Despite advancements in cancer therapies, more research is necessary to improve the diagnoses and treatment of several types of breast cancer. Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a commonly utilized anti-cancer drug for various types of solid tumors. However, the molecular mechanism utilized by paclitaxel to induce cell death is still elusive. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein, BAK (BCL-2 homologous antagonist/killer) plays an important role in paclitaxel-induced cell death. In untreated breast cancer cells, BAK is associated with the ...


Estrogen Receptor Beta Is A Negative Regulator Of Mammary Cell Proliferation, Xiaozheng Song Jan 2014

Estrogen Receptor Beta Is A Negative Regulator Of Mammary Cell Proliferation, Xiaozheng Song

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The mammary gland cell growth and differentiation are under the control of both systemic hormones and locally produced growth factors. Among all these important hormones and growth factors, estrogen plays a central role in mammary gland development. The biological function of estrogen is mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ). Both ERα and ERβ are expressed in the mammary gland, but with distinct expression patterns. In the mammary gland, ERα has been proved to be the estrogen receptor that mediates the mitogenic function of estrogen. However the function of ERβ in mammary cell proliferation is less ...


Evaluation Of Wild Yam (Dioscorea Villosa) As A Demethylating Agent And Its Anti Metastatic Activity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Pranapda Aumsuwan Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Wild Yam (Dioscorea Villosa) As A Demethylating Agent And Its Anti Metastatic Activity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Pranapda Aumsuwan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Population Analysis And Protein Stability Assays Illustrate Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes Have No Detectable Effect On Breast Cancer Development And Progression, Thomas Daniel Crowder Jan 2014

Population Analysis And Protein Stability Assays Illustrate Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes Have No Detectable Effect On Breast Cancer Development And Progression, Thomas Daniel Crowder

Theses and Dissertations

Xenobiotic Metabolizing Pathway works to detoxify the cell from numerous carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic hydrophobic compounds. As a member of the phase I enzymes (the first phase in the Xenobiotic Metabolizing Pathway) the Cytochrome P-450 Family 1 Sub-family B Protein 1 (Cyp1B1) works to attach an oxygen molecule to its hydrophobic substrate. In performing this reaction, Cyp1B1 often increases the reactivity of the xenobiotic compound. If these reactive Cyp1B1 products migrate into the nucleus and they can cause damage by reacting with DNA. However, the Glutathione S-Transferase Theta 1 (GSTT1) and Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), members of the phase ...