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2014

Aging

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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Aging And Habitual Aerobic Exercise On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Autonomic Function In Humans, Stephen Alan Harris Dec 2014

Effect Of Aging And Habitual Aerobic Exercise On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Autonomic Function In Humans, Stephen Alan Harris

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Kent State University Symposium On Aging: Life In The Balance: Fall Prevention From Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Kent State University - Kent Campus Nov 2014

The Kent State University Symposium On Aging: Life In The Balance: Fall Prevention From Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Kent State University - Kent Campus

Researcher Directories, Division of Research and Sponsored Programs

16 page booklet on research in Aging and Fall prevention.


Longitudinal Trajectories Of Cholesterol From Midlife Through Late Life According To Apolipoprotein E Allele Status, Brian Downer, Steven Estus, Yuriko Katsumata, David W. Fardo Oct 2014

Longitudinal Trajectories Of Cholesterol From Midlife Through Late Life According To Apolipoprotein E Allele Status, Brian Downer, Steven Estus, Yuriko Katsumata, David W. Fardo

Physiology Faculty Publications

Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE), a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life.

Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed ...


Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

We have isolated a candidate Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) type II receptor complementary DNA from an embryonic rat urogenital ridge library and have studied its binding to MIS, its developmental pattern of expression and tissue distribution. By in situ hybridization with a full-length riboprobe, the receptor is expressed in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the Mullerian duct at embryonic days 14, 15, and 16 and in tubular and follicular structures of the rat fetal gonads. Expression of the messenger RNA was also seen in the granules cells and seminiferous tubules of pubertal gonads. Northern analysis revealed that the MIS type II ...


Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck Sep 2014

Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a 140-kilodalton homodimeric glycoprotein that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts in male embryos, and may also have a role in both males and females in the regulation of germ cell maturation. We examined the ontogeny of MIS messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat testes from midgestation through adulthood and found two discrete MIS mRNA species that are developmentally regulated. The larger 2.0-kilobase species is abundant at embryonic day 14, then decreases in late gestation, and is barely detectable after birth. The smaller 1.8-kilobase species is first noted at embryonic day 18 and is ...


Predictors Of Serum Dioxin, Furan, And Pcb Concentrations Among Women From Chapaevsk, Russia, Olivier Humblet, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Oleg Sergeyev, Claude Emond, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Mary Lee, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser Sep 2014

Predictors Of Serum Dioxin, Furan, And Pcb Concentrations Among Women From Chapaevsk, Russia, Olivier Humblet, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Oleg Sergeyev, Claude Emond, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Mary Lee, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23-52 years were collected between 2003-2005 as part of the Russian Children's Study. Serum dioxin, furan, and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). The median total PCB concentrations and ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) production in rat testes from the late fetal to the adult period and its modulation by gonadotropins in neonatal testes were studied using immunohistochemistry, northern analysis, and a graded organ culture bioassay for MIS. The intense immunohistochemical staining for MIS seen in fetal and newborn testes began to decrease gradually after the third postnatal day, then decreased dramatically on the fifth postnatal day. MIS immunohistochemical activity was then present at a low level until about the 20th postnatal day, after which it was barely detectable. The testes from rats treated with FSH at birth showed a ...


Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Postnatal Leydig cell (LC) development in mice has been assumed empirically to resemble that of rats, which have characteristic hormonal profiles at well-defined maturational stages. To characterize the changes in LC function and gene expression in mice, we examined reproductive hormone expression from birth to 180 days, and quantified in vivo and in vitro production of androgens during sexual maturation. Although the overall plasma androgen and LH profiles from birth through puberty were comparable to that of rats, the timing of developmental changes in androgen production and steroidogenic capacity of isolated LCs differed. In mice, onset of androgen biosynthetic capacity ...


Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping Sep 2014

Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a glycoprotein hormone produced in Sertoli cells of the fetal and postnatal testis, and granulosa cells of the pubertal ovary. We examined MIS expression in a nonhuman primate, the cynomolgus macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis), to define an animal model for studying MIS gene regulation. Changes in testicular MIS mRNA with age were assessed by in situ hybridization of prepubertal to adult testes, Northern analysis of pubertal and adult specimens, and determination of serum MIS concentrations from infancy to adulthood. We found that MIS expression was highest in the youngest animals and decreased progressively with increasing ...


Decreased Peak Muscle Power Is Associated With Motor Unit Loss In The Lower Limb Of Older Adults, Neal B. Mckinnon Aug 2014

Decreased Peak Muscle Power Is Associated With Motor Unit Loss In The Lower Limb Of Older Adults, Neal B. Mckinnon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor unit (MU) properties and the strength and power of two lower limb muscles in healthy young and old adults. Twelve older adults (mean age, 77 ± 5 yrs) and twelve young adults (mean age, 24 ± 3 yrs) were studied. MU properties of the tibialis anterior (TA) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles were determined using decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA). Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) of the TA were significantly reduced (p>0.05) in older adults (102 ± 76) compared to young adults (234 ± 109), primarily as a result of significantly larger surface-detected motor unit potentials ...


The Effects Of Exercise Training On Cognitive Reserve And Cognitive Function In Healthy Older Women, Katie Marie Becofsky Aug 2014

The Effects Of Exercise Training On Cognitive Reserve And Cognitive Function In Healthy Older Women, Katie Marie Becofsky

Theses and Dissertations

Cognitive reserve theory suggests that physical activity may protect individuals from cognitive decline. At the brain level, greater cognitive reserve may manifest as greater neural network efficiency. Our purpose was to investigate 1) whether participation in a 16-week walking program increased brain efficiency, and 2) whether increased brain efficiency correlated with change in fitness and task performance. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether exercise training improved performance on a battery of cognitive tasks, particularly executive functioning performance. Seventeen healthy but sedentary women aged 60-75 years participated in a supervised walking program; eighteen women served as a non-randomized control group ...


The Effects Of Arthritis Foundation’S “Walk With Ease” Program On Cognitive Function, Ryan S. Falck Aug 2014

The Effects Of Arthritis Foundation’S “Walk With Ease” Program On Cognitive Function, Ryan S. Falck

Theses and Dissertations

Physical activity (PA) is believed to improve cognitive function, particularly executive function, in older adults. However, few interventions in community settings have been performed to improve executive function through PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a community-based walking program on executive function in older adults (60+ years). Older adults from senior centers throughout Lexington County, SC were recruited for participation in this intervention. Exclusion criteria included currently exercising >30 minutes and exercising ≥2x/week or scoring ≤25 on the Mini-Mental State Exam. The intervention consisted of an evidenced-based community walking program, the Arthritis Foundation ...


Problems Associated With A Lipofuscin Extraction Method Used To Age Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus Cultured In Florida, Usa, Claire E. Crowley, Ryan L. Gandy, Kendra L. Daly, Edward S. Van Vleet Jul 2014

Problems Associated With A Lipofuscin Extraction Method Used To Age Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus Cultured In Florida, Usa, Claire E. Crowley, Ryan L. Gandy, Kendra L. Daly, Edward S. Van Vleet

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an ecologically and economically important component of marine and estuarine ecosystems of the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Current stock assessments lack a clear understanding of the age structure of blue crab populations in Florida (USA). Blue crabs and other crustaceans are especially difficult to age because of the complex nature of their discrete, rather than continuous, growth patterns. Chesapeake Bay researchers developed a method of aging blue crabs by assaying the aging pigment lipofuscin extracted from eyestalk nerve tissue. Here we investigated the usefulness of that method in determining the age of ...


Cross-Bridge Mechanisms Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue: Effects Of Hydrogen Ion, Inorganic Phosphate, And Age, Cassandra Rae Nelson Jul 2014

Cross-Bridge Mechanisms Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue: Effects Of Hydrogen Ion, Inorganic Phosphate, And Age, Cassandra Rae Nelson

Dissertations (2009 -)

Intense muscle contraction induces high rates of glycolysis and ATP hydrolysis with resulting increases in inorganic phosphate (Pi) and H+, factors thought to induce fatigue by interfering with steps in the cross-bridge cycle. Force inhibition is less at physiological temperatures; thus the role of low pH in fatigue has been questioned. Effects of pH 6.2 and collective effects with 30 mM Pi on the pCa-force relationship were assessed in skinned fast and slow rat skeletal muscle fibers at low (15°C) and near-physiological temperatures (30°C). At Ca2+ levels characteristic of fatigue, low pH significantly depressed force at both ...


Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel Jul 2014

Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Regeneration Of New Neurons Is Preserved In Aged Vomeronasal Epithelia, Jessica H. Brann, Stuart Firestein Jun 2014

Regeneration Of New Neurons Is Preserved In Aged Vomeronasal Epithelia, Jessica H. Brann, Stuart Firestein

Jessica Brann

During normal and diseased aging, it is thought the capacity for tissue regeneration and repair in neuronal tissues diminishes. In the peripheral olfactory system, stem cell reservoirs permit regeneration of olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons, a unique capacity among neurons. Following injury, a large number of new neurons can be regenerated in a young animal. However, it is unknown whether this capacity for renewal exists in aged proliferative populations. Here, we report that neuronal replacement-associated proliferation continues in the vomeronasal organ of aged (18-24 months) mice. In addition, the potential for the aged stem cell to yield a mature neuron ...


Quantifying The Effect Of Age And Contraction Mode On The Force-Velocity-Power Relationship In The Knee Extensors, Justin R. Paturel May 2014

Quantifying The Effect Of Age And Contraction Mode On The Force-Velocity-Power Relationship In The Knee Extensors, Justin R. Paturel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PURPOSE: To assess and compare the force-velocity-power relationship (F-V-P) using isotonic and isokinetic knee extensions in 11 younger (19-30y) and 11 older (69-81y) men. METHODS: The construction of the F-V-P curves were attained with each participant performing maximal, explosive knee extensions at 8 different loads (isotonic) and 8 different velocities (isokinetic) on a Cybex HUMAC NORM dynamometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC or Po), maximal shortening velocity (Vmax), maximum power, optimal torque (Popt) and velocity (Vopt) were assessed and compared. RESULTS: The older men were 43% weaker, 18% slower and ~54% less powerful than the younger men ...


An Analysis Of Factors Related To Time-Dependent Vs. Acquired Aging In Males, Michael J. Potenza May 2014

An Analysis Of Factors Related To Time-Dependent Vs. Acquired Aging In Males, Michael J. Potenza

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to determine which factors impact, slow down, or even halt certain aspects of the natural aging process in males. Initial review of the topic included an examination of the aging theories found in the literature. The subsequent focus of this synthesis was on a critical mass of data based literature relating to the signs and symptoms of the aging processes. Next, the critical mass was synthesized to determine the most prominent findings in the published research regarding the slowing of the aging process in both the physical and cognitive domains. This included studies about ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

University Scholar Projects

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


The Influence Of Gene Polymorphisms, Modifiable Lifestyle Factors, And Toxicants On The Protective Effects Of The Paraoxonase Genes, Laura Elise Badtke May 2014

The Influence Of Gene Polymorphisms, Modifiable Lifestyle Factors, And Toxicants On The Protective Effects Of The Paraoxonase Genes, Laura Elise Badtke

Theses and Dissertations

The paraoxonase gene family consists of three members (PON1, PON2, and PON3) with both distinct and overlapping roles in human health. These enzymes influence oxidative stress, inflammation, and bacterial infections, along with a large number of diseases and disorders, such as atherosclerosis. The wide-reaching effects of the PON gene family make them an important and highly advantageous subject of study. Their ability to be modified by diet, lifestyle, and environmental exposures, as well as various polymorphisms and genetic influences, provide for a complex, highly modifiable internal form of individual protection. The overall goal of this project was to determine what ...


Understanding How Honey Bee Flight And Senescence Are Connected Through Oxidative Stress., Joseph Margotta May 2014

Understanding How Honey Bee Flight And Senescence Are Connected Through Oxidative Stress., Joseph Margotta

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The goal of this dissertation was to exploit the tractability of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) to understand how the physiological and cellular mechanisms that determine the onset and duration of senescence are shaped by behavioral development and behavioral intensity. These data reveal how behavior can damage cells and consequently limit lifespan. The honey bee represents the ideal model to address these factors because age, behavior, functional senescence, and lifespan are easily manipulated independently of each other while in its natural environment. I determined if there was a cause-effect relationship between honey bee flight and oxidative stress by comparing damage ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Foxo/Daf-16 Modulates Lifespan, Ankita Bansal, Eun-Soo Kwon, Darryl Conte Jr., Haibo Liu, Michael J. Gilchrist, Lesley T. Macneil, Heidi A. Tissenbaum Apr 2014

Transcriptional Regulation Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Foxo/Daf-16 Modulates Lifespan, Ankita Bansal, Eun-Soo Kwon, Darryl Conte Jr., Haibo Liu, Michael J. Gilchrist, Lesley T. Macneil, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Insulin/IGF-1 signaling plays a central role in longevity across phylogeny. In C. elegans, the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor, DAF-16, is the primary target of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, and multiple isoforms of DAF-16 (a, b, and d/f) modulate lifespan, metabolism, dauer formation, and stress resistance. Thus far, across phylogeny modulation of mammalian FOXOs and DAF-16 have focused on post-translational regulation with little focus on transcriptional regulation. In C. elegans, we have previously shown that DAF-16d/f cooperates with DAF-16a to promote longevity. In this study, we generated transgenic strains expressing near-endogenous levels of either daf-16a or ...


The Effects Of Age And Long-Term Endurance Training On Vo2 Kinetics, Tyler M. Grey Apr 2014

The Effects Of Age And Long-Term Endurance Training On Vo2 Kinetics, Tyler M. Grey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The kinetics of the adjustment of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) was examined during step transitions from 20 W to moderate-intensity cycling in young (Y), middle-aged (M), and older (O) endurance trained and untrained men. VO2p was measured breath-by-breath and changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin ([HHb]) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. VO2p and [HHb] were modeled with a monoexponential model. The kinetic time constant for VO2 (τVO2p) was not different across age-groups (P > 0.05) in the trained group (17 ± 8, 18 ± 5, and 20 ± 5 s, in Y, M, and O, respectively). For untrained, τVO2p ...


Development Of A Prediction Equation For Vertical Power In Masters Level Basketball Athletes, Jordan M. Glenn, Jennifer Vincenzo, Michelle Gray, Ashley Binns Apr 2014

Development Of A Prediction Equation For Vertical Power In Masters Level Basketball Athletes, Jordan M. Glenn, Jennifer Vincenzo, Michelle Gray, Ashley Binns

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(2) : 119-127, 2014. Performance factors such as power, agility, and speed are important in sport-based competition for older individuals. Prediction models that assess these factors in masters level competitors are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine physical field measures of agility and speed and their ability to predict vertical power (VP) among basketball masters athletes(MA). Thirty-eight competitive MA from a Midwest Senior Olympic basketball tournament performed vertical jump, 20-yard dash (20-D), 40-yard dash (40-D), and T-test (TT) assessments. Regression analysis revealed a significant relationship (p = .002) using TT and 20-D ...


Increased Mitochondrial Biogenesis Preserves Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis And Contributes To Longevity In Indy Mutant Flies, Ryan P. Rogers, Blanka Rogina Apr 2014

Increased Mitochondrial Biogenesis Preserves Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis And Contributes To Longevity In Indy Mutant Flies, Ryan P. Rogers, Blanka Rogina

UCHC Articles - Research

The Drosophila Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene encodes a plasma membrane transporter of Krebs cycle intermediates, with robust expression in tissues associated with metabolism. Reduced INDY alters metabolism and extends longevity in a manner similar to caloric restriction (CR); however, little is known about the tissue specific physiological effects of INDY reduction. Here we focused on the effects of INDY reduction in the Drosophila midgut due to the importance of intestinal tissue homeostasis in healthy aging and longevity. The expression of Indy mRNA in the midgut changes in response to aging and nutrition. Genetic reduction of Indy expression ...


Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Combination With Motor Practice On Dexterous Grasping And Manipulation In Healthy Older Adults, Pranav J Parikh, Kelly J Cole Mar 2014

Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Combination With Motor Practice On Dexterous Grasping And Manipulation In Healthy Older Adults, Pranav J Parikh, Kelly J Cole

Department of Health and Human Physiology Publications

Transcranial anodal stimulation (tDCS) over primary motor cortex (M1) improves dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults. However, the beneficial effects of anodal tDCS in combination with motor practice on natural and clinically relevant functional manual tasks, and the associated changes in the digit contact forces are not known. To this end, we studied the effects of 20 min of tDCS applied over M1 for the dominant hand combined with motor practice (MP) in a sham‐controlled crossover study. We monitored the forces applied to an object that healthy elderly individuals grasped and manipulated, and their performances on the Grooved Pegboard ...


The Effects Of Aging On Skeletal Muscle Ampk Activation And An Analysis Of Chronic Aicar Treatment On The Aging Phenotype, Shalene E. Hardman Mar 2014

The Effects Of Aging On Skeletal Muscle Ampk Activation And An Analysis Of Chronic Aicar Treatment On The Aging Phenotype, Shalene E. Hardman

Theses and Dissertations

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic regulator, acts in opposition to many of the effects of aging and may provide insights into the development of sarcopenia. However, the effect of aging on AMPK activation is unclear. The purpose of this dissertation was to: 1) clarify the controversy concerning the activation of AMPK in response to endurance-like exercise in aged skeletal muscle; 2) address mechanisms for the age-associated alterations in AMPK activation; and 3) address the known benefits of chronic AICAR treatment in aged skeletal muscle. First, to clarify the effect of age on AMPK activation, young adult (YA) (8 mo ...


Aged Rats Are Hypo-Responsive To Acute Restraint: Implications For Psychosocial Stress In Aging, Heather M. Buechel, Jelena Popovic, Kendra Staggs, Katie L. Anderson, Olivier Thibault, Eric M. Blalock Feb 2014

Aged Rats Are Hypo-Responsive To Acute Restraint: Implications For Psychosocial Stress In Aging, Heather M. Buechel, Jelena Popovic, Kendra Staggs, Katie L. Anderson, Olivier Thibault, Eric M. Blalock

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of ...


Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang Feb 2014

Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang

GSBS Student Publications

The age-dependent decline in the self-renewal capacity of stem cells plays a critical role in aging, but the precise mechanisms underlying this decline are not well understood. By limiting proliferative capacity, senescence is thought to play an important role in age-dependent decline of stem cell self-renewal, although direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is largely lacking. We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 as a critical regulator of senescence. In this study, we found that mice deficient in Smurf2 had an expanded hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment in bone marrow under normal homeostatic conditions, and this expansion was associated ...