Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2014

Series

Biomass

Discipline
Institution
Publication

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Miscanthus Sacchariflorus – Biofuel Parent Or New Weed?, Catherine L. Bonin, Emily A. Heaton, Jessica Barb Nov 2014

Miscanthus Sacchariflorus – Biofuel Parent Or New Weed?, Catherine L. Bonin, Emily A. Heaton, Jessica Barb

Agronomy Publications

The perennial grass triploid Miscanthus × giganteus is a promising renewable bioenergy feedstock in the United States and Europe. Originating from eastern Asia, this species is a sterile hybrid cross between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. While research has begun to examine the impacts of M. sinensis and triploid M. × giganteus on the landscape, M. sacchariflorus has been largely overlooked in the peer-reviewed literature. This review article discusses the origin, uses, distribution, and invasive potential of M. sacchariflorus. M. sacchariflorus is capable of producing high yields (10.7 t DM ha−1 yr−1), generally does not reproduce by seed, and ...


Reu Site: Explore It! Building The Next Generation Of Sustainable Forest Bioproduct Researchers, David J. Neivandt, Darrell W. Donahue Oct 2014

Reu Site: Explore It! Building The Next Generation Of Sustainable Forest Bioproduct Researchers, David J. Neivandt, Darrell W. Donahue

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

This three-year REU Site program builds on the substantial research strengths at the University of Maine. The focus on sustainable forest bioproducts is highly topical and of great global importance in the area of sustainable energy alternatives.

Ten US undergraduate participants will conduct research advancing their knowledge of the field in general and one of the thematic elements in detail, specifically:

1) sustainability and life cycle analysis,
2) feedstock extraction/modification,
3) process control and sensing,
4) nanomaterial production and utilization, and
5) new product development. In addition the program includes an international component whereby, six Chilean students on a ...


Fragipan Horizon Fragmentation In Slaking Experiments With Amendment Materials And Ryegrass Root Tissue Extracts, Anastasios D. Karathanasis, Lloyd W. Murdock, Christopher J. Matocha, John H. Grove, Yvonne L. Thompson Sep 2014

Fragipan Horizon Fragmentation In Slaking Experiments With Amendment Materials And Ryegrass Root Tissue Extracts, Anastasios D. Karathanasis, Lloyd W. Murdock, Christopher J. Matocha, John H. Grove, Yvonne L. Thompson

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB), fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC), D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5-18.8 mm compared to the 44.2-47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in ...


Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands Sep 2014

Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands

Agronomy Publications

The Regional Feedstock Partnership is a collaborative effort between the Sun Grant Initiative (through Land Grant Universities), the US Department of Energy, and the US Department of Agriculture. One segment of this partnership is the field-scale evaluation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in diverse sites across the USA. Switchgrass was planted (11.2 kg PLS ha−1 ) in replicated plots in New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Virginia in 2008 and in Iowa in 2009. Adapted switchgrass cultivars were selected for each location and baseline soil samples collected before planting. Nitrogen fertilizer (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1 ...


Recent Shifts In The Occurrence, Cause, And Magnitude Of Animal Mass Mortality Events, Samuel B. Fey, Adam M. Siepielski, Sébastien Nusslé, Kristina Cervantes-Yoshida, Jason L. Hwan, Eric R. Huber, Maxfield J. Fey, Alessandro Catenazzi, Stephanie M. Carlson Aug 2014

Recent Shifts In The Occurrence, Cause, And Magnitude Of Animal Mass Mortality Events, Samuel B. Fey, Adam M. Siepielski, Sébastien Nusslé, Kristina Cervantes-Yoshida, Jason L. Hwan, Eric R. Huber, Maxfield J. Fey, Alessandro Catenazzi, Stephanie M. Carlson

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Mass mortality events (MMEs) are rapidly occurring catastrophic demographic events that punctuate background mortality levels. Individual MMEs are staggering in their observed magnitude: re- moving more than 90% of a population, resulting in the death of more than a billion individuals, or producing 700 million tons of dead biomass in a single event. Despite extensive documentation of individual MMEs, we have no understanding of the major features characterizing the occurrence and magnitude of MMEs, their causes, or trends through time. Thus, no framework exists for contextualizing MMEs in the wake of ongoing global and regional perturbations to natural systems. Here ...


Potential And Technological Advancement Of Biofuels, Rajee Olaganathan, Fabian Ko Qui Shen, Lim Jun Shen Aug 2014

Potential And Technological Advancement Of Biofuels, Rajee Olaganathan, Fabian Ko Qui Shen, Lim Jun Shen

Publications

This scientific paper examines the feasibility of biofuels as a solution to the world‟s energy crisis. It studies the development of the four different generations of biofuel that have been discerned over the years, determining the pros and cons of each. The paper further investigates the issues concerning each generation, and determines how their successors have solved and improved on those problems. In order to give the reader an unbiased perspective, the paper studies both general advantages and disadvantages that encompasses social, economic and environmental impacts. Research and development on the first two generations of biofuels have matured, and ...


Most Soil Trophic Guilds Increase Plant Growth: A Meta-Analytical Review, Andrew Kulmatiski, Andrew Anderson-Smith, Karen H. Beard, Stephen Doucette-Riise, Michael Mazzacavallo, Nicole E. Nolan, Ricardo A. Ramirez, John R. Stevens Jul 2014

Most Soil Trophic Guilds Increase Plant Growth: A Meta-Analytical Review, Andrew Kulmatiski, Andrew Anderson-Smith, Karen H. Beard, Stephen Doucette-Riise, Michael Mazzacavallo, Nicole E. Nolan, Ricardo A. Ramirez, John R. Stevens

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Trophic cascades are important drivers of plant and animal abundances in aquatic and aboveground systems, but in soils trophic cascades have been thought to be of limited importance due to omnivory and other factors. Here we use a meta-analysis of 215 studies with 1526 experiments that measured plant growth responses to additions or removals of soil organisms to test how different soil trophic levels affect plant growth. Consistent with the trophic cascade hypothesis, we found that herbivores and plant pathogens (henceforth pests) decreased plant growth and that predators of pests increased plant growth. The magnitude of this trophic cascade was ...


Characterization Of Genetically Modified High Biomass Producing Tobacco Plant, Pankaj Singh Kuhar Jul 2014

Characterization Of Genetically Modified High Biomass Producing Tobacco Plant, Pankaj Singh Kuhar

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Global warming and peak oil has clouded our energy security. In light of this situation, bioethanol as emerged as one of the most amenable solutions to the problem. However bioethanol has its own shortcomings and transgenics seem imperative to exploit its full potential. A high biomass producing line in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) was identified during a routine genetic transformation, termed giant recombinant (GR). To characterize the phenotype of the giant line, growth rate and lignocellulosic composition was analyzed relative to the non-transgenic control line. The GR line accounted for 240% more biomass than the untransformed line within ...


Investigation Of Process Variables In The Densification Of Corn Stover Briquettes, Curtis Peder Thoreson, Keith E. Webster, Matthew J. Darr, Emily J. Kapler Jun 2014

Investigation Of Process Variables In The Densification Of Corn Stover Briquettes, Curtis Peder Thoreson, Keith E. Webster, Matthew J. Darr, Emily J. Kapler

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The bulk density of raw corn stover is a major limitation to its large-scale viability as a biomass feedstock. Raw corn stover has a bulk density of 50 kg/m3, which creates significant transportation costs and limits the optimization of transport logistics. Producing a densified corn stover product during harvest would reduce harvest and transportation costs, resulting in viable pathways for the use of corn stover as a biomass feedstock. This research investigated the effect of different process variables (compression pressure, moisture content, particle size, and material composition) on a densification method that produces briquettes from raw corn stover. A ...


Comparative Efficiency And Driving Range Of Light- And Heavy-Duty Vehicles Powered With Biomass Energy Stored In Liquid Fuels Or Batteries, Mark Laser, Lee R. R. Lynd Mar 2014

Comparative Efficiency And Driving Range Of Light- And Heavy-Duty Vehicles Powered With Biomass Energy Stored In Liquid Fuels Or Batteries, Mark Laser, Lee R. R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

This study addresses the question, "When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?" In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560-820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency ...


Stand Density And Age Affect Tree-Level Structural And Functional Characteristics Of Young, Postfire Lodgepole Pine In Yellowstone National Park, Paige E. Copenhaver-Parry, Daniel B. Tinker Mar 2014

Stand Density And Age Affect Tree-Level Structural And Functional Characteristics Of Young, Postfire Lodgepole Pine In Yellowstone National Park, Paige E. Copenhaver-Parry, Daniel B. Tinker

Faculty Publications - Department of Biology and Chemistry

More frequent fire activity associated with climate warming is expected to increase the extent of young forest stands in fire-prone landscapes, yet growth rates and biomass allocation patterns in young forests that regenerated naturally following stand-replacing fire have not been well studied. We assessed the structural and functional characteristics of young, postfire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) trees across the Yellowstone subalpine plateaus to understand the influence of postfire stand density and age on tree-level aboveground biomass (AB), component biomass (bole, branch, foliage), partitioning to components, tree-level aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and leaf area (LA). Sixty 24- year-old ...


Woody Biomass Conversion To Jp 8 Fuels: Monthly Funds And Expenditure Report, Hemant P. Pendse Feb 2014

Woody Biomass Conversion To Jp 8 Fuels: Monthly Funds And Expenditure Report, Hemant P. Pendse

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Two faculty and two staff members are active on this project. GL entries corrections for corrected Capital equipment expenses (re. May report) and corrected indirect cost charges are put in. Correct Total Capital Equipment charges are $82,950 and correct total indirect cost charges are $335,093.47.


Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks Jan 2014

Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks

CCPO Publications

Sustainability of a fishery is traditionally and typically considered achieved if the exploited population does not decline in numbers or biomass over time as a result of fishing relative to biological reference point goals. Oysters, however, exhibit atypical population dynamics compared with many other commercial species. The population dynamics often display extreme natural interannual variation in numbers and biomass, and oysters create their own habitat--the reef itself. With the worldwide decline of oyster reef habitat and the oyster fisheries dependent thereon, the maintenance of shell has received renewed attention as essential to population sustainability. We apply a shell budget model ...


Safety And Health In Biomass Production, Transportation, And Storage: A Commentary Based On The Biomass And Biofuels Session At The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, Aaron M. Yoder, Charles V. Schwab, Paul Gunderson, Dennis Murphy Jan 2014

Safety And Health In Biomass Production, Transportation, And Storage: A Commentary Based On The Biomass And Biofuels Session At The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, Aaron M. Yoder, Charles V. Schwab, Paul Gunderson, Dennis Murphy

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There is significant interest in biomass production ranging from government agencies to the private sector, both inside and outside of the traditional production agricultural setting. This interest has led to an increase in the development and production of biomass crops. Much of this effort has focused on specific segments of the process, and more specifically on the mechanics of these individual segments. From a review of scientific literature, it is seen that little effort has been put into identifying, classifying and preventing safety hazards in on-farm biomass production systems. This commentary describes the current status of the knowledge pertaining to ...


Safety And Health In On-Farm Biomass Production And Processing, Douglas H. Schlaufer, Aaron M. Yoder, Dennis J. Murphy, Charles V. Schwab, Abraham F. Dehart Jan 2014

Safety And Health In On-Farm Biomass Production And Processing, Douglas H. Schlaufer, Aaron M. Yoder, Dennis J. Murphy, Charles V. Schwab, Abraham F. Dehart

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There is significant interest in biomass production ranging from government agencies to the private sector, both inside and outside of the traditional production agricultural setting. This interest has led to an increase in the development and production of biomass crops. Much of this effort has focused on specific segments of the process, and more specifically on the mechanics of these individual segments. From a review of the scientific literature, it is seen that little effort has been put into identifying, classifying, and preventing safety hazards in on-farm biomass production systems. This article describes the current status of the knowledge pertaining ...