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2014

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Aging

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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Longitudinal Trajectories Of Cholesterol From Midlife Through Late Life According To Apolipoprotein E Allele Status, Brian Downer, Steven Estus, Yuriko Katsumata, David W. Fardo Oct 2014

Longitudinal Trajectories Of Cholesterol From Midlife Through Late Life According To Apolipoprotein E Allele Status, Brian Downer, Steven Estus, Yuriko Katsumata, David W. Fardo

Physiology Faculty Publications

Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE), a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life.

Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed ...


Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel Jul 2014

Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Problems Associated With A Lipofuscin Extraction Method Used To Age Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus Cultured In Florida, Usa, Claire E. Crowley, Ryan L. Gandy, Kendra L. Daly, Edward S. Van Vleet Jul 2014

Problems Associated With A Lipofuscin Extraction Method Used To Age Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus Cultured In Florida, Usa, Claire E. Crowley, Ryan L. Gandy, Kendra L. Daly, Edward S. Van Vleet

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an ecologically and economically important component of marine and estuarine ecosystems of the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Current stock assessments lack a clear understanding of the age structure of blue crab populations in Florida (USA). Blue crabs and other crustaceans are especially difficult to age because of the complex nature of their discrete, rather than continuous, growth patterns. Chesapeake Bay researchers developed a method of aging blue crabs by assaying the aging pigment lipofuscin extracted from eyestalk nerve tissue. Here we investigated the usefulness of that method in determining the age of ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

University Scholar Projects

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Foxo/Daf-16 Modulates Lifespan, Ankita Bansal, Eun-Soo Kwon, Darryl Conte Jr., Haibo Liu, Michael J. Gilchrist, Lesley T. Macneil, Heidi A. Tissenbaum Apr 2014

Transcriptional Regulation Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Foxo/Daf-16 Modulates Lifespan, Ankita Bansal, Eun-Soo Kwon, Darryl Conte Jr., Haibo Liu, Michael J. Gilchrist, Lesley T. Macneil, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Insulin/IGF-1 signaling plays a central role in longevity across phylogeny. In C. elegans, the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor, DAF-16, is the primary target of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, and multiple isoforms of DAF-16 (a, b, and d/f) modulate lifespan, metabolism, dauer formation, and stress resistance. Thus far, across phylogeny modulation of mammalian FOXOs and DAF-16 have focused on post-translational regulation with little focus on transcriptional regulation. In C. elegans, we have previously shown that DAF-16d/f cooperates with DAF-16a to promote longevity. In this study, we generated transgenic strains expressing near-endogenous levels of either daf-16a or ...


Increased Mitochondrial Biogenesis Preserves Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis And Contributes To Longevity In Indy Mutant Flies, Ryan P. Rogers, Blanka Rogina Apr 2014

Increased Mitochondrial Biogenesis Preserves Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis And Contributes To Longevity In Indy Mutant Flies, Ryan P. Rogers, Blanka Rogina

UCHC Articles - Research

The Drosophila Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene encodes a plasma membrane transporter of Krebs cycle intermediates, with robust expression in tissues associated with metabolism. Reduced INDY alters metabolism and extends longevity in a manner similar to caloric restriction (CR); however, little is known about the tissue specific physiological effects of INDY reduction. Here we focused on the effects of INDY reduction in the Drosophila midgut due to the importance of intestinal tissue homeostasis in healthy aging and longevity. The expression of Indy mRNA in the midgut changes in response to aging and nutrition. Genetic reduction of Indy expression ...


Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Combination With Motor Practice On Dexterous Grasping And Manipulation In Healthy Older Adults, Pranav J Parikh, Kelly J Cole Mar 2014

Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Combination With Motor Practice On Dexterous Grasping And Manipulation In Healthy Older Adults, Pranav J Parikh, Kelly J Cole

Department of Health and Human Physiology Publications

Transcranial anodal stimulation (tDCS) over primary motor cortex (M1) improves dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults. However, the beneficial effects of anodal tDCS in combination with motor practice on natural and clinically relevant functional manual tasks, and the associated changes in the digit contact forces are not known. To this end, we studied the effects of 20 min of tDCS applied over M1 for the dominant hand combined with motor practice (MP) in a sham‐controlled crossover study. We monitored the forces applied to an object that healthy elderly individuals grasped and manipulated, and their performances on the Grooved Pegboard ...


Aged Rats Are Hypo-Responsive To Acute Restraint: Implications For Psychosocial Stress In Aging, Heather M. Buechel, Jelena Popovic, Kendra Staggs, Katie L. Anderson, Olivier Thibault, Eric M. Blalock Feb 2014

Aged Rats Are Hypo-Responsive To Acute Restraint: Implications For Psychosocial Stress In Aging, Heather M. Buechel, Jelena Popovic, Kendra Staggs, Katie L. Anderson, Olivier Thibault, Eric M. Blalock

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of ...


Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang Feb 2014

Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang

GSBS Student Publications

The age-dependent decline in the self-renewal capacity of stem cells plays a critical role in aging, but the precise mechanisms underlying this decline are not well understood. By limiting proliferative capacity, senescence is thought to play an important role in age-dependent decline of stem cell self-renewal, although direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is largely lacking. We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 as a critical regulator of senescence. In this study, we found that mice deficient in Smurf2 had an expanded hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment in bone marrow under normal homeostatic conditions, and this expansion was associated ...


Age And Practice Effects On Inter-Manual Performance Asymmetry, Karen Francis, P G. Macrae, Waneen Spirduso, Tim Eakin Jan 2014

Age And Practice Effects On Inter-Manual Performance Asymmetry, Karen Francis, P G. Macrae, Waneen Spirduso, Tim Eakin

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Manual dexterity declines with increasing age, however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right-handed participants, five males and five females in each of three age groups, young (Y20), young–old (O70), and old–old (O80), practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with ...