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2014

Series

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Articles 1 - 30 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Why Did The Bear Cross The Road? Comparing The Performance Of Multiple Resistance Surfaces And Connectivity Modeling Methods, Samuel A. Cushman, Jesse S. Lewis, Erin Landguth Dec 2014

Why Did The Bear Cross The Road? Comparing The Performance Of Multiple Resistance Surfaces And Connectivity Modeling Methods, Samuel A. Cushman, Jesse S. Lewis, Erin Landguth

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

There have been few assessments of the performance of alternative resistance surfaces, and little is known about how connectivity modeling approaches differ in their ability to predict organism movements. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of four connectivity modeling approaches applied to two resistance surfaces in predicting the locations of highway crossings by American black bears in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. We found that a resistance surface derived directly from movement data greatly outperformed a resistance surface produced from analysis of genetic differentiation, despite their heuristic similarities. Our analysis also suggested differences in the performance of different connectivity ...


A New Species And Synonymy Of The Neotropical Eucelatoria Townsend And Redescription Of Myiodoriops Townsend, Diego J. Inclán, John O. Stireman Iii Dec 2014

A New Species And Synonymy Of The Neotropical Eucelatoria Townsend And Redescription Of Myiodoriops Townsend, Diego J. Inclán, John O. Stireman Iii

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The New World tropics represents the most diverse region for tachinid parasitoids (Diptera: Tachinidae), but it also contains the most narrowly defined, and possibly the most confusing, tachinid genera of any biogeographic region. This over-splitting of genera and taxonomic confusion has limited progress toward our understanding the family in this region and much work is needed to revise, redefine, and make sense of the profusion of finely split taxa. In a recent analysis of the Neotropical genus Erythromelana Townsend, two species previously assigned to this genus, Euptilodegeeria obumbrata (Wulp) and Myiodoriops marginalis Townsend were reinstated as monotypic genera. In the ...


Nmp-7 Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory And Neuropathic Pain Via Block Of Cab3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels And Activation Of Cb2 Receptors, N. Daniel Berger, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Ravil R. Petrov, Kevin Chapman, Philippe Diaz, Gerald W. Zamponi Dec 2014

Nmp-7 Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory And Neuropathic Pain Via Block Of Cab3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels And Activation Of Cb2 Receptors, N. Daniel Berger, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Ravil R. Petrov, Kevin Chapman, Philippe Diaz, Gerald W. Zamponi

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: T-type calcium channels and cannabinoid receptors are known to play important roles in chronic pain, making them attractive therapeutic targets. We recently reported on the design, synthesis and analgesic properties of a novel T-type channel inhibitor (NMP-7), which also shows mixed agonist activity on CB1 and CB2 receptors in vitro. Here, we analyzed the analgesic effect of systemically delivered NMP-7 (intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intragstric (i.g.) routes) on mechanical hypersensitivity in inflammatory pain induced by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) and neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve injury.

Results: NMP-7 delivered by either i.p. or ...


Interactive Effects Of Climate Change With Nutrients, Mercury, And Freshwater Acidification On Key Taxa In The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative Region, Alfred E. Pinkey, Charles T. Driscoll, David C. Evers, Michael J. Hooper, Jeffrey Horan, Jess W. Jones, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Harold G. Marshall, Andrew Milliken, Barnett A. Rattner, John Schmerfold, Donald W. Sparling Dec 2014

Interactive Effects Of Climate Change With Nutrients, Mercury, And Freshwater Acidification On Key Taxa In The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative Region, Alfred E. Pinkey, Charles T. Driscoll, David C. Evers, Michael J. Hooper, Jeffrey Horan, Jess W. Jones, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Harold G. Marshall, Andrew Milliken, Barnett A. Rattner, John Schmerfold, Donald W. Sparling

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public-private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using ...


The Influence Of Shelter, Conspecifics, And Threat Of Predation On The Behavior Of The Long-Spined Sea Urchin (Diadema Antillarum), Meredith D. Kintzing, Mark J. Butler Iv Nov 2014

The Influence Of Shelter, Conspecifics, And Threat Of Predation On The Behavior Of The Long-Spined Sea Urchin (Diadema Antillarum), Meredith D. Kintzing, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The interplay of competition and predation often affects prey habitat use, which may concentrate prey in safer areas with indirect consequences on their foraging efficiency and the effects of their foraging on the community. Predation is intense on coral reefs where competition for limited space and food is severe. The sea urchin Diadema antillarum, an inhabitant of Caribbean coral reefs, uses crevice shelters and often aggregates with conspecifics for protection against predators, which appears to reflect a conflicting balance between group defense versus competition for limited shelter. A series of laboratory experiments was used to determine how the availability of ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Model For Secondary Evolution Educators’ Professional Development Needs, William L. Romine, Ellen Barnett, Patricia J. Friedrichsen, Aaron J. Sickel Nov 2014

Development And Evaluation Of A Model For Secondary Evolution Educators’ Professional Development Needs, William L. Romine, Ellen Barnett, Patricia J. Friedrichsen, Aaron J. Sickel

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Professional development (PD) efforts have improved acceptance and pedagogical practice related to the theory of evolution in high school biology teachers. However, these teachers express need for more PD related to evolution. It therefore becomes necessary to understand teachers’ PD needs prior to structuring PD efforts.

Methods

We formulated and validated a model to explain secondary teachers’ PD needs using data from a survey of 276 secondary biology teachers who reported teaching evolution.

Results

In addition to reliable subscales, we found that obstacles to teaching evolution, school and community support for evolution instruction, confidence in evolution instruction, and prior ...


White Fringetree, Chionanthus Virginicus, As A Novel Larval Host For Emerald Ash Boer, Don Cipollini Oct 2014

White Fringetree, Chionanthus Virginicus, As A Novel Larval Host For Emerald Ash Boer, Don Cipollini

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that EAB can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern U.S. that is also planted ornamentally.


Mechanisms Of Ash Resistance To Emerald Ash Borer: Progress And Gaps, Caterina Villari, Justin G.A. Whitehill, Don Cipollini, Daniel A. Herms, Pierluigi Bonello Oct 2014

Mechanisms Of Ash Resistance To Emerald Ash Borer: Progress And Gaps, Caterina Villari, Justin G.A. Whitehill, Don Cipollini, Daniel A. Herms, Pierluigi Bonello

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The emerald ash borer (EAB) invasion of North America has caused widespread mortality of native ash, and is threatening the native ash resources. As a consequence of its devastating impact, EAB has caught the attention of the scientific community, and several studies have focused on different aspects of the biology and behavior of this pest, including its interaction with host defenses. Here we present a review of the published literature on mechanisms of ash resistance to EAB, the understanding of which, despite starting from a tabula rasa, has achieved significant progress in the last few years.


Astrocyte-Specific Regulation Of Hmecp2 Expression In Drosophila, David Hess-Homeier, Chia-Yu Fan, Tarun Gupta, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Sarah J. Certel Oct 2014

Astrocyte-Specific Regulation Of Hmecp2 Expression In Drosophila, David Hess-Homeier, Chia-Yu Fan, Tarun Gupta, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Sarah J. Certel

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Alterations in the expression of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) either by mutations or gene duplication leads to a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett Syndrome and MeCP2 duplication disorder. Common features of Rett Syndrome (RTT), MeCP2 duplication disorder, and neuropsychiatric disorders indicate that even moderate changes in MeCP2 protein levels result in functional and structural cell abnormalities. In this study, we investigated two areas of MeCP2 pathophysiology using Drosophila as a model system: the effects of MeCP2 glial gain-of-function activity on circuits controlling sleep behavior, and the cell-type specific regulation of MeCP2 expression. In this study, we first examined ...


Sensitivity And Tolerance Of Riparian Arthropod Communities To Altered Water Resources Along A Drying River, Kevin E. Mccluney, John L. Sabo Oct 2014

Sensitivity And Tolerance Of Riparian Arthropod Communities To Altered Water Resources Along A Drying River, Kevin E. Mccluney, John L. Sabo

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively.


Inter-Calibration Of Satellite Passive Microwave Land Observations From Amsr-E And Amsr2 Using Overlapping Fy3b-Mwri Sensor Measurements, Jinyang Du, John S. Kimball, Jiancheng Shi, Lucas Alan Jones, Shengli Wu, Ruijing Sun, Hu Yang Sep 2014

Inter-Calibration Of Satellite Passive Microwave Land Observations From Amsr-E And Amsr2 Using Overlapping Fy3b-Mwri Sensor Measurements, Jinyang Du, John S. Kimball, Jiancheng Shi, Lucas Alan Jones, Shengli Wu, Ruijing Sun, Hu Yang

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The development and continuity of consistent long-term data records from similar overlapping satellite observations is critical for global monitoring and environmental change assessments. We developed an empirical approach for inter-calibration of satellite microwave brightness temperature (Tb) records over land from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) using overlapping Tb observations from the Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI). Double Differencing (DD) calculations revealed significant AMSR2 and MWRI biases relative to AMSR-E. Pixel-wise linear relationships were established from overlapping Tb records and used for calibrating MWRI and AMSR2 records to the AMSR-E baseline ...


Retrievals Of All-Weather Daily Air Temperature Using Modis And Amsr-E Data, Keunchang Jang, Sinkyu Kang, John S. Kimball, Suk Young Hong Sep 2014

Retrievals Of All-Weather Daily Air Temperature Using Modis And Amsr-E Data, Keunchang Jang, Sinkyu Kang, John S. Kimball, Suk Young Hong

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Satellite optical-infrared remote sensing from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides effective air temperature (Ta) retrieval at a spatial resolution of 5 km. However, frequent cloud cover can result in substantial signal loss and remote sensing retrieval error in MODIS Ta. We presented a simple pixel-wise empirical regression method combining synergistic information from MODIS Ta and 37 GHz frequency brightness temperature (Tb) retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for estimating surface level Ta under both clear and cloudy sky conditions in the United States for 2006. The instantaneous ...


Combining Demographic And Genetic Factors To Assess Population Vulnerability In Stream Species, Erin Landguth, C. C. Muhlfeld, R. S. Waples, L. Jones, Winsor H. Lowe, Diane C. Whited, J. Lucotch, H. Neville, Gordon Luikart Sep 2014

Combining Demographic And Genetic Factors To Assess Population Vulnerability In Stream Species, Erin Landguth, C. C. Muhlfeld, R. S. Waples, L. Jones, Winsor H. Lowe, Diane C. Whited, J. Lucotch, H. Neville, Gordon Luikart

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and ...


Predation Risk, Elk, And Aspen: Comment, Robert L. Beschta, Cristina Eisenberg, John W. Laundre, William J. Ripple, Thomas P. Rooney Sep 2014

Predation Risk, Elk, And Aspen: Comment, Robert L. Beschta, Cristina Eisenberg, John W. Laundre, William J. Ripple, Thomas P. Rooney

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Genomic Architecture Of Population Divergence Between Subspecies Of The European Rabbit, Miguel Carneiro, Frank W. Albert, Sandra Afonso, Ricardo J. Pereira, Hernan Burbano, Rita Campos, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Jose A. Blanco-Aguiar, Rafael Villafuerte, Michael W. Nachman, Jeffrey M. Good, Nuno Ferrand Aug 2014

The Genomic Architecture Of Population Divergence Between Subspecies Of The European Rabbit, Miguel Carneiro, Frank W. Albert, Sandra Afonso, Ricardo J. Pereira, Hernan Burbano, Rita Campos, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Jose A. Blanco-Aguiar, Rafael Villafuerte, Michael W. Nachman, Jeffrey M. Good, Nuno Ferrand

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The analysis of introgression of genomic regions between divergent populations provides an excellent opportunity to determine the genetic basis of reproductive isolation during the early stages of speciation. However, hybridization and subsequent gene flow must be relatively common in order to localize individual loci that resist introgression. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to study genome-wide patterns of genetic differentiation between two hybridizing subspecies of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus and O. c. cuniculus) that are known to undergo high rates of gene exchange. Our primary objective was to identify specific genes or genomic regions that have resisted introgression and ...


Limitations To Estimating Bacterial Cross-Species Transmission Using Genetic And Genomic Markers: Inferences From Simulation Modeling, Julio A. Benavides, Paul C. Cross, Gordon Luikart, Scott Creel Aug 2014

Limitations To Estimating Bacterial Cross-Species Transmission Using Genetic And Genomic Markers: Inferences From Simulation Modeling, Julio A. Benavides, Paul C. Cross, Gordon Luikart, Scott Creel

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST ...


Are Local Filters Blind To Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More Than Natives, Dean Pearson, Nadia S. Icasatti, Jose L. Hierro, Benjamin J. Bird Aug 2014

Are Local Filters Blind To Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More Than Natives, Dean Pearson, Nadia S. Icasatti, Jose L. Hierro, Benjamin J. Bird

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant ...


Oroya Fever And Verruga Peruana: Bartonelloses Unique To South America, Michael F. Minnick, Burt E. Anderson, Amorce Lima, James M. Battisti, Phillip G. Lawyer, Richard J. Birtles Jul 2014

Oroya Fever And Verruga Peruana: Bartonelloses Unique To South America, Michael F. Minnick, Burt E. Anderson, Amorce Lima, James M. Battisti, Phillip G. Lawyer, Richard J. Birtles

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Bartonella bacilliformis is the bacterial agent of Carrión's disease and is presumed to be transmitted between humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Carrión's disease is endemic to high-altitude valleys of the South American Andes, and the first reported outbreak (1871) resulted in over 4,000 casualties. Since then, numerous outbreaks have been documented in endemic regions, and over the last two decades, outbreaks have occurred at atypical elevations, strongly suggesting that the area of endemicity is expanding. Approximately 1.7 million South Americans are estimated to be at risk in an area covering roughly 145,000 km2 of Ecuador ...


Granivory Of Invasive, Naturalized, And Native Plants In Communities Differentially Susceptible To Invasion, B. M. Connolly, Dean Pearson, R. N. Mack Jul 2014

Granivory Of Invasive, Naturalized, And Native Plants In Communities Differentially Susceptible To Invasion, B. M. Connolly, Dean Pearson, R. N. Mack

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities’ susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the ...


Morphological Variability In Tree Root Architecture Indirectly Affects Coexistence Among Competitors In The Understory, Erik T. Aschehoug, Ragan M. Callaway Jul 2014

Morphological Variability In Tree Root Architecture Indirectly Affects Coexistence Among Competitors In The Understory, Erik T. Aschehoug, Ragan M. Callaway

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Interactions between plants can have strong effects on community structure and function. Variability in the morphological, developmental, physiological, and biochemical traits of plants can influence the outcome of plant interactions and thus have important ecological consequences. However, the ecological ramifications of trait variability in plants are poorly understood and have rarely been tested in the field. We experimentally tested the effects of morphological variation in root architecture of Quercus douglasii trees in the field on interactions between understory plants and community composition. Our results indicate that variability among Q. douglasii tree root systems initiates a striking reversal in the competitive ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Kalandars And Captive Bears In Pakistan, Thomas P. Rooney, Kendra C. Millam Jul 2014

A Quantitative Analysis Of Kalandars And Captive Bears In Pakistan, Thomas P. Rooney, Kendra C. Millam

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

In 2013, the Bioresource Research Centre (Islamabad, Pakistan) conducted a comprehensive census of the remaining dancing and bear-baiting bears in Pakistan. This involved locating and counting the actual involved bears and bear keepers (kalandars), collecting detailed socio-economic data from the bear-keepers, and identifying attitudes and key drivers behind this livelihood. This report summarizes the findings from the census, reveals relationships in the data that are not immediately apparent, and identifies potential leverage points for ongoing campaign efforts.


Transcriptome Of The Female Synganglion Of The Black-Legged Tick Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) With Comparison Between Illumina And 454 Systems, Noble Egekwu, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Brooke W. Bissinger, R. Michael Roe Jul 2014

Transcriptome Of The Female Synganglion Of The Black-Legged Tick Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) With Comparison Between Illumina And 454 Systems, Noble Egekwu, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Brooke W. Bissinger, R. Michael Roe

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing were used to characterize genes from the synganglion of female Ixodes scapularis. GO term searching success for biological processes was similar for samples sequenced by both methods. However, for molecular processes, it was more successful for the Illumina samples than for 454 samples. Functional assignments of transcripts predicting neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors, neurotransmitter receptors and other genes of interest was done, supported by strong e-values (<-6), and high consensus sequence alignments. Transcripts predicting 15 putative neuropeptide prepropeptides ((allatostatin, allatotropin, bursicon α, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), CRF-binding protein, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide, glycoprotein A, insulin-like peptide, ion transport peptide, myoinhibitory peptide, inotocin ( = neurophysin-oxytocin), Neuropeptide F, sulfakinin and SIFamide)) and transcripts predicting receptors for 14 neuropeptides (allatostatin, calcitonin, cardioacceleratory peptide, corazonin, CRF, eclosion hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone/AKH-like, insulin-like peptide, neuropeptide F, proctolin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin) are reported. Similar to Dermacentor variabilis, we found transcripts matching pro-protein convertase, essential for converting neuropeptide hormones to their mature form. Additionally, transcripts predicting 6 neurotransmitter/neuromodulator receptors (acetylcholine, GABA, dopamine, glutamate, octopamine and serotonin) and ...


Lateral Line Analogue Aids Vision In Successful Predator Evasion For The Brief Squid, Lolliguncula Brevis, Carly A. York, Ian K. Bartol Jul 2014

Lateral Line Analogue Aids Vision In Successful Predator Evasion For The Brief Squid, Lolliguncula Brevis, Carly A. York, Ian K. Bartol

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cephalopods have visual and mechanoreception systems that may be employed to sense and respond to an approaching predator. While vision presumably plays the dominant role, the importance of the lateral line analogue for predator evasion has not been examined in cephalopods. To test the respective roles of vision and the lateral line analogue, brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, were observed in the presence of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, under light and dark conditions with their lateral line analogue intact and ablated. Hair cell ablation was achieved through a pharmacological technique used for the first time on a cephalopod. The proportion of ...


Ontogenetic Investigation Of Underwater Hearing Capabilities In Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta) Using A Dual Testing Approach, Ashley L. Lavender, Soraya M. Bartol, Ian K. Bartol Jul 2014

Ontogenetic Investigation Of Underwater Hearing Capabilities In Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta) Using A Dual Testing Approach, Ashley L. Lavender, Soraya M. Bartol, Ian K. Bartol

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Sea turtles reside in different acoustic environments with each life history stage and may have different hearing capacity throughout ontogeny. For this study, two independent yet complementary techniques for hearing assessment, i.e. behavioral and electrophysiological audiometry, were employed to (1) measure hearing in post-hatchling and juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta (19-62 cm straight carapace length) to determine whether these migratory turtles exhibit an ontogenetic shift in underwater auditory detection and (2) evaluate whether hearing frequency range and threshold sensitivity are consistent in behavioral and electrophysiological tests. Behavioral trials first required training turtles to respond to known frequencies, a ...


Epidemic Surveillance Using An Electronic Medical Record: An Empiric Approach To Performance Improvement, Hongzhang Zheng, Holly Gaff, Gary Smith, Sylvain Delisle Jul 2014

Epidemic Surveillance Using An Electronic Medical Record: An Empiric Approach To Performance Improvement, Hongzhang Zheng, Holly Gaff, Gary Smith, Sylvain Delisle

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUNDS: Electronic medical records (EMR) form a rich repository of information that could benefit public health. We asked how structured and free-text narrative EMR data should be combined to improve epidemic surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI).

METHODS: Eight previously characterized ARI case detection algorithms (CDA) were applied to historical EMR entries to create authentic time series of daily ARI case counts (background). An epidemic model simulated influenza cases (injection). From the time of the injection, cluster-detection statistics were applied daily on paired background+injection (combined) and background-only time series. This cycle was then repeated with the injection shifted to ...


Surface Water Inundation In The Boreal-Artic: Potential Impacts On Regional Methane Emissions, J. D. Watts, John S. Kimball, Annett Bartsch, Kyle C. Mcdonald Jun 2014

Surface Water Inundation In The Boreal-Artic: Potential Impacts On Regional Methane Emissions, J. D. Watts, John S. Kimball, Annett Bartsch, Kyle C. Mcdonald

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Northern wetlands may be vulnerable to increased carbon losses from methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, under current warming trends. However, the dynamic nature of open water inundation and wetting/drying patterns may constrain regional emissions, offsetting the potential magnitude of methane release. Here we conduct a satellite data driven model investigation of the combined effects of surface warming and moisture variability on high northern latitude (45° N) wetland CH4 emissions, by considering (1) sub-grid scale changes in fractional water inundation (Fw) at 15 day, monthly and annual intervals using 25 km resolution satellite microwave retrievals, and (2 ...


Ex Uno Plures: Clonal Reinforcement Drives Evolution Of A Simple Microbial Community, Margie A. Kinnersley, Jared Wenger, Evgueny Kroll, Julian Adams, Gavin Sherlock, Frank Rosenzweig Jun 2014

Ex Uno Plures: Clonal Reinforcement Drives Evolution Of A Simple Microbial Community, Margie A. Kinnersley, Jared Wenger, Evgueny Kroll, Julian Adams, Gavin Sherlock, Frank Rosenzweig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

A major goal of genetics is to define the relationship between phenotype and genotype, while a major goal of ecology is to identify the rules that govern community assembly. Achieving these goals by analyzing natural systems can be difficult, as selective pressures create dynamic fitness landscapes that vary in both space and time. Laboratory experimental evolution offers the benefit of controlling variables that shape fitness landscapes, helping to achieve both goals. We previously showed that a clonal population of E. coli experimentally evolved under continuous glucose limitation gives rise to a genetically diverse community consisting of one clone, CV103, that ...


Identification Of Novel Small Rnas And Characterization Of The 6s Rna Of Coxiella Burnetii, Indu Warrier, Linda D. Hicks, James M. Battisti, Rahul Raghavan, Michael F. Minnick Jun 2014

Identification Of Novel Small Rnas And Characterization Of The 6s Rna Of Coxiella Burnetii, Indu Warrier, Linda D. Hicks, James M. Battisti, Rahul Raghavan, Michael F. Minnick

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever, undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a metabolically-active large cell variant (LCV) and a dormant small cell variant (SCV). As such, the bacterium undoubtedly employs complex modes of regulating its lifecycle, metabolism and pathogenesis. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory roles in controlling metabolism and virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. We hypothesize that sRNAs are involved in regulating growth and development of C. burnetii and its infection of host cells. To address the hypothesis and identify potential sRNAs, we subjected total RNA ...


White-Tailed Deer Are A Biotic Filter During Community Assembly, Reducing Species And Phylogenetic Diversity, Danielle R. Begley-Miller, Andrew L. Hipp, Bethany H. Brown, Marlene Hahn, Thomas P. Rooney Jun 2014

White-Tailed Deer Are A Biotic Filter During Community Assembly, Reducing Species And Phylogenetic Diversity, Danielle R. Begley-Miller, Andrew L. Hipp, Bethany H. Brown, Marlene Hahn, Thomas P. Rooney

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H′), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed ...


Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake In Northern Ecosystems, Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Rolf H. Reichle Jun 2014

Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake In Northern Ecosystems, Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Rolf H. Reichle

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of ...