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2014

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Florida International University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 52

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Indole Alkaloids From Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development In The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Embryo Model, Katherine Walton, Miroslav Gantar, Patrick D.L. Gibbs, Michael C. Schmale, John P. Berry Dec 2014

Indole Alkaloids From Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development In The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Embryo Model, Katherine Walton, Miroslav Gantar, Patrick D.L. Gibbs, Michael C. Schmale, John P. Berry

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Cyanobacteria are recognized producers of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolite associated, in particular, with so-called “harmful algal blooms” (HABs) and eutrophication of freshwater systems. In the present study, two apparently teratogenic indole alkaloids from a freshwater strain of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Fischerella (Stigonemataceae), were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation, specifically using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development. The two alkaloids include the previously known 12-epi-hapalindole H isonitrile (1), and a new nitrile-containing variant, 12-epi-ambiguine B nitrile (2). Although both compounds were toxic to developing embryos, the former compound was shown to be relatively more potent ...


Ecology And Physiology Of The Pathogenic Cyanobacterium Roseofilum Reptotaenium, Laurie L. Richardson, Dina Stanic, Amanda May, Abigael Brownell, Miroslav Gantar, Shawn R. Campagna Dec 2014

Ecology And Physiology Of The Pathogenic Cyanobacterium Roseofilum Reptotaenium, Laurie L. Richardson, Dina Stanic, Amanda May, Abigael Brownell, Miroslav Gantar, Shawn R. Campagna

Department of Biological Sciences

Roseofilum reptotaenium is a gliding, filamentous, phycoerythrin-rich cyanobacterium that has been found only in the horizontally migrating, pathogenic microbial mat, black band disease (BBD) on Caribbean corals. R. reptotaenium dominates the BBD mat in terms of biomass and motility, and the filaments form the mat fabric. This cyanobacterium produces the cyanotoxin microcystin, predominately MC-LR, and can tolerate high levels of sulfide produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) that are also associated with BBD. Laboratory cultures of R. reptotaenium infect coral fragments, suggesting that the cyanobacterium is the primary pathogen of BBD, but since this species cannot grow axenically and Koch ...


Screening Of Cyanobacteria And Microalgae For Their Ability To Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles With Antibacterial Activity, Vijay Patel, David Berthold, Pravin Puranik, Miroslav Gantar Dec 2014

Screening Of Cyanobacteria And Microalgae For Their Ability To Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles With Antibacterial Activity, Vijay Patel, David Berthold, Pravin Puranik, Miroslav Gantar

Department of Biological Sciences

The aim of this study was to assess the ability of selected strains of cyanobacteria and microalgae to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by using two procedures; (i) suspending the live andwashed biomass of microalgae and cyanobacteria into the AgNO3 solution and (ii) by adding AgNO3 into a cellfree culture liquid. Ag-NPs were biosynthesized by 14 out of 16 tested strains. In most of the cases Ag-NPs were formed both in the presence of biomass as well as in the cell-free culture liquid. This indicates that the process of Ag-NPs formation involves an extracellular compound such as polysaccharide. TEM analysis showed ...


Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan Dec 2014

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I proposed the study of two distinct aspects of Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) protein for understanding specific functions in different body systems.

In Part I, I characterized the molecular mechanisms of Tet2 in the hematological system. As the second member of Ten-Eleven Translocation protein family, TET2 is frequently mutated in leukemic patients. Previous studies have shown that the TET2 mutations frequently occur in 20% myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), 10% T-cell lymphoma leukemia and 2% B-cell lymphoma leukemia. Genetic mouse models also display distinct phenotypes of various types of hematological malignancies. I performed 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq ...


Evidence Of Climate Variability And Tropical Cyclone Activity From Diatom Assemblage Dynamics In Coastal Southwest Florida, Emily R. Nodine Nov 2014

Evidence Of Climate Variability And Tropical Cyclone Activity From Diatom Assemblage Dynamics In Coastal Southwest Florida, Emily R. Nodine

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Estuaries are dynamic on many spatial and temporal scales. Distinguishing effects of unpredictable events from cyclical patterns can be challenging but important to predict the influence of press and pulse drivers in the face of climate change. Diatom assemblages respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions and characterize change on multiple time scales. The goals of this research were to 1) characterize diatom assemblages in the Charlotte Harbor watershed, their relationships with water quality parameters, and how they change in response to climate; and 2) use assemblages in sediment cores to interpret past climate changes and tropical cyclone activity.

Diatom assemblages ...


Habitat Use Of The Key Largo Woodrat (Neotoma Floridana Smalli), Lauren J. Barth Nov 2014

Habitat Use Of The Key Largo Woodrat (Neotoma Floridana Smalli), Lauren J. Barth

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Key Largo woodrats are an endangered subspecies with an extremely limited habitat. This study sought to understand woodrat habitat preferences in order to guide management. Woodrats build stick nests from natural and artificial materials, so nest distribution and nest occupancy were used as indicators of preference. Distribution was determined by nest surveys, and remote cameras were used to assess occupancy. Forest structure, human disturbance, nest, and animal presence metrics were also collected. More nests were found along abandoned roads than along forest transects and more artificial nests were occupied than natural nests. These findings indicate that woodrats prefer areas with ...


Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry Of South Florida Coastal Marine Ecosystems, Sarah Elise Strand Nov 2014

Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry Of South Florida Coastal Marine Ecosystems, Sarah Elise Strand

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Southeast Florida’s continual urban expansion will potentially increase anthropogenic pollution in adjacent coastal marine systems. Furthermore, increased nutrient loads could have detrimental effects on the already threatened Florida Reef Tract. The present study uses a stable isotopic approach to determine the sources and the impact of nutrients on the Florida Reef Tract. δ13C and δ15N analysis of macroalgae, sponges, and sediment were analyzed in order to determine nutrient inputs in this region. While δ13C data did not display any significant trends spatially, δ15N values of the majority of biota exhibited a ...


Movement Effects On The Flow Physics And Nutrient Delivery In Engineered Valvular Tissues, Manuel Salinas Nov 2014

Movement Effects On The Flow Physics And Nutrient Delivery In Engineered Valvular Tissues, Manuel Salinas

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical conditioning has been shown to promote tissue formation in a wide variety of tissue engineering efforts. However the underlying mechanisms by which external mechanical stimuli regulate cells and tissues are not known. This is particularly relevant in the area of heart valve tissue engineering (HVTE) owing to the intense hemodynamic environments that surround native valves. Some studies suggest that oscillatory shear stress (OSS) caused by steady flow and scaffold flexure play a critical role in engineered tissue formation derived from bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs). In addition, scaffold flexure may enhance nutrient (e.g. oxygen, glucose) transport. In ...


A 5', 8-Cyclo-2'-Deoxypurine Lesion Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Deletion Via A Unique Lesion Bypass By Dna Polymerase Β., Meng Xu, Yanhao Lai, Zhongliang Jiang, Michael A. Terzidis, Annalisa Masi, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Yuan Liu Nov 2014

A 5', 8-Cyclo-2'-Deoxypurine Lesion Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Deletion Via A Unique Lesion Bypass By Dna Polymerase Β., Meng Xu, Yanhao Lai, Zhongliang Jiang, Michael A. Terzidis, Annalisa Masi, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Yuan Liu

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

5′,8-cyclo-2′-deoxypurines (cdPus) are common forms of oxidized DNA lesions resulting from endogenous and environmental oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation. The lesions can only be repaired by nucleotide excision repair with a low efficiency. This results in their accumulation in the genome that leads to stalling of the replication DNA polymerases and poor lesion bypass by translesion DNA polymerases. Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) consist of tandem repeats of Gs and As and therefore are hotspots of cdPus. In this study, we provided the first evidence that both (5′R)- and (5′S)-5′,8-cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (cdA) in a CAG ...


Mechanisms Of Arsenic Detoxification And Resistance, Jitesh Kannan Pillai Nov 2014

Mechanisms Of Arsenic Detoxification And Resistance, Jitesh Kannan Pillai

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental toxic substance. As a consequence of continual exposure to arsenic, nearly every organism, from Escherichia coli to humans have evolved arsenic detoxification pathways. One of the pathways is extrusion of arsenic from inside the cells, thereby conferring resistance. The R773 arsRDABC operon in E. coli encodes an ArsAB efflux pump that confers resistance to arsenite. ArsA is the catalytic subunit of the pump, while ArsB forms the oxyanion conducting pathway. ArsD is an arsenite metallochaperone that binds arsenite and transfers it to ArsA. The interaction of ArsA and ArsD allows for resistance to As(III ...


Non-Consumptive Effects Of Predators In Coral Reef Communities And The Indirect Consequences Of Marine Protected Areas, Laura Catano Nov 2014

Non-Consumptive Effects Of Predators In Coral Reef Communities And The Indirect Consequences Of Marine Protected Areas, Laura Catano

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Predators exert strong direct and indirect effects on ecological communities by intimidating their prey. Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators are important features of many ecosystems and have changed the way we understand predator-prey interactions, but are not well understood in some systems. For my dissertation research I combined a variety of approaches to examine the effect of predation risk on herbivore foraging and reproductive behaviors in a coral reef ecosystem. In the first part of my dissertation, I investigated how diet and territoriality of herbivorous fish varied across multiple reefs with different levels of predator biomass in the Florida Keys ...


Characterization Of Juvenile Hormone Biosynthetic Enzymes In The Mosquito, Aedes Aegypti, Pratik Nyati Nov 2014

Characterization Of Juvenile Hormone Biosynthetic Enzymes In The Mosquito, Aedes Aegypti, Pratik Nyati

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The juvenile hormones (JHs) are sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. They are synthesized and secreted by a pair of small endocrine glands, the corpora allata (CA), which are intimately connected to the brain. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of JH are attractive targets for the control of mosquito populations. This dissertation is a comprehensive functional study of five Aedes aegypti CA enzymes, HMG-CoA synthase (AaHMGS), mevalonate kinase (AaMK), phosphomevalonate kinase (AaPMK), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (AaFPPS) and farnesyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (AaFPPase).

The enzyme AaHMGS catalyzes the ...


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Γ Coactivator 1-Α (Ppargc1a) Genetic Associations With Type 2 Diabetes In Three Ethnicities, Amanpreet K. Cheema Oct 2014

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Γ Coactivator 1-Α (Ppargc1a) Genetic Associations With Type 2 Diabetes In Three Ethnicities, Amanpreet K. Cheema

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Genetic heterogeneity, lifestyle factors, gene-gene or gene-environment interactions are the determinants of T2D which puts Hispanics and populations with African ancestry at higher risk of developing T2D. In this dissertation, the genetic associations of PPARGC1A polymorphisms with T2D and its related phenotypes (metabolic markers) in Haitian Americans (cases=110, controls=116), African Americans (cases=120, controls=124) and Cuban Americans (cases=160, controls=181) of South Florida were explored. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms of gene PPARGC1A were evaluated in each ethnicity for their disease association. In Haitian Americans, rs7656250 (OR= 0.22, pp=0.03) had significant protective association ...


Uv-Induced Melanoma Mouse Model Dependent On Endothelin 3 Over-Expression, Ana Paula Benaduce Oct 2014

Uv-Induced Melanoma Mouse Model Dependent On Endothelin 3 Over-Expression, Ana Paula Benaduce

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of cancer. It originates from the transformation of melanocytes present in the epidermal/dermal junction of the human skin. It is commonly accepted that melanomagenesis is influenced by the interaction of environmental factors, genetic factors, as well as tumor-host interactions. DNA photoproducts induced by UV radiation are, in normal cells, repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The prominent role of NER in cancer resistance is well exemplified by patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP). This disease results from mutations in the components of the NER pathway, such as XPA and XPC ...


Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis In Insects: What Is New, What Do We Know, And What Questions Remain?, Fernando G. Noriega Oct 2014

Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis In Insects: What Is New, What Do We Know, And What Questions Remain?, Fernando G. Noriega

Biomolecular Sciences Institute: Faculty Publications

Our understanding of JH biosynthesis has significantly changed in the last years. In this review I would like to discuss the following topics: (1) the progresses in understanding the JH biosynthesis pathway. Access to genome sequences has facilitated the identification of all the genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and the completion of comprehensive transcriptional studies, as well as the expression and characterization of recombinant enzymes. Now the existence of different flux directionalites, feed-back loops and pathway branching points in the JH biosynthesis pathways can be explored; (2) the new concepts in the modulation of JH synthesis by allatoregulators. The list of ...


Towards A Cohesive, Holistic View Of Top Predation: A Definition, Synthesis And Perspective, Fabrizio Sergio, Oswald J. Schmitz, Charles J. Krebbs, Robert D. Holt, Michael R. Heithaus, Aaron J. Wirsing, William J. Ripple, Euan Ritchie, David Ainley, Daniel Oro, Yadvendradev Jhala, Fernando Hiraldo, Erkki Korpimäki Oct 2014

Towards A Cohesive, Holistic View Of Top Predation: A Definition, Synthesis And Perspective, Fabrizio Sergio, Oswald J. Schmitz, Charles J. Krebbs, Robert D. Holt, Michael R. Heithaus, Aaron J. Wirsing, William J. Ripple, Euan Ritchie, David Ainley, Daniel Oro, Yadvendradev Jhala, Fernando Hiraldo, Erkki Korpimäki

FCE LTER Journal Articles

The ongoing global loss of top predators and their recolonization of various regions are causing a rapid upsurge of studies on these species and a consequent fragmentation of this field into disconnected, specialized subcompartments: this will weaken efforts to produce synthetic generalisations of broader ecological interest. Here, we show that top predation provides regular contributions to general ecology, is well grounded in theoretical ecology and is a rapidly expanding and increasingly experimental, multidisciplinary and technological field of research. The novelty of this forum lies in providing a concise synthesis of this area of ecology, in attempting to formalise “top predation ...


Oxidative Dna Damage Modulates Trinucleotide Repeat Instability Via Dna Base Excision Repair, Meng Xu Sep 2014

Oxidative Dna Damage Modulates Trinucleotide Repeat Instability Via Dna Base Excision Repair, Meng Xu

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion is the cause of more than 40 types of human neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. Recent studies have linked TNR expansion with oxidative DNA damage and base excision repair (BER). In this research, we provided the first evidence that oxidative DNA damage can induce CAG repeat deletion/contraction via BER. We found that BER of an oxidized DNA base lesion, 8-oxoguanine in a CAG repeat tract, resulted in the formation of a CTG hairpin at the template strand. DNA polymerase β (pol b) then skipped over the hairpin creating a 5’-flap that was ...


Development Of A Methodology That Couples Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements To Spatial-Temporal Distribution Of Soil Moisture In The Vadose Zone Of The Everglades National Park, Luis G. Perez Aug 2014

Development Of A Methodology That Couples Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements To Spatial-Temporal Distribution Of Soil Moisture In The Vadose Zone Of The Everglades National Park, Luis G. Perez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spatial-temporal distribution of soil moisture in the vadose zone is an important aspect of the hydrological cycle that plays a fundamental role in water resources management, including modeling of water flow and mass transport. The vadose zone is a critical transfer and storage compartment, which controls the partitioning of energy and mass linked to surface runoff, evapotranspiration and infiltration. This dissertation focuses on integrating hydraulic characterization methods with remote sensing technologies to estimate the soil moisture distribution by modeling the spatial coverage of soil moisture in the horizontal and vertical dimensions with high temporal resolution.

The methodology consists of using ...


Seagrasses In The Age Of Sea Turtle Conservation And Shark Overfishing, Michael R. Heithaus, Teresa Allcoverro, Rohan Arthur, Derek Burkholder, Kathryn A. Coates, Marjolijn J.A. Christianen, Nachiket Kelkar, Sarah A. Manuel, Aaron J. Wirsing, W. Judson Kenworthy, James W. Fourqurean Aug 2014

Seagrasses In The Age Of Sea Turtle Conservation And Shark Overfishing, Michael R. Heithaus, Teresa Allcoverro, Rohan Arthur, Derek Burkholder, Kathryn A. Coates, Marjolijn J.A. Christianen, Nachiket Kelkar, Sarah A. Manuel, Aaron J. Wirsing, W. Judson Kenworthy, James W. Fourqurean

Department of Biological Sciences

Efforts to conserve globally declining herbivorous green sea turtles have resulted in promising growth of some populations. These trends could significantly impact critical ecosystem services provided by seagrass meadows on which turtles feed. Expanding turtle populations could improve seagrass ecosystem health by removing seagrass biomass and preventing of the formation of sediment anoxia. However, overfishing of large sharks, the primary green turtle predators, could facilitate turtle populations growing beyond historical sizes and trigger detrimental ecosystem impacts mirroring those on land when top predators were extirpated. Experimental data from multiple ocean basins suggest that increasing turtle populations can negatively impact seagrasses ...


Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies And Meta-Analyses Of Longitudinal Change In Adult Lung Function, Wenbo Tang, Matthew Kowgier, Daan W. Loth, Maria Soler Artigas, Bonnie R. Joubert, Emily Hodge, Sina A. Gharib, Albert V. Smith, Ingo Ruczinski, Vilmundur Gudnason, Rasika A. Mathias, Tamara B. Harris, Nadia N. Hansel, Lenore J. Launer, Kathleen C. Barnes, Joyanna G. Hansen, O. Dale Williams Jul 2014

Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies And Meta-Analyses Of Longitudinal Change In Adult Lung Function, Wenbo Tang, Matthew Kowgier, Daan W. Loth, Maria Soler Artigas, Bonnie R. Joubert, Emily Hodge, Sina A. Gharib, Albert V. Smith, Ingo Ruczinski, Vilmundur Gudnason, Rasika A. Mathias, Tamara B. Harris, Nadia N. Hansel, Lenore J. Launer, Kathleen C. Barnes, Joyanna G. Hansen, O. Dale Williams

Department of Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.

Methods: We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean ...


The Dangers Of Carbon-Centric Conservation For Biodiversity: A Case Study In The Andes, Alvaro Duque, Kenneth J. Feeley, Edersson Cabrera, Ricardo Callejas, Alvaro Idarraga Jun 2014

The Dangers Of Carbon-Centric Conservation For Biodiversity: A Case Study In The Andes, Alvaro Duque, Kenneth J. Feeley, Edersson Cabrera, Ricardo Callejas, Alvaro Idarraga

Department of Biological Sciences

Carbon-centric conservation strategies such as the United Nation’s program to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), are expected to simultaneously reduce net global CO2 emissions and mitigate species extinctions in regions with high endemism and diversity, such as the Tropical Andes Biodiversity Hotspot. Using data from the northern Andes, we show, however, that carbon-focused conservation strategies may potentially lead to increased risks of species extinctions if there is displacement (i.e., “leakage”) of land-use changes from forests with large aboveground biomass stocks but relatively poor species richness and low levels of endemism, to forests with lower biomass ...


Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of Dictyostelium Discoideum Aggregation Streams, John Daniel Debord, Donald F. Smith, Christopher R. Anderton, Ron M.A. Heeren, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Richard H. Gomer, Francisco Fernandez-Lima Jun 2014

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of Dictyostelium Discoideum Aggregation Streams, John Daniel Debord, Donald F. Smith, Christopher R. Anderton, Ron M.A. Heeren, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Richard H. Gomer, Francisco Fernandez-Lima

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

High resolution imaging mass spectrometry could become a valuable tool for cell and developmental biology, but both, high spatial and mass spectral resolution are needed to enable this. In this report, we employed Bi3 bombardment time-of-flight (Bi3 ToF-SIMS) and C60 bombardment Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60 FTICR-SIMS) to image Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation streams. Nearly 300 lipid species were identified from the aggregation streams. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging (FTICR-SIMS) enabled the generation of multiple molecular ion maps at the nominal mass level and provided good coverage for fatty acyls, prenol lipids ...


Differential Effects Of Lichens Versus Liverworts Epiphylls On Host Leaf Traits In The Tropical Montane Rainforest, Hainan Island, China, Ligyan Zhou, Fude Liu, Wenjie Yang, H. Liu, Hongbo Shao, Zhongsheng Wang, Sunqing An Jun 2014

Differential Effects Of Lichens Versus Liverworts Epiphylls On Host Leaf Traits In The Tropical Montane Rainforest, Hainan Island, China, Ligyan Zhou, Fude Liu, Wenjie Yang, H. Liu, Hongbo Shao, Zhongsheng Wang, Sunqing An

Department of Earth and Environment

Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P. prunifolia but increased Chl b content, while that of liverworts did not affect ...


Relating Freshwater Flow With Estuarine Water Quality In The Southern Everglades Mangrove Ecotone, Henry O. Briceño, Gabriel Miller, Stephen E. Davis Iii Jun 2014

Relating Freshwater Flow With Estuarine Water Quality In The Southern Everglades Mangrove Ecotone, Henry O. Briceño, Gabriel Miller, Stephen E. Davis Iii

FCE LTER Journal Articles

Florida Bay is more saline than it was historically, and reduced freshwater flows may lead to more phosphorus inputs to the mangrove ecotone from the marine end-member. This is important given plans to restore freshwater flow into eastern Florida Bay. We investigated the relationships between salinity, nutrients, and hydrologic variables in the mangrove ecotone of Taylor Slough. We expected that total phosphorus (TP) would increase with salinity, reflecting a downstream marine source, while total nitrogen (TN) would increase with flow in the mangrove ecotone. Despite expectations of increased flows improving the ecological health of lower Taylor Slough and Florida Bay ...


Base Excision Repair Of Chemotherapeutically-Induced Alkylated Dna Damage Predominantly Causes Contractions Of Expanded Gaa Repeats Associated With Friedreich's Ataxia, Yanhao Lai, Jill M. Beaver, Karla Lorente, Jonathan Melo, Shyama Ramjagsingh, Irina U. Agoulnik, Zunzhen Zhang, Yuan Liu Apr 2014

Base Excision Repair Of Chemotherapeutically-Induced Alkylated Dna Damage Predominantly Causes Contractions Of Expanded Gaa Repeats Associated With Friedreich's Ataxia, Yanhao Lai, Jill M. Beaver, Karla Lorente, Jonathan Melo, Shyama Ramjagsingh, Irina U. Agoulnik, Zunzhen Zhang, Yuan Liu

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Expansion of GAA·TTC repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene is the cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. However, no effective treatment for the disease has been developed as yet. In this study, we explored a possibility of shortening expanded GAA repeats associated with FRDA through chemotherapeutically-induced DNA base lesions and subsequent base excision repair (BER). We provide the first evidence that alkylated DNA damage induced by temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic DNA damaging agent can induce massive GAA repeat contractions/deletions, but only limited expansions in FRDA patient lymphoblasts. We showed that temozolomide-induced ...


Environmental Influences On Bacterio-Phytoplanktonic Coupling And Bacterial Growth Efficiency In A Sub-Tropical Estuary, Rachel Kotkowski Apr 2014

Environmental Influences On Bacterio-Phytoplanktonic Coupling And Bacterial Growth Efficiency In A Sub-Tropical Estuary, Rachel Kotkowski

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterio-phytoplanktonic coupling and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) measurements were used to analyze microbial trophic dynamics and the influence of environmental factors in Florida Bay, Florida. Phytoplankton gross primary productivity (GPP) was measured using 24-hour in situ oxygen incubations; bacterial productivity (BP) was measured using 3H- thymidine incorporation. Weak bacterio-phytoplanktonic coupling was observed over the sampling period. BP was more influenced by local total nitrogen concentrations while GPP was more evenly distributed. BGE rates were low but consistent with marine and estuarine ecosystems worldwide. Results suggest that bacterioplankton growth in Florida Bay is relatively uncoupled from phytoplankton production, which may ...


Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Chilling Events In Mangrove Forests Of South Florida, Bina Thapa Mar 2014

Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Chilling Events In Mangrove Forests Of South Florida, Bina Thapa

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chilling events are infrequent but important disturbances in subtropical Florida. When temperatures drop to near freezing, significant mortality often accrues in mangrove forests. Chilling events play a role in maintaining structural diversity in mangrove forests, and in limiting mangrove poleward distribution. I examined the spatio-temporal distribution of chilling events in mangrove forests of southern Biscayne Bay by using Landsat TM5 images since 1989. Damage was usually confined to dwarf mangrove forest, especially when chilling temperatures were moderate and short in duration. However, damage from extended and severe freezes such as in January 2010 impacted larger trees as well. Recovery is ...


Characterization Of Rhizobial Diversity And Relationship Of Rhizobial Partner And Legume Performance In Four South Florida Pine Rockland Soils, Vanessa Sánchez Mar 2014

Characterization Of Rhizobial Diversity And Relationship Of Rhizobial Partner And Legume Performance In Four South Florida Pine Rockland Soils, Vanessa Sánchez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pine rocklands are endangered ecosystems unique to south Florida, the Bahamas and Cuba. As a result of their karstic calcium carbonate­rich soil, these systems are limited in phosphorus and nitrogen, making symbiotic associations critical to plant growth. Four leguminous species (Cajanus cajan, Chamaecrista fasciculata, Tephrosia angustissima, and Abrus precatorious) were used to determine the relationship between rhizobial partners and plant performance, and the symbiosis related gene nifH was amplified to characterize the diversity of rhizobial symbionts. Plants were grown in soils from four different south Florida pine rocklands, and a salinity treatment was added to determine how storm surge ...


Effect Of Aquafeed On Productivity Of Red Amaranth And On Water Quality Under Aquaponic Cultivation, Miles D. Medina Mar 2014

Effect Of Aquafeed On Productivity Of Red Amaranth And On Water Quality Under Aquaponic Cultivation, Miles D. Medina

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aquaponics, the integrated production of fish and hydroponic crops in a recirculating system, is an intensive cultivation method in which metabolic fish wastes fertilize plants. This study compares the effects of two aquafeeds on Red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) productivity and on water quality under cultivation of Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), with three aquaponic units (n=3) per treatment over a 60-day trial. The fishmeal-based control feed contains higher crude protein (40%) and phosphorus (1.12%) than the plant-based alternative feed (32% and 0.40%). The alternative feed resulted in a significantly higher amaranth crop yield (p


Design And Synthesis Of S-Ribosylhomocysteine Analogues, Christiane Chbib Mar 2014

Design And Synthesis Of S-Ribosylhomocysteine Analogues, Christiane Chbib

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacteria are known to release a large variety of small molecules known as autoinducers (AI) which effect quorum sensing (QS) initiation. The interruption of QS effects bacterial communication, growth and virulence.

Three novel classes of S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) analogues as potential inhibitors of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS enzyme) and AI-2 modulators of QS were developed. The synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-bromo-SRH analogues was attempted by coupling of the corresponding 2-bromo-2-deoxypentafuranosyl precursors with the homocysteinate anion. The displacement of the bromide from C2 rather than the expected substitution of the mesylate from C5 was observed. The synthesis of 4-C-alkyl/aryl-S-ribosylhomocysteine analogues involved the following ...